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 xmars(1)                          MIT LCS                          xmars(1)
                          (not for general release)



 NAME
      xmars - displays a shaded image of the Red Planet in the root window


 SYNOPSIS
      xmars [-proj proj_type ] [-pos pos_spec ] [-rot angle ] [-sunpos
      sun_pos_spec ] [-mag factor ] [-size size_spec ] [-shift shift_spec ]
      [-shade|-noshade] [-label|-nolabel] [-labelpos geom ]
      [-markers|-nomarkers] [-markerfile file ] [-showmarkers]
      [-stars|-nostars] [-starfreq frequency ] [-bigstars percent ]
      [-grid|-nogrid] [-grid1 grid1 ] [-grid2 grid2 ] [-day pct ] [-night pct
      ] [-term pct ] [-gamma gamma_value ] [-wait secs ] [-timewarp
      timewarp_factor ] [-time fixed_time ] [-onepix|-twopix] [-mono|-nomono]
      [-ncolors num_colors ] [-font font_name ] [-fork|-nofork]
      [-once|-noonce] [-nice priority ] [-gif] [-ppm] [-display dpyname ]
      [-version]


 DESCRIPTION
      Xmars sets the X root window to an image of Mars, as seen from your
      favorite vantage point in space, correctly shaded for the current
      position of the Sun. By default, xmars updates the displayed image
      every five minutes. The time between updates can be changed with the
      -wait option (see below); updates can be disabled completely by using
      the -once option (see below).  Xmars can also render directly into PPM
      and GIF files instead of drawing in the root window; see the -ppm and
      -gif options (below).

      This man page documents version 1.0 of xmars.


 OPTIONS
      Xmars understands the following command line options (corresponding X
      resources can be found in the following section):


      -proj proj_type
           Specify the projection type xmars should use. Supported
           projection types are mercator and orthographic; these can either
           be spelled out in full or abbreviated to merc or orth,
           respectively. Xmars uses an orthographic projection by default.


      -pos pos_spec
           Specify the position from which the planet should be viewed. The
           pos_spec (position specifier) consists of a keyword, possibly
           followed by additional arguments. Valid keywords are: fixed,
           sunrel, orbit, and random. (If you're having problems getting
           xmars to accept a position specifier as a command line argument,
           make sure and read the comments about position specifier
           delimiters and using explicit quoting in the fifth paragraph



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 xmars(1)                          MIT LCS                          xmars(1)
                          (not for general release)



           following this one.)

           The position specifier keyword fixed should be followed by two
           arguments, interpreted as numerical values indicating the
           latitude and longitude (expressed in decimal degrees) of a
           viewing position that is fixed with respect to the planet's
           surface. Positive and negative values of latitude correspond to
           positions north and south of the equator, respectively. Positive
           and negative values of longitude correspond to positions east and
           west of the Prime Meridian, respectively.

           The position specifier keyword sunrel should be followed by two
           arguments, interpreted as numerical values indicating the offsets
           in latitude and longitude (expressed in decimal degrees) of a
           viewing position that is fixed with respect to the position of
           the Sun. Positive and negative values of latitude and longitude
           are interpreted as for the fixed keyword.

           The position specifier keyword orbit should be followed by two
           arguments, interpreted as numerical values indicating the period
           (in hours) and orbital inclination (in decimal degrees) of a
           simple circular orbit; the viewing position follows this orbit.
           Astute readers will surely note that these parameters are not
           sufficient to uniquely specify a single circular orbit. This
           problem is solved by limiting the space of possible orbits to
           those positioned over 0 degrees latitude, 0 degrees longitude at
           time zero (the Un*x epoch, see time(3)).

           The position specifier keyword random should not be followed by
           any arguments. When this keyword is used, the viewing position is
           selected at random each time an update occurs.

           Components of a position specifier are delimited by either
           whitespace, forward slashes (/), or commas. Note that using
           whitespace to separate position specifier components when
           invoking xmars from a shell may require explicit quoting to
           ensure the entire position specifier is passed as a single
           argument. For example, if you want to use spaces to delimit
           components and are using a "typical" shell, you'd need to use
           something like:

               -pos "fixed 42.33 -71.08"

           or

               -pos 'fixed 42.33 -71.08'

           to make things work. If you'd rather not have to explicitly quote
           things, you can use forward slashes or commas instead of spaces
           to separate components, as shown below.




