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 GIFSICLE(1)                    Version 1.92                     GIFSICLE(1)
                                11 July 2017



 NAME
      gifsicle - manipulates GIF images and animations

 SYNOPSIS
      gifsicle [options, frames, and filenames]...

 DESCRIPTION
      gifsicle is a powerful command-line program for creating, editing,
      manipulating, and getting information about GIF images and animations.

      Gifsicle normally processes input GIF files according to its command
      line options and writes the result to the standard output. The -i
      option, for example, tells gifsicle to interlace its inputs:

           gifsicle -i < pic.gif > interlaced-pic.gif

      Gifsicle is good at creating and manipulating GIF animations. By
      default, it combines two or more input files into a flipbook
      animation:

           gifsicle pic1.gif pic2.gif pic3.gif > animation.gif

      Use options like --delay, --loopcount, and --optimize to tune your
      animations.

      To modify GIF files in place, use the --batch option. With --batch,
      gifsicle will modify the files you specify instead of writing a new
      file to the standard output. To interlace all the GIFs in the current
      directory, you could say:

           gifsicle --batch -i *.gif

      New users may want to skip to the Examples section at the end.

 CONCEPT INDEX
      Concepts are on the left, relevant gifsicle options are on the right.

      Animations, changing     frame selections, frame changes, etc.
         disposal              --disposal
         looping               --loopcount
         portions of           frame selections
         smaller               --optimize, --colors, --lossy
         speed                 --delay
      Bad output               --careful
      Background color         --background
      Colors, changing         --change-color, --use-colormap, --dither,
                               --transform-colormap
         reducing number       --colors, --dither, --gamma
      Comments                 --comment
      Extensions               --extension, --app-extension,
                               --extension-info



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      File size                --optimize, --unoptimize, --colors, --lossy
      Image transformations
         cropping              --crop, --crop-transparency
         flipping              --flip-*
         resizing              --resize, --scale
         rotating              --rotate-*
      Grayscale                --use-colormap
      Interlacing              --interlace
      Positioning frames       --position
      Screen, logical          --logical-screen
      Selecting frames         frame selections (like '#0')
      Transparency             --transparent
      Warnings                 --no-warnings

 COMMAND LINE
      gifsicle's command line consists of GIF input files and options. Most
      options start with a dash (-) or plus (+); frame selections, a kind of
      option, start with a number sign (#). Anything else is a GIF input
      file.

      gifsicle reads and processes GIF input files in order. If no GIF input
      file is given, or you give the special filename -, it reads from the
      standard input.

      gifsicle exits with status 0 if there were no errors and status 1 oth-
      erwise.

 OPTIONS
      Every option has a long form,  You don't need to type the whole long
      descriptive name, just enough to make it unambiguous.

      Some options also have a short form,  You can combine short options if
      they don't take arguments:  is the same as  But be careful with op-
      tions that do take arguments:  means  not

      Many options also have a converse,  which turns off the option. You
      can turn off a short option  by saying  instead.

    Mode Options
      Mode options tell gifsicle what kind of output to generate. There can
      be at most one, and it must precede any GIF inputs.

      --merge, -m
           Combine all GIF inputs into one file with multiple frames and
           write that file to the standard output. This is the default mode.

      --batch, -b
           Modify each GIF input in place by reading and writing to the same
           filename.  (GIFs read from the standard input are written to the
           standard output.)




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      --explode, -e
           Create an output GIF for each frame of each input file. The out-
           put GIFs are named xxx.000, xxx.001, and so on, where xxx is the
           name of the input file (or whatever you specified with  and the
           numeric extension is the frame number.

      --explode-by-name, -E
           Same as --explode, but write any named frames to files xxx.name
           instead of xxx.frame-number.  Frames are named using the  option.

    General Options
      General options control the information gifsicle prints and where it
      writes its output. The info options and --verbose can be turned off
      with

      --info, -I
           Print a human-readable description of each input GIF to the stan-
           dard output, or whatever file you specify with -o.  This option
           suppresses normal output, and cannot be combined with mode op-
           tions like --batch.  If you give two --info or -I options, howev-
           er, information is printed to standard error, and normal output
           takes place as usual.

      --color-info, --cinfo
           Like --info, but also print information about input files' color-
           maps.

