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 XLOADIMAGE(1)                                                 XLOADIMAGE(1)
                                 8 May 1991

      xloadimage, xsetbg, xview - load images into an X11 window or onto the
      root window

      xloadimage [global_options] {[image_options] image ...}
      xloadimage [global_options] [image_options] stdin < image

      Xloadimage displays images in an X11 window, loads them onto the root
      window, or writes them into a file.  Many image types are recognized;
      use the -supported option to list them.

      If the filename stdin is given, xloadimage will read the image from
      standard input if this capability is supported by the loader for that
      image type (most types do support reading from stdin).

      If the destination display cannot support the number of colors in the
      image, the image will be dithered (monochrome destination) or have its
      colormap reduced (color destination) as appropriate.  This can also be
      done forcibly with the -halftone, -dither, and -colors options.

      A variety of image manipulations can be specified, including gamma
      correction, brightening, clipping, dithering, depth-reduction,
      rotation, and zooming.  Most of these manipulations have simple
      implementations; speed was opted for above accuracy.

      If you are viewing a large image in a window, the initial window will
      be at most 90% of the size of the display unless the window manager
      does not correctly handle window size requests or if you've used the
      -fullscreen option.  You may move the image around in the window by
      dragging with the first mouse button.  The cursor will indicate which
      directions you may drag, if any.  You may exit the window by typing
      'q' or '^C' when the keyboard focus is on the window.

      If more than one image file is specified on the command line, each
      image will be shown in order (except if -merge or -goto are being

      A wide variety of common image manipulations can be done by mixing and
      matching the available options.  See the section entitled HINTS FOR
      GOOD IMAGE DISPLAYS for some ideas.

      The -dump option causes an image to be written to a file rather than
      displayed after processing.  This allows you to read an image, perform
      a number of processing operations on it, and save the resultant image.
      This also allows translation from any of the recognized image types
      into any of the formats that support dumping.

      Xsetbg is equivalent to xloadimage -onroot -quiet and xview is
      equivalent to xloadimage -view -verbose.

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 XLOADIMAGE(1)                                                 XLOADIMAGE(1)
                                 8 May 1991

      Xloadimage uses the resource class name Xloadimage for window managers
      which need this resource set.  This name changed in version 2.00 and
      2.01; some previous versions used the name XLoadImage (which was
      difficult to predict) or xloadimage (which conflicted with class
      naming conventions).

      The following options affect the global operation of xloadimage.  They
      may be specified anywhere on the command line.  Additionally the
      -global option can be used to force an image option to apply to all

      -border color
              This sets the background portion of the window which is not
              covered by any images to be color.

              Displays the image path, image suffixes, and supported filters
              which will be used when looking for and reading images.  These
              are loaded from ~/.xloadimagerc and optionally from a
              systemwide file (normally /usr/lib/xloadimagerc).  This
              replaces the -path option.

              Use the default root weave as the image.  This option forces
              -onroot.  If -default is used alone, it is the same as
              xsetroot with no arguments.  If used in conjunction with -tile
              this option can be used to place images on the default root
              weave (see EXAMPLES below).

      -debug  Talk to the X server in synchronous mode.  This is useful for
              debugging.  If an X error is seen while in this mode, a core
              will be dumped.

      -delay secs
              Automatically advance to the next image after secs seconds.

      -display display_name
              X11 display name to send the image(s) to.

      -dump image_type[,option[=value]] dump_file
              Rather than displaying the loaded and processed image, dump it
              into an image file of the specified type.  For a list of image
              types that can be dumped, use the -supported option.  Some
              image types have options that affect the format of the file
              that's created.  See DUMP OPTIONS below.  An image can be
              dumped in any supported dump format regardless of the original
              image type, so image file type translation is possible using
              this option.

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 XLOADIMAGE(1)                                                 XLOADIMAGE(1)
                                 8 May 1991

      -fit    Force image to use the default visual and colormap.  This is
              useful if you do not want technicolor effects when the
              colormap focus is inside the image window, but it may reduce
              the quality of the displayed image.  This is on by default if
              -onroot or -windowid is specified.

      -fork   Fork xloadimage.  This causes xloadimage to disassociate
              itself from the shell.  This option automatically turns on

              Use the entire screen to display images.  If combined with
              -onroot, the image will be zoomed to fill the entire

      -geometry WxH[{+-X}{+-}Y]
              This sets the size of the window onto which the images are
              loaded to a different value than the size of the image.  When
              viewing an image in a window, this can be used to reduce the
              size of the destination window.  When loading an image onto
              the root window, this option controls the size of the pixmap
              which will be loaded onto the root.  If the size is smaller
              than that of the display, the image will be replicated.

