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 FBM(1)                                                               FBM(1)

      fbm - Fuzzy pixmap manipulation (Sun, GIF, IFF, TIFF, HAM, PCX, PBM,
      FBM, PostScript, rasters, bitmaps, pixmaps)

      clr2gray  Convert color to grayscale
      fbcat     Copy image (used for format conversion)
      fbclean   Flip isolated pixels (clean image)
      fbedge    Compute derivative image (edge detection)
      fbext     Extract region, resize, change aspect ratio
      fbgamma   Do gamma correction on grayscale, RGB, and mapped color images
      fbhalf    Halftone grayscale image (Blue noise, Floyd-Steinberg, etc)
      fbham     Convert 24 bit color to Amiga HAM mode
      fbhist    Compute histogram
      fbinfo    Dump image header
      fbm2pod   Convert grayscale image to Diablo graphics (!)
      fbm2tga   Convert FBM to Targa format
      fbm2tiff  Convert FBM to 1, 2, 4, 8, or 24 bit TIFF format
      fbmask    Set region to gray value
      fbnorm    Normalize image intensity / increase contrast
      fbpalet   Replace one colormap with another
      fbps      Convert greyscale to PostScript
      fbquant   Color quantization (24 bit to 4..256 colors) Mod. Heckbert
      fbrot     Rotate 90, 180, or 270 degrees
      fbsample  Sample a 1bit file to produce an 8bit file
      fbsharp   Sharpen (edge enhancement) by digital Laplacian
      gray2clr  Add a "gray" colormap to a grayscale image
      idiff     (and udiff) convert raw byte stream into byte-by-byte difference
      pbm2ps    Convert PBM file to PostScript
      pbmtitle  Add a title to a PBM file
      pic2fbm   Convert PIC format to FBM
      qrt2fbm   Convert QRT raytracer output to FBM
      raw2fbm   Convert raw file to FBM format (eg: Amiga Digiview files)
      tga2fbm   Convert Targa format to FBM format
      tiff2fbm  Convert 1, 2, 4, 8, or 24 bit TIFF format to FBM format

      The Fuzzy Pixmap package (FBM) is a collection of routines for the
      manipulation and conversion of images from and to a variety of file

      In general each routine can read any type of file format (file type is
      determined by examining the magic numbers).  Files that are compressed
      with the Lempel-Ziv 'compress' program are automatically uncompressed
      where possible. With few exceptions the programs are filters, and an
      image manipulation or conversion will be composed of a pipeline of
      several FBM programs.

      Output file format is specified by an upper case letter in the
      argument list.  Each site has a separate default (defined in fbm.h)

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 FBM(1)                                                               FBM(1)

      for 8bit and 1bit images.  The following upper case letters are
      assigned (not all are handled, yet):

      -A   andrew toolkit CMU specific format (not implemented, if at CMU,
           use 'bmcv' to convert).

      -B   face format, as used by Bennet Yee's face program at CMU. His
           'bmcv' program can convert to a number of useful formats.

      -F   FBM format (by default, the default).

      -G   GIF Compuserve GIF format.  GIF support by David Koblas and David
           Rowley.  On input, the aspect ratio is guessed from the size (for
           example, 320x200 and 640x400 images are assumed to have an aspect
           ratio of 1.2).  For unknown sizes, an aspect ratio of 1.0 is
           assumed.  fbcat can override the aspect ratio, if you know the
           actual value.

      -I   IFF format, interleaved bitmaps (ILBM), used mainly by Amigas
           (from ELArts).  To output HAM mode, create a 24 bit color image
           (using unmap) and use the fbham(1) command to convert it to a 6
           plane IFF ILBM HAM mode file.

      -J   JPEG compressed images in JFIF format.  Uses the JPEG library
           released by the independent JPEG Group.

      -L   InterLeaf bitmap format for inclusion in InterLeaf documents (not
           yet supported).

      -M   MacPaint format (not yet supported, use -P and pipe through

      -P   PBM Jef Poskanzer's bitmap format.  His pbm(1) package can
           convert this to a number of useful formats.

      -R   Utah RLE image format.  Included as a compile-time option, your
           site may or may not have the RLE option enabled.

      -S   sun rasterfiles.  Code does not require any Sun libraries to read
           or write Sun format.

      -T   TIFF format, as used by NeXT machines and many scanners.  Not
           implemented as filters, but by the separate conversion programs
           tiff2fbm(1) and fbm2tiff(1).

      -Z   ZSoft's PCX format, as used on IBM PCs.

      Some options are common, and an attempt has been made to keep the
      letters the same throughout, although the same letter may mean

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 FBM(1)                                                               FBM(1)

      something else in some circumstances.

      -a   aspect ratio, some rasters (like Amiga and IBM PC images) have
           pixels that are "taller" than they are wide.  For example, a
           standard TV image is 4/3 wider than it is tall.  A "standard"
           screen that is 320 by 200 is squashed so that it appears normal
           when displayed as though it were 320 by 240 (and 240 / 200 gives
           a 1.2 aspect ratio).

           On some programs, like raw2fbm & fbcat, the -a option specifies
           the aspect ratio of the input (for GIF and raw bitmaps the
           default is 1.2).  Other programs (like fbext) use this parameter
           as the desired output ratio.  Finally, some programs assume
           specific ratios (usually 1, although assumes 1.25 for output).

           width and height, specifies the actual or desired width and

           title, specify a character string (up to 80 characters) to
           describe the image.  The default is no title.

           credits or subtitle, specify a second character string (up to 80
           characters) to describe the image.  The default is no credit

      -s   size or sharpen halftoning programs use -s to specifiy the amount
           of sharpening (0=none, values up to 5 look reasonable, higher
           values can generate grainy images).  The extraction program
           fbext(1) uses -s to mean the output size in total number of

           That's what comes of using one letter argument names.

      clr2gray(1), fbcat(1), fbclean(1), fbedge(1), fbext(1), fbgamma(1),
      fbhalf(1), fbham(1), fbhist(1), fbinfo(1), fbm2pod(1), fbm2tga(1),
      fbm2tiff(1), fbmask(1), fbmedian(1), fbnorm(1), fbpalet(1), fbps(1),
      fbquant(1), fbrot(1), fbsample(1), fbsharp(1), gray2clr(1), idiff(1),
      pbm2ps(1), pbmtitle(1), raw2fbm(1), tga2fbm(1), tiff2fbm(1), as well
      as pbm(1) for PBM routines.

      None known.

      Copyright (C) 1989-1993 by Michael Mauldin.  Permission is granted to
      use this file in whole or in part for any purpose, educational,
      recreational or commercial, provided that this copyright notice is

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 FBM(1)                                                               FBM(1)

      retained unchanged.  This software is available to all free of charge
      by anonymous FTP and in the UUNET archives.

      07-Apr-93  Michael L. Mauldin at Carnegie Mellon University
           Release 1.2  Includes JPEG input and output, plus
           more bug fixes.  To find more information about the JPEG library,
                The Independent JPEG Group

      25-Jun-90  Michael L. Mauldin at Carnegie Mellon University
           Release 1.0  Includes Tiff output and numerous
           bug fixes.

      20-May-89  Michael L. Mauldin at Carnegie Mellon University
           Beta release (version 0.94) User contributed
           software includes
                C. Harald Koch fbham
                Butler Hines   qrt2fbm
                Ian MacPhedran tga2fbm, fbm2tga, pic2fbm

      07-Mar-89  Michael L. Mauldin at Carnegie Mellon University
           Beta release (version 0.9)

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