      --extension-info, --xinfo
           Like --info, but also print any unrecognized GIF extensions in a
           hexdump(1)-like format.

      --size-info, --sinfo
           Like --info, but also print information about compressed image
           sizes.

      --help, -h
           Print usage information and exit.

      -o file
      --output file
           Send output to file.  The special filename - means the standard
           output.

      --verbose, -V
           Print progress information (files read and written) to standard
           error.

      --no-warnings, -w
           Suppress all warning messages.





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      --no-ignore-errors
           Exit with status 1 when encountering a very erroneous GIF. De-
           fault is to muddle on.

      --version
           Print the version number and some short non-warranty information
           and exit.

      --careful
           Write slightly larger GIFs that avoid bugs in some other GIF im-
           plementations. Some Java and Internet Explorer versions cannot
           display the correct, minimal GIFs that Gifsicle produces. Use the
           --careful option if you are having problems with a particular im-
           age.

      --conserve-memory
           Conserve memory usage at the expense of processing time. This may
           be useful if you are processing large GIFs on a computer without
           very much memory. Or say --no-conserve-memory.

      --nextfile
           Allow input files to contain multiple concatenated GIF images. If
           a filename appears multiple times on the command line, gifsicle
           will read a new image from the file each time. This option can
           help scripts avoid the need for temporary files. For example, to
           create an animated GIF with three frames with different delays,
           you might run "gifsicle --nextfile -d10 - -d20 - -d30 - >
           out.gif" and write the three GIF images, in sequence, to
           gifsicle's standard input.

      --multifile
           Like --nextfile, but read as many GIF images as possible from
           each file. This option is intended for scripts. For example, to
           merge an unknown number of GIF images into a single animation,
           run "gifsicle --multifile - > out.gif" and write the GIF images,
           in sequence, to gifsicle's standard input.  Any frame selections
           apply only to the last file in the concatenation.

    Frame Selections
      A frame selection tells gifsicle which frames to use from the current
      input file. They are useful only for animations, as non-animated GIFs
      only have one frame. Here are the acceptable forms for frame specifi-
      cations.

      #num         Select frame num. (The first frame is  Negative numbers
                   count backwards from the last frame, which is
      #num1-num2   Select frames num1 through num2.
      #num1-       Select frames num1 through the last frame.
      #name        Select the frame named name.





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      The # character has special meaning for many shells, so you generally
      need to quote it.

      For example,
           gifsicle happy.gif "#0"
      uses the first frame from happy.gif;
           gifsicle happy.gif "#0-2"
      uses its first three frames; and
           gifsicle happy.gif "#-1-0"
      uses its frames in reverse order (starting from frame #-1 -- the last
      frame -- and ending at frame #0 -- the first).

      The action performed with the selected frames depends on the current
      mode. In merge mode, only the selected frames are merged into the out-
      put GIF. In batch mode, only the selected frames are modified; other
      frames remain unchanged. In explode mode, only the selected frames are
      exploded into output GIFs.

    Frame Change Options
      Frame change options insert new frames into an animation or replace or
      delete frames that already exist. Some things -- for example, changing
      one frame in an animation -- are difficult to express with frame
      selections, but easy with frame changes.

      --delete frames [frames...]
           Delete frames from the input GIF.

      --insert-before frame other-GIFs
           Insert other-GIFs before frame in the input GIF.

      --append other-GIFs
           Append other-GIFs to the input GIF.

      --replace frames other-GIFs
           Replace frames from the input GIF with other-GIFs.

      --done
           Complete the current set of frame changes.

      The frames arguments are frame selections (see above). These arguments
      always refer to frames from the original input GIF. So, if a.gif has 3
      frames and b.gif has one, this command
           gifsicle a.gif --delete "#0" --replace "#2" b.gif
      will produce an output animation with 2 frames: a.gif frame 1, then
      b.gif.

      The other-GIFs arguments are any number of GIF input files and frame
      selections.  These images are combined in merge mode and added to the
      input GIF.  The other-GIFs last until the next frame change option, so
      this command replaces the first frame of in.gif with the merge of
      a.gif and b.gif:



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           gifsicle -b in.gif --replace "#0" a.gif b.gif

      This command, however, replaces the first frame of in.gif with a.gif
      and then processes b.gif separately:
           gifsicle -b in.gif --replace "#0" a.gif --done b.gif

      Warning: You shouldn't use both frame selections and frame changes on
      the same input GIF.