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 xmars(1)                          MIT LCS                          xmars(1)
                          (not for general release)



               -pos fixed,42.33,-71.08
               -pos fixed/42.33/-71.08

           If a position specifier is not provided, xmars uses a default
           position specifier of "sunrel 0 0" (such that the entire day side
           of the planet is always visible).


      -rot angle
           Specify a rotated viewing position such that the north is not
           "straight up" in the center of the rendered image. Positive
           values of angle rotate the rendered image counterclockwise;
           negative values rotate the rendered image clockwise. The default
           value of angle is 0.


      -sunpos sun_pos_spec
           Specify a fixed point on the planet's surface where the Sun is
           always directly overhead. The sun_pos_spec (Sun position
           specifier) consists of two components, both numerical values;
           these components are interpreted as the latitude and longitude
           (in decimal degrees) of the point where the Sun is directly
           overhead.

           The details provided for position specifiers (see above) about
           the interpretation of positive and negative latitude and
           longitude values and the characters used to delimit specifier
           components apply to Sun position specifiers as well.

           By default, xmars calculates the actual position of the Sun and
           updates this position with the progression of time.


      -mag factor
           Specify the magnification of the displayed image. When the
           orthographic projection is in use, the diameter of the rendered
           planet image is factor times the shorter of the width and height
           of the image (see the -size option, below). For the mercator
           projection, the width of the rendered image is factor times the
           width of the image (see the -size option, below). The default
           magnification factor is 1.


      -size size_spec
           Specify the size of the image to be rendered. The size_spec (size
           specifier) consists of two components, both positive integers;
           these components are interpreted as the width and height (in
           pixels) of the image.

           The details provided for position specifiers (see above) about
           the characters used to delimit specifier components apply to size



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 xmars(1)                          MIT LCS                          xmars(1)
                          (not for general release)



           specifiers as well.

           When rendering into the X root window, these values default to
           the dimensions of the root window. When producing a PPM or GIF
           file instead of drawing in the X root window (see the -ppm and
           -gif options, below), both values default to 512.


      -shift shift_spec
           Specify that the center of the rendered planet image should be
           shifted by some amount from the center of the image. The
           shift_spec (shift specifier) consists of two components, both
           integers; these components are interpreted as the offsets (in
           pixels) in the X and Y directions.

           The details provided for position specifiers (see above) about
           the characters used to delimit specifier components apply to
           shift specifiers as well.

           By default, the center of the rendered planet image is aligned
           with the center of the image.


      -shade | -noshade
           Enable/disable shading. When shading is enabled, the surface of
           the planet is shaded according to the current position of the Sun
           (and the values provided for the -day, -night, and -term options,
           below). Shading is enabled by default.


      -label | -nolabel
           Enable/disable labeling. If labeling is enabled and xmars is
           rendering into the X root window, provide a label that indicates
           the current date and time and current viewing and sun positions.
           The position of the label can be controlled using the -labelpos
           option (see below). Labeling is disabled by default.


      -labelpos geom
           Specify where the label should be drawn. If labeling is enabled
           and xmars is rendering into the X root window, geom is
           interpreted as the "position" part an X-style geometry
           specification (e.g., {+-}<xoffset>{+-}<yoffset>; positive and
           negative values of xoffset denote offsets from the left and right
           edges of the display, respectively; positive and negative values
           of yoffset denote offsets from the top and bottom edges of the
           display, respectively) indicating how the label should be
           positioned.  The label position defaults to "-5-5" (i.e., five
           pixels inside the lower right-hand corner of the display).





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 xmars(1)                          MIT LCS                          xmars(1)
                          (not for general release)



      -markers | -nomarkers
           Enable/disable markers. If markers are enabled and xmars is
           rendering into the X root window, display small red circles and
           text labels indicating the location of interesting places on the
           planet's surface. Markers are enabled by default.