      -goto image_name
              Forces the next image to be displayed to be the image named
              image_name.  This is useful for generating looped slideshows.
              If more than one image of the same name as the target exists
              on the argument list, the first in the argument list is used.

      -help [option ...]
              Give information on an option or list of options.  If no
              option is given, a simple interactive help facility is

              Identify the supplied images rather than display them.

              Forcibly install the image's colormap when the window is
              focused.  This violates ICCCM standards and only exists to
              allow operation with naive window managers.  Use this option
              only if your window manager does not install colormaps

      -list   List the images which are along the image path.

      -onroot Load image(s) onto the root window instead of viewing in a
              window.  This option automatically sets the -fit option.  This
              is the opposite of -view.  XSetbg has this option set by

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 XLOADIMAGE(1)                                                 XLOADIMAGE(1)
                                 8 May 1991

      -path   Displays miscellaneous information about the program
              configuration.  This option is obsolete and has been replaced
              by -configuration.

      -pixmap Force the use of a pixmap as backing-store.  This is provided
              for servers where backing-store is broken (such as some
              versions of the AIXWindows server).  It may improve scrolling
              performance on servers which provide backing-store.

              Force the use of a private colormap.  Normally colors are
              allocated shared unless there are not enough colors available.

      -quiet  Forces xloadimage and xview to be quiet.  This is the default
              for xsetbg, but the others like to whistle.

              List the supported image types.

      -type type_name
              Forces xloadimage to try to load the image as a particular
              file type rather than trying to guess.  This often improves
              load performance noticably.

              Causes xloadimage to be talkative, telling you what kind of
              image it's playing with and any special processing that it has
              to do. This is the default for xview and xloadimage.

              Print the version number and patchlevel of this version of

      -view   View image(s) in a window.  This is the opposite of -onroot
              and the default for xview and xloadimage.

      -visual visual_name
              Force the use of a specific visual type to display an image.
              Normally xloadimage tries to pick the best available image for
              a particular image type.  The available visual types are:
              DirectColor, TrueColor, PseudoColor, StaticColor, GrayScale,
              and StaticGray.  Nonconflicting names may be abbreviated and
              case is ignored.

      -windowid hex_window_id
              Sets the background pixmap of a particular window ID.  The
              argument must be in hexadecimal and must be preceeded by "0x"
              (eg -windowid 0x40000b.  This is intended for setting the
              background pixmap of some servers which use untagged virtual
              roots (eg HP-VUE), but can have other interesting

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 XLOADIMAGE(1)                                                 XLOADIMAGE(1)
                                 8 May 1991

      The following options may preceed each image.  These options are local
      to the image they preceed.

      -at X,Y
           Indicates coordinates to load the image at on the base image.  If
           this is an option to the first image, and the -onroot option is
           specified, the image will be loaded at the given location on the
           display background.

      -background color
           Use color as the background color instead of the default (usually
           white but this depends on the image type) if you are transferring
           a monochrome image to a color display.

      -brighten percentage
           Specify a percentage multiplier for a color image's colormap.  A
           value of more than 100 will brighten an image, one of less than
           100 will darken it.

           Center the image on the base image loaded.  If this is an option
           to the first image, and the -onroot option is specified, the
           image will be centered on the display background.

      -clip X,Y,W,H
           Clip the image before loading it.  X and Y define the upper-left
           corner of the clip area, and W and H define the extents of the
           area.  A zero value for W or H will be interpreted as the
           remainder of the image.

      -colors n
           Specify the maximum number of colors to use in the image.  This
           is a way to forcibly reduce the depth of an image.

           Dither a color image to monochrome using a Floyd-Steinberg
           dithering algorithm.  This happens by default when viewing color
           images on a monochrome display.  This is slower than -halftone
           and affects the image accuracy but usually looks much better.

      -foreground color
           Use color as the foreground color instead of black if you are
           transferring a monochrome image to a color display.  This can
           also be used to invert the foreground and background colors of a
           monochrome image.

      -gamma display_gamma
           Specify the gamma correction for the display.  The default value
           is 1.0, a typical display needs 2.0 to 2.5.

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 XLOADIMAGE(1)                                                 XLOADIMAGE(1)
                                 8 May 1991

           Force the following option to apply to all images rather than one
           specific image.  Local image options will temporarily override
           any option specified with -global.