    Image Options
      Image options modify input images -- by changing their interlacing,
      transparency, and cropping, for example. Image options have three
      forms:   and  The  form selects a value for the feature, the  form
      turns off the feature, and the  form means that the feature's value is
      copied from each input. The default is always  For example, -back-
      ground= sets the background color to blue, --no-background turns the
      background color off (by setting it to 0), and --same-background uses
      input images' existing background colors. You can give each option
      multiple times; for example,
           gifsicle -b -O2 -i a.gif --same-interlace b.gif c.gif
      will make a.gif interlaced, but leave b.gif and c.gif interlaced only
      if they were already.

      -B color
      --background color
           Set the output GIF's background to color.  The argument can have
           the same forms as in the --transparent option below.

      --crop x1,y1-x2,y2
      --crop x1,y1+widthxheight
           Crop the following input frames to a smaller rectangular area.
           The top-left corner of this rectangle is (x1,y1); you can give
           either the lower-right corner, (x2,y2), or the width and height
           of the rectangle. In the x1,y1+widthx form, width and height can
           be zero or negative. A zero dimension means the cropping area
           goes to the edge of the image; a negative dimension brings the
           cropping area that many pixels back from the image edge. For ex-
           ample, --crop 2,2+-2x-2 will shave 2 pixels off each side of the
           input image. Cropping takes place before any rotation, flipping,
           resizing, or positioning.

      --crop-transparency
           Crop any transparent borders off the following input frames. This
           happens after any cropping due to the --crop option. It works on
           the raw input images; for example, any transparency options have
           not yet been applied.

      --flip-horizontal
      --flip-vertical
           Flip the following frames horizontally or vertically.




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      -i
      --interlace
           Turn interlacing on.

      -S widthxheight
      --logical-screen widthxheight
           Set the output logical screen to widthxheight.
           --no-logical-screen sets the output logical screen to the size of
           the largest output frame, while --same-logical-screen sets the
           output logical screen to the largest input logical screen.
           --screen is a synonym for --logical-screen.

      -p x,y
      --position x,y
           Set the following frames' positions to (x,y).  --no-position
           means --position 0,0.  Normally, --position x,y places every
           succeeding frame exactly at x,y. However, if an entire animation
           is input, x,y is treated as the position for the animation.

      --rotate-90
      --rotate-180
      --rotate-270
           Rotate the following frames by 90, 180, or 270 degrees.
           --no-rotate turns off any rotation.

      -t color
      --transparent color
           Make color transparent in the following frames.  Color can be a
           colormap index (0-255), a hexadecimal color specification (like
           "#FF00FF" for magenta), or slash- or comma-separated red, green
           and blue values (each between 0 and 255).

    Extension Options
      Extension options add non-visual information to the output GIF. This
      includes names, comments, and generic extensions.

      --app-extension app-name extension
           Add an application extension named app-name and with the value
           extension to the output GIF.  --no-app-extensions removes appli-
           cation extensions from the input images.

      -c text
      --comment text
           Add a comment, text, to the output GIF. The comment will be
           placed before the next frame in the stream.  --no-comments re-
           moves comments from the input images.

      --extension number extension
           Add an extension numbered number and with the value extension to
           the output GIF.  Number can be in decimal, octal, hex, or it can
           be a single character like n, whose ASCII value is used.



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           --no-extensions (or +x) removes extensions from the input images.

      -n text
      --name text
           Set the next frame's name to text.  This name is stored as an ex-
           tension in the output GIF (extension number 0xCE, followed by the
           characters of the frame name).  --no-names removes name exten-
           sions from the input images.

    Animation Options
      Animation options apply to GIF animations, or to individual frames in
      GIF animations. As with image options, most animation options have
      three forms,   and  and you can give animation options multiple times;
      for example,
           gifsicle -b a.gif -d50 "#0" "#1" -d100 "#2" "#3"
      sets the delays of frames 0 and 1 to 50, and frames 2 and 3 to 100.

      -d time
      --delay time
           Set the delay between frames to time in hundredths of a second.