      -markerfile file
           Specify a file from which user-defined marker data (locations and
           names) should be read. Each line in the marker data file consists
           of three required components: the latitude and longitude
           (expressed in decimal degrees) followed by the text of the label
           that should be used. Individual components are delimited by
           either whitespace, forward slashes (/), or commas. Components
           that need to include delimiter characters (e.g., a multi-word
           label) should be enclosed in double quotes. For example, a line
           in a typical marker data file might look something like:

              19.33  -33.55

           Everything between a `#' character and the end of a line,
           inclusive, is a considered to be a comment. Blank lines and lines
           containing only comments are allowed.

           In addition to the three required components, xmars supports
           optional following "key=value" components. In this version of
           xmars, the only supported "key" is "align", which can be used to
           control where marker labels are drawn in relation to the marker
           proper. Supported alignment values are "left", "right", "above",
           and "below"; the default behavior (if no alignment is specified)
           is "align=right".

           The marker data file is reread every time xmars redraws an image
           into the X root window. In this way, the marker positions and
           labels can be dynamic (e.g., given appropriate data sources,
           markers could be used to encode sandstorm positions, where
           landings have happened recently, temperatures at fixed locations,
           or other forms of "real-time" data).

           Xmars includes a built-in set of marker data for a few features
           around the planet. The built-in data can be selected by
           specifying "built-in" for the file argument; this is the default
           behavior. The built-in set of marker data can be examined either
           by using the -showmarkers option (see below) or by reading the
           BUILT-IN file included with the xmars source distribution (see
           OBTAINING THE XMARS SOURCE DISTRIBUTION, below).


      -showmarkers
           This option indicates that xmars should load the marker data
           (whether built-in or user-specified), print a copy of it to



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 xmars(1)                          MIT LCS                          xmars(1)
                          (not for general release)



           standard out in a form suitable for use with the -markers option
           (see above), and then exit.


      -stars | -nostars
           Enable/disable stars. If stars are enabled, the black background
           of "space" is filled with a random pattern of "stars" (individual
           white pixels). The fraction of background pixels that are turned
           into stars can be controlled with the -starfreq option (see
           below). Stars are enabled by default.


      -starfreq frequency
           Set the density of the random star pattern (see -stars, above);
           frequency indicates the fraction of background pixels that should
           be turned into "stars". The default value of frequency is 0.002.


      -bigstars percent
           Set the percentage of double-width stars (see -stars, above); by
           default, all stars are a single pixel, but this option can be
           used to create some stars that are composed of two horizontal
           pixels.  This provides a slightly less uniform look to the "night
           sky".


      -grid | -nogrid
           Enable/disable the display of a longitude/latitude grid on the
           planet's surface. The spacing of major grid lines and dots
           between major grid lines can be controlled with the -grid1 and
           -grid2 options (see below). Grid display is disabled by default.


      -grid1 grid1
           Specify the spacing of major grid lines if grid display (see
           -grid, above) is enabled; major grid lines are drawn with a
           90/grid1 degree spacing. The default value for grid1 is 6,
           corresponding to 15 degrees between major grid lines.


      -grid2 grid2
           Specify the spacing of dots along major grid lines if grid
           display (see -grid, above) is enabled. Along the equator and
           lines of longitude, grid dots are drawn with a 90/(grid1 x grid2)
           degree spacing. The spacing of grid dots along parallels (lines
           of latitude) other than the equator is adjusted to keep the
           surface distance between grid dots approximately constant. The
           default value for grid2 is 15; combined with the default grid1
           value of 6, this corresponds to placing grid dots on a one degree
           spacing.




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 xmars(1)                          MIT LCS                          xmars(1)
                          (not for general release)



      -day pct
           Specify the brightness that should be used to shade the day side
           of the planet when shading is enabled. Pct should be an integer
           between 0 and 100, inclusive, where 0 indicates total darkness
           and 100 indicates total illumination. This value defaults to 100.