           Convert an image to grayscale.  This is very useful when
           displaying colorful images on servers with limited color
           capability.  It can also be used to convert a bitmap image into a
           grayscale image, although the resulting image will be smaller
           than the original.  The optional spelling -grey may also be used.

           Force halftone dithering of a color image when displaying on a
           monochrome display.  This option is ignored on monochrome images.
           This dithering algorithm blows an image up by sixteen times; if
           you don't like this, the -dither option will not blow the image
           up but will take longer to process and will be less accurate.

      -idelay secs
           Set the delay to be used for this image to secs seconds (see
           -delay).  If -delay was specified, this overrides it.  If it was
           not specified, this sets the automatic advance delay for this
           image while others will wait for the user to advance them.

           Inverts a monochrome image.  This is shorthand for -foreground
           white -background black.

           Merge this image onto the base image after local processing.  The
           base image is considered to be the first image specified or the
           last image that was not preceeded by -merge.  If used in
           conjunction with -at and -clip, very complex images can be built
           up.  This option is on by default for all images if the -onroot
           or -windowid options are specified.

      -name image_name
           Force the next argument to be treated as an image name.  This is
           useful if the name of the image is -dither, for instance.

           Reset globally-specified options.

           Normalize a color image.

      -rotate degrees
           Rotate the image by degrees clockwise.  The number must be a
           multiple of 90.

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 XLOADIMAGE(1)                                                 XLOADIMAGE(1)
                                 8 May 1991

           Shrink an image down to fit on the display.  This is particularly
           useful with servers that do not support window sizes larger than
           the physical screen (eg DECWINDOWS servers).

           Smooth a color image.  This reduces blockiness after zooming an
           image up.  If used on a monochrome image, nothing happens.  This
           option can take awhile to perform, especially on large images.
           You may specify more than one -smooth option per image, causing
           multiple iterations of the smoothing algorithm.

           Tile this image (after any necessary merging or tiling) to create
           a fullscreen image.  This is usually used to create a large
           background image on which to merge other images.  -geometry can
           be used to set the new image size to something other than

      -title title
           Change the title of the image.  This sets the title bar title if
           displaying in a window or the NIFF file image title if dumping
           the image.

      -xzoom percentage
           Zoom the X axis of an image by percentage.  A number greater than
           100 will expand the image, one smaller will compress it.  A zero
           value will be ignored.  This option, and the related -yzoom are
           useful for correcting the aspect ratio of images to be displayed.

      -yzoom percentage
           Zoom the Y axis of an image by percentage.  See -xzoom for more

      -zoom percentage
           Zoom both the X and Y axes by percentage.  See -xzoom for more
           information.  Technically the percentage actually zoomed is the
           square of the number supplied since the zoom is to both axes, but
           I opted for consistency instead of accuracy.

      To load the rasterfile "my.image" onto the background and replicate it
      to fill the entire background:

           xloadimage -onroot my.image

      To center an image on the default root background:

           xloadimage -default -tile my.image

      If using a monochrome display and a color image you will probably want

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 XLOADIMAGE(1)                                                 XLOADIMAGE(1)
                                 8 May 1991

      to dither the image for a cleaner (and faster) display:

           xloadimage -default -tile -dither my.image

      To load a monochrome image "my.image" onto the background, using red
      as the foreground color, replicate the image, and overlay
      "another.image" onto it at coordinate (10,10):

           xloadimage -foreground red my.image -at 10,10 another.image

      To center the rectangular region from 10 to 110 along the X axis and
      from 10 to the height of the image along the Y axis:

           xloadimage -center -clip 10,10,100,0 my.image

      To double the size of an image:

           xloadimage -zoom 200 my.image

      To halve the size of an image:

           xloadimage -zoom 50 my.image

      To brighten a dark image:

           xloadimage -brighten 150 my.image

      To darken a bright image:

           xloadimage -brighten 50 my.image

      Since images are likely to come from a variety of sources, they may be
      in a variety of aspect ratios which may not be supported by your
      display.  The -xzoom and -yzoom options can be used to change the
      aspect ratio of an image before display.  If you use these options, it
      is recommended that you increase the size of one of the dimensions
      instead of shrinking the other, since shrinking looses detail.  For
      instance, many GIF and G3 FAX images have an X:Y ratio of about 2:1.
      You can correct this for viewing on a 1:1 display with either -xzoom
      50 or -yzoom 200 (reduce X axis to 50% of its size and expand Y axis
      to 200% of its size, respectively) but the latter should be used so no
      detail is lost in the conversion.