      -D method
      --disposal method
           Set the disposal method for the following frames to method.  A
           frame's disposal method determines how a viewer should remove the
           frame when it's time to display the next.  Method can be a number
           between 0 and 7 (although only 0 through 3 are generally meaning-
           ful), or one of these names: none (leave the frame visible for
           future frames to build upon), asis (same as "none"), background
           (or bg) (replace the frame with the background), or previous (re-
           place the frame with the area from the previous displayed frame).
           --no-disposal means --disposal=none.

      -l[count]
      --loopcount[=count]
           Set the Netscape loop extension to count.  Count is an integer,
           or forever to loop endlessly. If you supply a --loopcount option
           without specifying count, Gifsicle will use forever.
           --no-loopcount (the default) turns off looping.

           Set the loop count to one less than the number of times you want
           the animation to run. An animation with --no-loopcount will show
           every frame once; --loopcount=1 will loop once, thus showing
           every frame twice; and so forth.  Note that --loopcount=0 is
           equivalent to --loopcount=forever, not --no-loopcount.

      -O[level]
      --optimize[=level]
           Optimize output GIF animations for space.  Level determines how
           much optimization is done; higher levels take longer, but may
           have better results. There are currently three levels:



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           -O1  Stores only the changed portion of each image. This is the
                default.
           -O2  Also uses transparency to shrink the file further.
           -O3  Try several optimization methods (usually slower, sometimes
                better results).

           Other optimization flags provide finer-grained control.

           -Okeep-empty
                Preserve empty transparent frames (they are dropped by de-
                fault).

           You may also be interested in other options for shrinking GIFs,
           such as -k, --lossy, and --no-extensions.

      -U
      --unoptimize
           Unoptimize GIF animations into an easy-to-edit form.

           GIF animations are often optimized (see --optimize) to make them
           smaller and faster to load, which unfortunately makes them diffi-
           cult to edit.  --unoptimize changes optimized input GIFs into
           unoptimized GIFs, where each frame is a faithful representation
           of what a user would see at that point in the animation.

    Image Transformation Options
      Image transformation options apply to entire GIFs as they are read or
      written. They can be turned off with

      --resize widthxheight
           Resize the output GIF to the given width and height.  If width or
           height is an underscore _, that dimension is chosen so that the
           aspect ratio remains unchanged.  Resizing happens after all input
           frames have been combined and before optimization. Resizing uses
           logical screen dimensions; if the input stream has an unusual
           logical screen (many GIF displayers ignore logical screens), you
           may want to provide --no-logical-screen (or +S) to reset it so
           gifsicle uses image dimensions instead. See also --resize-method.

      --resize-width width
      --resize-height height
           Resize to a given width or height, preserving aspect ratio.
           Equivalent to --resize widthx_ or --resize _xheight.

      --resize-fit widthxheight
      --resize-touch widthxheight
           Resize the output GIF to fit within a rectangle with dimensions
           widthxheight.  The aspect ratio remains unchanged. The
           --resize-fit option only shrinks the image-no resize is performed
           if the GIF already fits within the rectangle. Either width or
           height may be an underscore _, which leaves that dimension uncon-



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           strained.

      --resize-fit-width width
      --resize-fit-height height
      --resize-touch-width width
      --resize-touch-height height
           Like --resize-fit  and --resize-touch, but constrains only one
           dimension.

      --scale Xfactor[xYfactor]
           Scale the output GIF's width and height by Xfactor and Yfactor.
           If Yfactor is not given, it defaults to Xfactor.  Scaling happens
           after all input frames have been combined and before optimiza-
           tion.

      --resize-method method
           Set the method used to resize images. The sample method runs very
           quickly, but when shrinking images, it produces noisy results.
           The mix method is somewhat slower, but produces better-looking
           results. The default method is currently mix.

           Details: The resize methods differ most when shrinking images.
           The sample method is a point sampler: each pixel position in the
           output image maps to exactly one pixel position in the input.
           When shrinking, full rows and columns from the input are dropped.
           The other methods use all input pixels, which generally produces
           better-looking images. The box method, a box sampler, is faster
           than the more complex filters and produces somewhat sharper
           results, but there will be anomalies when shrinking images by a
           small amount in one dimension.  (Some output pixels will
           correspond to exactly 1 input row or column, while others will
           correspond to exactly 2 input rows or columns.) The mix method is
           a full bilinear interpolator. This is slower and produces some-
           what blurrier results, but avoids anomalies.