      -night pct
           Specify the brightness that should be used to shade the night
           side of the planet when shading is enabled. Pct should be an
           integer between 0 and 100, inclusive, where 0 indicates total
           darkness and 100 indicates total illumination. This value
           defaults to 5 (if this seems overly dark, you may want to
           double-check that appropriate gamma correction is being employed;
           see -gamma, below).


      -term pct
           Specify the shading discontinuity at the terminator (day/night
           line). Pct should be an integer between 0 and 100, inclusive. A
           value of x indicates that the shading should immediately jump x
           percent of the difference between day and night shading values
           (see -day and -night, above) when crossing from the night side to
           the day side of the terminator. Thus a value of 0 indicates no
           discontinuity (the original xmars behavior), and a value of 100
           yields a maximal discontinuity (such that the entire day side of
           the planet is shaded with the -day shading value). This value
           defaults to 1.


      -gamma gamma_value
           When xmars is rendering into the X root window, adjust the colors
           xmars uses by a gamma value. Values less than 1.0 yield darker
           colors; values greater than 1.0 yield brighter colors. The
           default gamma_value is 1.0, appropriate for use on systems with
           built-in gamma correction. For systems without built-in gamma
           correction, appropriate gamma values are often in the 2.3 to 2.6
           range.

           See the GAMMA-TEST file included with the xmars source
           distribution for information about a simple test that allows you
           to directly estimate the gamma of your display system (see
           OBTAINING THE XMARS SOURCE DISTRIBUTION, below).


      -wait secs
           When rendering into the X root window, wait secs seconds between
           updates. This value defaults to 300 seconds (five minutes).






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 xmars(1)                          MIT LCS                          xmars(1)
                          (not for general release)



      -timewarp timewarp_factor
           Scale the apparent rate at which time progresses by
           timewarp_factor. The default value of timewarp_factor is 1.0.


      -time fixed_time
           Instead of using the current time to determine the "value" of
           time-dependent positions (e.g., the position the sun), use a
           particular fixed_time (expressed in seconds since the Un*x epoch
           (see time(3)).


      -onepix | -twopix
           Specify whether xmars should use one or two pixmaps when
           rendering into the X root window. If only one pixmap is used,
           partial redraws may be visible at times in the root window (when
           areas of the root window are exposed and redrawn during the time
           xmars is rendering the next image). If two pixmaps are used,
           xmars uses them to double-buffer changes such that partial
           redraws are (almost?) never seen. Using only one pixmap has the
           advantage of using quite a bit less memory in the X server; this
           can be important in environments where server-side memory is a
           fairly limited resource.  Two pixmaps is the default.


      -mono | -nomono
           If rendering into the X root window, enable/disable monochrome
           mode.  Monochrome mode is enabled by default on systems with
           one-bit framebuffers (see the "depth of root window" information
           provided by xdpyinfo(1)) and disabled by default otherwise.


      -ncolors num_colors
           If rendering into the X root window or a GIF output file, specify
           the number of colors that should be used. (If markers are enabled
           (see -markers, above), the actual number of colors used may be
           one larger than num_colors.) The default value of num_colors is
           64.

           When rendering into the X root window, the maximum allowable
           value for num_colors is 1024. In practice, using values of
           num_colors larger than twice the number of distinct shades of
           red, green, or blue supported by your hardware is likely to
           provide little additional benefit, or, in some cases, produce
           "banding" effects in the image. Thus, on systems that can support
           256 distinct shades of red, green, or blue (eight bits per
           component), the largest practical value of num_colors is around
           512. Similarly, on systems that support only five or six bits per
           component (e.g., many systems with 16-bit displays), the largest
           practical value of num_colors is probably around 64.




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 xmars(1)                          MIT LCS                          xmars(1)
                          (not for general release)



           When rendering into a GIF output file, the maximum allowable
           value for num_colors is 256.


      -font font_name
           If rendering into the X root window, use font_name for drawing
           text labels (see -label and -markers, above). By default, xmars
           uses the "variable" font.


      -fork | -nofork
           When rendering into the X root window, enable/disable forking. If
           forking is enabled, xmars forks a child process to handle all
           rendering calculations and screen updates (in essence,
           automatically putting itself in the background). Forking is
           disabled by default.


