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 IMAKE(1)                       X Version 11                        IMAKE(1)
                                  Release 5

      imake - C preprocessor interface to the make utility

      imake [ -Ddefine ] [ -Idir ] [ -Ttemplate ] [ -f filename ] [ -s
      filename ] [ -e ] [ -v ]

      Imake is used to generate Makefiles from a template, a set of cpp
      macro functions, and a per-directory input file called an Imakefile.
      This allows machine dependencies (such has compiler options, alternate
      command names, and special make rules) to be kept separate from the
      descriptions of the various items to be built.

      The following command line options may be passed to imake:

              This option is passed directly to cpp.  It is typically used
              to set directory-specific variables.  For example, the X
              Window System uses this flag to set TOPDIR to the name of the
              directory containing the top of the core distribution and
              CURDIR to the name of the current directory, relative to the

              This option is passed directly to cpp.  It is typically used
              to indicate the directory in which the imake template and
              configuration files may be found.

              This option specifies the name of the master template file
              (which is usually located in the directory specified with -I)
              used by cpp.  The default is Imake.tmpl.

      -f filename
              This option specifies the name of the per-directory input
              file.  The default is Imakefile.

      -s filename
              This option specifies the name of the make description file to
              be generated but make should not be invoked.  If the filename
              is a dash (-), the output is written to stdout.  The default
              is to generate, but not execute, a Makefile.

      -e      This option indicates the imake should execute the generated
              Makefile.  The default is to leave this to the user.

      -v      This option indicates that imake should print the cpp command
              line that it is using to generate the Makefile.

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 IMAKE(1)                       X Version 11                        IMAKE(1)
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      Imake invokes cpp with any -I or -D flags passed on the command line
      and passes it the following 3 lines:

                #define IMAKE_TEMPLATE "Imake.tmpl"
                #define INCLUDE_IMAKEFILE "Imakefile"
                #include IMAKE_TEMPLATE

      where Imake.tmpl and Imakefile may be overridden by the -T and -f
      command options, respectively.

      The IMAKE_TEMPLATE typically reads in a file containing machine-
      dependent parameters (specified as cpp symbols), a site-specific
      parameters file, a file defining variables, a file containing cpp
      macro functions for generating make rules, and finally the Imakefile
      (specified by INCLUDE_IMAKEFILE) in the current directory.  The
      Imakefile uses the macro functions to indicate what targets should be
      built; imake takes care of generating the appropriate rules.

      Imake configuration files contain two types of variables, imake
      variables and make variables.  The imake variables are interpreted by
      cpp when imake is run.  By convention they are mixed case.  The make
      variables are written into the Makefile for later interpretation by
      make. By convention make variables are upper case.

      The rules file (usually named Imake.rules in the configuration
      directory) contains a variety of cpp macro functions that are
      configured according to the current platform.  Imake replaces any
      occurrences of the string ``@@'' with a newline to allow macros that
      generate more than one line of make rules. For example, the macro

      #define   program_target(program, objlist)        @@\
      program:  objlist                                 @@\
                $(CC)  -o  $@  objlist  $(LDFLAGS)

      when called with program_target(foo, foo1.o  foo2.o) will expand to

      foo:      foo1.o  foo2.o
                $(CC)  -o  $@  foo1.o  foo2.o  $(LDFLAGS)

      On systems whose cpp reduces multiple tabs and spaces to a single
      space, imake attempts to put back any necessary tabs (make is very
      picky about the difference between tabs and spaces).  For this reason,
      colons (:) in command lines must be preceded by a backslash (\).

      The X Window System uses imake extensively, for both full builds
      within the source tree and external software.  As mentioned above, two
      special variables, TOPDIR and CURDIR, are set to make referencing
      files using relative path names easier.  For example, the following

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 IMAKE(1)                       X Version 11                        IMAKE(1)
                                  Release 5

      command is generated automatically to build the Makefile in the
      directory lib/X/ (relative to the top of the sources):

                %  ../.././config/imake  -I../.././config  \
                      -DTOPDIR=../../.   -DCURDIR=./lib/X

      When building X programs outside the source tree, a special symbol
      UseInstalled is defined and TOPDIR and CURDIR are omitted.  If the
      configuration files have been properly installed, the script xmkmf(1)
      may be used.

      Here is a summary of the files read by imake as used by X.  The
      indentation shows what files include what other files.

          Imake.tmpl                generic variables
              site.def              site-specific, BeforeVendorCF defined
              *.cf                  machine-specific
                  *Lib.rules        shared library rules
              site.def              site-specific, AfterVendorCF defined
              Project.tmpl          X-specific variables
                  *Lib.tmpl         shared library variables
              Imake.rules           rules
              Library.tmpl          library rules
              Server.tmpl           server rules
      Note that site.def gets included twice, once before the *.cf file and
      once after.  Although most site customizations should be specified
      after the *.cf file, some, such as the choice of compiler, need to be
      specified before, because other variable settings may depend on them.
      The first time site.def is included, the variable BeforeVendorCF is
      defined, and the second time, the variable AfterVendorCF is defined.
      All code in site.def should be inside an #ifdef for one of these

      /usr/tmp/tmp-imake.nnnnnn     temporary input file for cpp
      /usr/tmp/tmp-make.nnnnnn      temporary input file for make
      /lib/cpp                      default C preprocessor

      make(1), xmkmf(1)
      S. I. Feldman, Make - A Program for Maintaining Computer Programs

      The following environment variables may be set, however their use is
      not recommended as they introduce dependencies that are not readily
      apparent when imake is run:

           If defined, this should be a valid include argument for the C

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 IMAKE(1)                       X Version 11                        IMAKE(1)
                                  Release 5

           preprocessor.  E.g., ``-I/usr/include/local''.  Actually, any
           valid cpp argument will work here.

           If defined, this should be a valid path to a preprocessor
           program.  E.g. ``/usr/local/cpp''.  By default, imake will use

           If defined, this should be a valid path to a make program, such
           as ``/usr/local/make''.  By default, imake will use whatever make
           program is found using execvp(3). This variable is only used if
           the ``-e'' option is specified.

      Todd Brunhoff, Tektronix and MIT Project Athena; Jim Fulton, MIT X

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