           Gifsicle also supports more complex resamplers, including
           Catmull-Rom cubic resampling (catrom), the Mitchell-Netravali
           filter (mitchell), a 2-lobed Lanczos filter (lanczos2), and a 3-
           lobed Lanczos filter (lanczos3).  These filters are slower still,
           but can give sharper, better results.

      --resize-colors n
           Allow Gifsicle to add intermediate colors when resizing images.
           Normally, Gifsicle's resize algorithms use input images' color
           palettes without changes. When shrinking images with very few
           colors (e.g., pure black-and-white images), adding intermediate
           colors can improve the results. Example: --resize-colors 64 al-
           lows Gifsicle to add intermediate colors for images that have
           fewer than 64 input colors.





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    Color Options
      Color options apply to entire GIFs as they are read or written. They
      can be turned off with

      -k num
      --colors num
           Reduce the number of distinct colors in each output GIF to num or
           less.  Num must be between 2 and 256. This can be used to shrink
           output GIFs or eliminate any local color tables.

           Normally, an adaptive group of colors is chosen from the existing
           color table. You can affect this process with the --color-method
           option or by giving your own colormap with --use-colormap.  Gif-
           sicle may need to add an additional color (making num+1 in all)
           if there is transparency in the image.

      --color-method method
           Determine how a smaller colormap is chosen.   the default, is
           xv(1)'s diversity algorithm, which uses a strict subset of the
           existing colors and generally produces good results.   is a
           modification of this: some color values are blended from groups
           of existing colors.   is the median cut algorithm described by
           Heckbert.  --method is a synonym for --color-method.

      -f
      --dither[=method]
           When --dither is on and the colormap is changed, combinations of
           colors are used to approximate missing colors. This looks better,
           but makes bigger files and can cause animation artifacts, so it
           is off by default.

           Specify a dithering algorithm with the optional method argument.
           The default,  uses Floyd-Steinberg error diffusion. This usually
           looks best, but can cause animation artifacts, because dithering
           choices will vary from frame to frame. Gifsicle also supports or-
           dered dithering algorithms that avoid animation artifacts.  The
           mode uses a large, random-looking pattern and generally produces
           good results. The   and  modes use smaller, more regular pat-
           terns. The  mode chooses a good ordered dithering algorithm. For
           special effects, try the halftone modes   and  Some modes take
           optional parameters using commas. The halftone modes take a cell
           size and a color limit:  creates 10-pixel wide halftone cells
           where each cell uses up to 3 colors.

      --gamma gamma
           Set the gamma correction to gamma, which can be a real number or
           Roughly speaking, higher numbers exaggerate shadows and lower
           numbers exaggerate highlights.  The default is the function de-
           fined by the standard sRGB color space, which usually works well.
           (Its effects are similar to --gamma=2.2.) Gifsicle uses gamma
           correction when choosing a color palette (--colors) and when



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           dithering (--dither).

      --lossy[=lossiness]
           Alter image colors to shrink output file size at the cost of ar-
           tifacts and noise.  Lossiness determines how many artifacts are
           allowed; higher values can result in smaller file sizes, but
           cause more artifacts. The default lossiness is 20.

      --change-color color1 color2
           Change color1 to color2 in the following input GIFs. (The color
           arguments have the same forms as in the -t option.) Change multi-
           ple colors by giving the option multiple times. Color changes
           don't interfere with one another, so you can safely swap two
           colors with --change-color color1 color2 --change-color color2
           color1.  They all take effect as an input GIF is read.
           --no-change-color cancels all color changes.

      --transform-colormap command
           Command should be a shell command that reads from standard input
           and writes to standard output. Each colormap in the output GIF is
           translated into text colormap format (see --use-colormap below)
           and piped to the command. The output that command generates
           (which should also be in text colormap format) will replace the
           input colormap. The replacement doesn't consider color matching,
           so pixels that used color slot n in the input will still use
           color slot n in the output.