      -once | -noonce
           Disable/enable updates. If updates are enabled and xmars is
           rendering into the X root window, xmars updates the displayed
           image periodically (the time between updates can be controlled
           via the -wait option, above). If updates are disabled, xmars only
           renders an image once and then exits. Updates are enabled by
           default.


      -nice priority
           Run the xmars process with priority priority (see nice(1) and
           setpriority(2)). By default, xmars runs at the priority of the
           process that invoked it, usually 0.


      -gif Instead of drawing in the X root window, write a GIF file
           (eight-bit color) to standard out.


      -ppm Instead of drawing in the X root window, write a PPM file (24-bit
           color) to standard out.


      -display dpyname
           Attempt to connect to the X display named dpyname.


      -version
           Print what version of xmars this is.


 X RESOURCES
      The behavior of xmars can also be controlled using the following X



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 xmars(1)                          MIT LCS                          xmars(1)
                          (not for general release)



      resources:


      proj (projection type)
           Specify the projection type xmars should use (see -proj, above).


      pos (position specifier)
           Specify the position from which the planet should be viewed (see
           -pos, above).


      rot (float)
           Specify the viewing rotation (see -rot, above).


      sunpos (sun position specifier)
           Specify a fixed point on the planet's surface where the Sun is
           always directly overhead (see -sunpos, above).


      mag (float)
           Specify the magnification of the displayed image (see -mag,
           above).


      size (size specifier)
           Specify the size of the image to be rendered (see -size, above).


      shift (shift specifier)
           Specify that the center of the rendered planetary image should be
           shifted by some amount from the center of the image (see -shift,
           above).


      shade (boolean)
           Enable/disable shading (see -shade, above).


      label (boolean)
           Enable/disable labeling (see -label, above).


      labelpos (geometry)
           Specify where the label should be drawn (see -labelpos, above).


      markers (boolean)
           Enable/disable markers (see -markers, above).




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 xmars(1)                          MIT LCS                          xmars(1)
                          (not for general release)



      markerfile (file name)
           Specify a file from which user-defined marker data (locations and
           names) should be read (see -markerfile, above).


      stars (boolean)
           Enable/disable stars (see -stars, above).


      starfreq (float)
           Set the density of the random star pattern (see -starfreq,
           above).


      bigstars (int)
           Set the percentage of stars that are double width (see -bigstars,
           above).


      grid (boolean)
           Enable/disable the display of a longitude/latitude grid on the
           planet's surface (see -grid, above).


      grid1 (integer)
           Specify the spacing of major grid lines if grid display is
           enabled (see -grid1, above).


      grid2 (integer)
           Specify the spacing of dots along major grid lines if grid
           display is enabled (see -grid2, above).


      day (integer)
           Specify the brightness that should be used to shade the day side
           of the planet when shading is enabled (see -day, above).


      night (integer)
           Specify the brightness that should be used to shade the night
           side of the planet when shading is enabled (see -night, above).


      term (integer)
           Specify the shading discontinuity at the terminator (see -term,
           above).


      gamma (float)
           Specify the gamma correction xmars should use when selecting



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 xmars(1)                          MIT LCS                          xmars(1)
                          (not for general release)



           colors (see -gamma, above).


      wait (integer)
           Specify the delay between updates when rendering into the X root
           window (see -wait, above).


      timewarp (float)
           Specify the apparent rate at which time progresses (see
           -timewarp, above).


      time (integer)
           Specify a particular fixed time that should be used to determine
           the "value" of time-dependent positions (see -time, above).


      twopix (boolean)
           Specify whether xmars should use one or two pixmaps when
           rendering into the X root window (see -onepix and -twopix,
           above).


      mono (boolean)
           Specify whether xmars should use monochrome mode when rendering
           into the X root window (see -mono and -nomono, above).


      ncolors (integer)
           Specify the number of colors xmars should use (see -ncolors,
           above). The ncolors resource is only used when rendering into the
           X root window -- the number of colors to use when rendering into
           a GIF file can only be specified using the -ncolors command line
           option.


      font (font name)
           Use the named font for drawing text labels (see -font, above).


      fork (boolean)
           When rendering into the X root window, enable/disable the
           automatic forking of a child process to handle the updates (see
           -fork, above).


      once (boolean)
           When rendering into the X root window, disable/enable updates for
           the displayed image (see -once, above).