      When zooming color images up you can reduce blockiness with -smooth.
      For zooms of 300% or more, I recommend two smoothing passes (although
      this can take awhile to do on slow machines).  There will be a
      noticable improvement in the image.

      You can perform image processing on a small portion of an image by
      loading the image more than once and using the -merge, -at and -clip

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 XLOADIMAGE(1)                                                 XLOADIMAGE(1)
                                 8 May 1991

      options.  Load the image, then merge it with a clipped, processed
      version of itself.  To brighten a 100x100 rectangular portion of an
      image located at (50,50), for instance, you could type:

           xloadimage my.image -merge -at 50,50 -clip 50,50,100,100
      -brighten 150 my.image

      If you're using a display with a small colormap to display colorful
      images, try using the -gray option to convert to grayscale.

      The file ~/.xloadimagerc (and optionally a system-wide file) defines a
      number of configuration options that affect xloadimage.

      This file is split into three section, the path section, the extension
      section, and the filter section.  The sections are identified by
      typing the section name followed by an equals sign, eg "path =".

      The path statement is used to provide a set of search paths to use
      when looking for an image of a specified name.  Separate each path in
      the list by whitespace (eg one or more spaces, tabs, or newlines).
      The path is searched in the order it is specified.  For example:

        path = ~/images /usr/local/images ~fred

      will first look for the image name you specified, then look for the
      name in ~/images (the tilde is expanded to the value of $HOME), then
      in /usr/local/images, then in user fred's home directory.  This allows
      easy use of image repositories.

      The extension statement is used to provide a set of default extensions
      to use when looking for an image of a specified name.  Separate each
      extension in the list by whitespace.  The extensions are searched in
      the order in which they are specified.  For example:

        extension = .gif .jpg

      If you have a file named myimage.gif you could specify the name
      myimage and xloadimage would append the .gif extension automatically.

      The filter statement is used to describe filter programs, such as
      "uncompress", which are to be applied to image files automatically.
      You specify one filter program and any number of recognized extensions
      following the filter keyword.  For example:

        filter = uncompress .Z

      specifies that the program uncompress should be used as a filter
      whenever an image file has a .Z extension.  By default filters are
      provided for compressed (.Z) files and GNU zip (.gz) files.  See the
      FILTERS section for more information on defining your own filters.

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 XLOADIMAGE(1)                                                 XLOADIMAGE(1)
                                 8 May 1991

      Any text on a line following a hash-mark (#) is ignored; if you wish
      to use a hash-mark in a path, extension, or filter you can escape it
      using a backslash (\).

      If you wish to include white-space in a filter program name, path, or
      extension you can enclose the entire text in double-quotes.  For

        filter = "gzip -cd" .gz

      Use backslash (\) characters to allow inclusion of double-quote marks
      or newlines.

      The following is a sample ~/.xloadimagerc file:

        # paths to look for images in
        path = /usr/local/images        # system image repository
              ~/images                 # personal images
              /usr/include/X11/bitmaps # standard X bitmaps

        # default extensions for images
        extension = .csun .msun .sun .face .xbm .bm

        # invoke GNU zip if a .z or .zip extension is found
        filter = "gzip -cd" .z .zip

      Xloadimage currently supports many common and some uncommon image
      types, and can create images in several formats.  For a complete list
      use the -supported option.

      Several image dumpers are included that can be used to create a new
      image after loading and processing.  The NIFF (Native Image File
      Format) is the simplest and creates images that xloadimage can read
      the fastest; it is essentially a copy of the internal image format.

      Some image dumpers allow options that affect the image output.  These
      options are appended to the image type following a comma and are
      separated by commas.  If a value is desired it can be specified
      following an equals-sign.  For example, to create a monochrome JPEG
      image file with a quality factor of 80, you would use the following
      command line:

        xloadimage image_name -dump jpeg,quality=80,grayscale new_image.jpg

      Option names can be abbreviated but if the abbreviation is too short
      to be unique the option which will be used is indeterminate.

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 XLOADIMAGE(1)                                                 XLOADIMAGE(1)
                                 8 May 1991

      Xloadimage supports automatic filtering by recognizing file
      extensions.  By default "compress" and "gzip" files are recognized and
      their names passed to appropriate commands to decompress them.