      --use-colormap colormap
           Change the image to use colormap.  Each pixel in the image is
           changed to the closest match in colormap (or, if --dither is on,
           to a dithered combination of colors in colormap).  Colormap can
           be web for the 216-color Web-safe palette; gray for grayscale; bw
           for black-and-white; or the name of a file. That file should ei-
           ther be a text file (the format is described below) or a GIF
           file, whose global colormap will be used. If --colors=N is also
           given, an N-sized subset of colormap will be used.

           Text colormap files use this format:

           ; each non-comment line represents one color, "red green blue"
           ; each component should be between 0 and 255
           0 0 0            ; like this
           255 255 255
           ; or use web hex notation
           #ffffff          ; like this
 EXAMPLES
      First, let's create an animation, anim.gif:

           gifsicle a.gif b.gif c.gif d.gif > anim.gif





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      This animation will move very quickly: since we didn't specify a de-
      lay, a browser will cycle through the frames as fast as it can. Let's
      slow it down and pause .5 seconds between frames, using the --delay
      option.

           gifsicle --delay 50 a.gif b.gif c.gif d.gif > anim.gif

      If we also want the GIF to loop three times, we can use --loopcount:

           gifsicle -d 50 --loop=3 a.gif b.gif c.gif d.gif > anim.gif

      (Rather than type --delay again, we used its short form, -d.  Many op-
      tions have short forms; you can see them by running  We also abbrevi-
      ated --loopcount to --loop, which is OK since no other option starts
      with loop.)

      To explode anim.gif into its component frames:

           gifsicle --explode anim.gif
           ls anim.gif*
           anim.gif  anim.gif.000  anim.gif.001  anim.gif.002  anim.gif.003

      To optimize anim.gif:

           gifsicle -b -O2 anim.gif

      To change the second frame of anim.gif to x.gif:

           gifsicle -b --unoptimize -O2 anim.gif --replace "#1" x.gif

      --unoptimize is used since anim.gif was optimized in the last step.
      Editing individual frames in optimized GIFs is dangerous without
      --unoptimize; frames following the changed frame could be corrupted by
      the change.  Of course, this might be what you want.

      Note that --unoptimize and --optimize can be on simultaneously.
      --unoptimize affects input GIF files, while --optimize affects output
      GIF files.

      To print information about the first and fourth frames of anim.gif:

           gifsicle -I "#0" "#3" < anim.gif

      To make black the transparent color in all the GIFs in the current
      directory, and also print information about each:

           gifsicle -bII --trans "#000000" *.gif

      Giving -I twice forces normal output to occur. With only one -I, the
      GIFs would not be modified.




                                   - 13 -           Formatted:  June 4, 2020






 GIFSICLE(1)                    Version 1.92                     GIFSICLE(1)
                                11 July 2017



      To change anim.gif to use a 64-color subset of the Web-safe palette:

           gifsicle -b --colors=64 --use-col=web anim.gif

      To make a dithered black-and-white version of anim.gif:

           gifsicle --dither --use-col=bw anim.gif > anim-bw.gif

      To overlay one GIF atop another -- producing a one-frame output GIF
      that looks like the superposition of the two inputs -- use gifsicle
      twice:

           gifsicle bottom.gif top.gif | gifsicle -U "#1" > result.gif

 BUGS
      Some optimized output GIFs may appear incorrectly on some GIF imple-
      mentations (for example, Java's); see the --careful option.

      Please email suggestions, additions, patches and bugs to
      ekohler@gmail.com.

 SEE ALSO
      For a tutorial on GIF images and animations, you might try some of the
      resources listed on-line at webreference.com:
      http://www.webreference.com/authoring/graphics/animation.html

 AUTHORS
      Eddie Kohler <ekohler@gmail.com>
      http://www.read.seas.harvard.edu/~kohler/
      He wrote it.

      Anne Dudfield <annied@frii.com>
      http://www.frii.com/~annied/
      She named it.

      Hans Dinsen-Hansen <dino@danbbs.dk>
      http://www.danbbs.dk/~dino/
      Adaptive tree method for GIF writing.

      Kornel Lesin']ski
      --lossy option.

      http://www.lcdf.org/gifsicle/
      The gifsicle home page.










                                   - 14 -           Formatted:  June 4, 2020