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 xmars(1)                          MIT LCS                          xmars(1)
                          (not for general release)



      nice (integer)
           Specify the priority at which the xmars process should be run
           (see -nice, above).


 OBTAINING THE XMARS SOURCE DISTRIBUTION
      xmars is merely a hack applied to xearth.  The latest-and-greatest
      version of xearth should always be available via a link from the
      xearth WWW home page (URL http://cag-
      www.lcs.mit.edu/~tuna/xearth/index.html), or, for the web-deprived,
      via anonymous ftp from cag.lcs.mit.edu in /pub/tuna.


 NOTES
      There are a number of improvements that I'd love to make to xearth,
      but I really should be working on my thesis instead of hacking on
      this.

      The map information used in xearth was derived from the "CIA World
      Data Bank II map database," as taken from some "cbd" files that were
      apparently originally generated by Brian Reid at DEC WRL.

      The Graphics Interchange Format(c) is the Copyright property of
      CompuServe Incorporated. GIF(sm) is a Service Mark property of
      CompuServe Incorporated.

      Thanks to Robert Berger for allowing me to include his nifty gamma
      measurement image and associated text in the xearth source
      distribution.

      Thanks to Jamie Zawinski for suggesting that I look at his
      xscreensaver package for a good example of how to use the resource and
      command line option parts of Xt; his code saved me piles of lossage.

      Thanks to Chris Metcalf for the -bigstars stuff, a pile of general
      source code cleaning, and spell checking everything carefully.

      Thanks to Chris Hayward, Chris Metcalf, Sherman Mui, Dan Rich, and
      Leonard Zubkoff for giving the pre-release of version 1.0 a test
      drive.

      Kudos to Jef Poskanzer for his excellent PBMPLUS toolkit.

      Finally, thanks to everybody that sent encouragement, suggestions, and
      patches. Apologies to the many people whose good ideas didn't make it
      into this release.


 COPYRIGHT
      Copyright (C) 1989, 1990, 1993, 1994, 1995 by Kirk Lauritz Johnson




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 xmars(1)                          MIT LCS                          xmars(1)
                          (not for general release)



      Portions of the xearth source code, as marked, are:

        Copyright (C) 1989, 1990, 1991 by Jim Frost
        Copyright (C) 1992 by Jamie Zawinski <jwz@lucid.com>
        Copyright (C) 1997 by Steve Hosgood <steve@equiinet.com> (the Xmars hack)

      Permission to use, copy, modify and freely distribute xearth and xmars
      for non-commercial and not-for-profit purposes is hereby granted
      without fee, provided that both the above copyright notice and this
      permission notice appear in all copies and in supporting
      documentation.

      Unisys Corporation holds worldwide patent rights on the Lempel Zev
      Welch (LZW) compression technique employed in the CompuServe GIF image
      file format as well as in other formats. Unisys has made it clear,
      however, that it does not require licensing or fees to be paid for
      freely distributed, non-commercial applications (such as xearth or
      xmars) that employ LZW/GIF technology. Those wishing further
      information about licensing the LZW patent should contact Unisys
      directly at (lzw_info@unisys.com) or by writing to

        Unisys Corporation
        Welch Licensing Department
        M/S-C1SW19
        P.O. Box 500
        Blue Bell, PA 19424

      The author makes no representations about the suitability of this
      software for any purpose. It is provided "as is" without express or
      implied warranty.

      THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE,
      INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN NO
      EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR
      CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF
      USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR
      OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR
      PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.


 AUTHOR
        Kirk Johnson <tuna@cag.lcs.mit.edu>
        MIT Laboratory for Computer Science

      Patches, bug reports, and suggestions are welcome, but I can't
      guarantee that I'll get around to doing anything about them in a
      timely fashion.







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