      The xloadimage distribution includes a special "smart" uudecoder,
      called uufilter that can be used to automatically uudecode files for
      processing.  Uufilter ignores extraneous lines in the file so it is
      particularly useful if the uuencoded file was created by concatenating
      email or news postings that had headers or line-break indicators

      To make use of uufilter you can add the following to your

        filter = "uufilter -s" .uu .uue
      The filter will be automatically invoked on any file with a .uu or

      For a list of filters automatically recognized by xloadimage use the
      -configuration option.

      The JPEG image dumper supports the following options:

              Use arithmetic encoding.

              Force a monochrome (grayscale) image to be created given a
              color image.

              Create a non-interleaved file.

              Enable entropy parameter optimization.

      quality Adjust the quality of the image to be created.  The default
              quality factor is 75; lower values create poorer images.

      restart interval
              Set the restart interval in MCU rows, or MCUs if 'b' follows
              the interval value.

      smooth smoothing_factor
              Set the smoothing factor.  Value should be between 0 and 100,

      If you are not familiar with the meaning of these options you can ask
      the Independent JPEG Group (IJG) via email at

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 XLOADIMAGE(1)                                                 XLOADIMAGE(1)
                                 8 May 1991

      The PBM image dumper supports the following options:

      normal  Dump a normal (ascii) PBM/PPM file.

      raw     Dump a RawBits format PBM/PPM file.  This is the default and
              results in significantly smaller image files than when using

      There is no way to dump a PGM format file or a "compact" PBM format
      file (sorry).

      The TIFF image dumper supports the following options:

              Image data compression technique.  Can be one of: none (no
              compression), rle (CCITT RLE compression), g3fax (CCITT Group
              3 FAX compression), g4fax (CCITT Group 4 FAX compression), lzw
              (Limpel-Ziv-Welsh compression, the default), jpeg (JPEG
              compression), next (NeXT run-length compression), rlew (CCITT
              RLEW compression), mac (Macintosh PackBits compression),
              packbits (same as mac), thunderscan (ThunderScan compression).

      Xloadimage will save using the MINISBLACK, MINISWHITE, COLORMAP, or
      RGB photometrics as appropriate for its internal image format.  There
      is no way to specify a particular photometric or any other TIFF

      Jim Frost
      CenterLine Software

      For a more-or-less complete list of other contributors (there are a
      lot of them), please see the README file enclosed with the

           xloadimage              - the image loader and viewer
           xsetbg                  - pseudonym which quietly sets the background
           xview                   - pseudonym which views in a window
           /usr/lib/X11/Xloadimage - default system-wide configuration file
           ~/.xloadimagerc         - user's personal configuration file

      Copyright (c) 1989, 1993 Jim Frost and others.

      Xloadimage is copywritten material with a very loose copyright
      allowing unlimited modification and distribution if the copyright
      notices are left intact.  Various portions are copywritten by various
      people, but all use a modification of the MIT copyright notice.
      Please check the source for complete copyright information.  The

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 XLOADIMAGE(1)                                                 XLOADIMAGE(1)
                                 8 May 1991

      intent is to keep the source free, not to stifle its distribution, so
      please write to me if you have any questions.

      Zooming dithered images, especially downwards, is UGLY.

      Images can come in a variety of aspect ratios.  Xloadimage cannot
      detect what aspect ratio the particular image being loaded has, nor
      the aspect ratio of the destination display, so images with differing
      aspect ratios from the destination display will appear distorted.  See
      HINTS FOR GOOD IMAGE DISPLAYS for more information.

      The GIF format allows more than one image to be stored in a single GIF
      file, but xloadimage will only display the first.

      Only GIF87a format is supported.

      One of the pseudonyms for xloadimage, xview, is the same name as Sun
      uses for their SunView-under-X package.  This will be confusing if
      you're one of those poor souls who has to use Sun's XView.

      Some window managers do not correctly handle window size requests.  In
      particular, many versions of the twm window manager use the MaxSize
      hint instead of the PSize hint, causing images which are larger than
      the screen to display in a window larger than the screen, something
      which is normally avoided.  Some versions of twm also ignore the
      MaxSize argument's real function, to limit the maximum size of the
      window, and allow the window to be resized larger than the image.  If
      this happens, xloadimage merely places the image in the upper-left
      corner of the window and uses the zero-value'ed pixel for any space
      which is not covered by the image.  This behavior is less-than-
      graceful but so are window managers which are cruel enough to ignore
      such details.

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