packages icon



 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



 NAME
      lsof - list open files

 SYNOPSIS
      lsof [ -?abChKlnNOPRtUvVX ] [ -A A ] [ -c c ] [ +c c ] [ +|-d d ] [
      +|-D D ] [ +|-e s ] [ +|-f [cfgGn] ] [ -F [f] ] [ -g [s] ] [ -i [i] ] [
      -k k ] [ +|-L [l] ] [ +|-m m ] [ +|-M ] [ -o [o] ] [ -p s ] [ +|-r
      [t[m<fmt>]] ] [ -s [p:s] ] [ -S [t] ] [ -T [t] ] [ -u s ] [ +|-w ] [ -x
      [fl] ] [ -z [z] ] [ -Z [Z] ] [ -- ] [names]

 DESCRIPTION
      Lsof revision 4.87 lists on its standard output file information about
      files opened by processes for the following UNIX dialects:

           Apple Darwin 9 and Mac OS X 10.[567]
           FreeBSD 4.9 and 6.4 for x86-based systems
           FreeBSD 8.2, 9.0 and 10.0 for AMD64-based systems
           Linux 2.1.72 and above for x86-based systems
           Solaris 9, 10 and 11

      (See the DISTRIBUTION section of this manual page for information on
      how to obtain the latest lsof revision.)

      An open file may be a regular file, a directory, a block special file,
      a character special file, an executing text reference, a library, a
      stream or a network file (Internet socket, NFS file or UNIX domain
      socket.) A specific file or all the files in a file system may be
      selected by path.

      Instead of a formatted display, lsof will produce output that can be
      parsed by other programs.  See the -F, option description, and the
      OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for more information.

      In addition to producing a single output list, lsof will run in repeat
      mode.  In repeat mode it will produce output, delay, then repeat the
      output operation until stopped with an interrupt or quit signal.  See
      the +|-r [t[m<fmt>]] option description for more information.

 OPTIONS
      In the absence of any options, lsof lists all open files belonging to
      all active processes.

      If any list request option is specified, other list requests must be
      specifically requested - e.g., if -U is specified for the listing of
      UNIX socket files, NFS files won't be listed unless -N is also
      specified; or if a user list is specified with the -u option, UNIX
      domain socket files, belonging to users not in the list, won't be
      listed unless the -U option is also specified.

      Normally list options that are specifically stated are ORed - i.e.,
      specifying the -i option without an address and the -ufoo option



                                    - 1 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      produces a listing of all network files OR files belonging to
      processes owned by user ``foo''.  The exceptions are:

      1) the `^' (negated) login name or user ID (UID), specified with the
         -u option;

      2) the `^' (negated) process ID (PID), specified with the -p option;

      3) the `^' (negated) process group ID (PGID), specified with the -g
         option;

      4) the `^' (negated) command, specified with the -c option;

      5) the (`^') negated TCP or UDP protocol state names, specified with
         the -s [p:s] option.

      Since they represent exclusions, they are applied without ORing or
      ANDing and take effect before any other selection criteria are
      applied.

      The -a option may be used to AND the selections.  For example,
      specifying -a, -U, and -ufoo produces a listing of only UNIX socket
      files that belong to processes owned by user ``foo''.

      Caution: the -a option causes all list selection options to be ANDed;
      it can't be used to cause ANDing of selected pairs of selection
      options by placing it between them, even though its placement there is
      acceptable.  Wherever -a is placed, it causes the ANDing of all
      selection options.

      Items of the same selection set - command names, file descriptors,
      network addresses, process identifiers, user identifiers, zone names,
      security contexts - are joined in a single ORed set and applied before
      the result participates in ANDing.  Thus, for example, specifying
      -i@aaa.bbb, -i@ccc.ddd, -a, and -ufff,ggg will select the listing of
      files that belong to either login ``fff'' OR ``ggg'' AND have network
      connections to either host aaa.bbb OR ccc.ddd.

      Options may be grouped together following a single prefix -- e.g., the
      option set ``-a -b -C'' may be stated as -abC.  However, since values
      are optional following +|-f, -F, -g, -i, +|-L, -o, +|-r, -s, -S, -T,
      -x and -z.  when you have no values for them be careful that the
      following character isn't ambiguous.  For example, -Fn might represent
      the -F and -n options, or it might represent the n field identifier
      character following the -F option.  When ambiguity is possible, start
      a new option with a `-' character - e.g., ``-F -n''.  If the next
      option is a file name, follow the possibly ambiguous option with ``--
      '' - e.g., ``-F -- name''.

      Either the `+' or the `-' prefix may be applied to a group of options.
      Options that don't take on separate meanings for each prefix - e.g.,



                                    - 2 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      -i - may be grouped under either prefix.  Thus, for example, ``+M -i''
      may be stated as ``+Mi'' and the group means the same as the separate
      options.  Be careful of prefix grouping when one or more options in
      the group does take on separate meanings under different prefixes -
      e.g., +|-M; ``-iM'' is not the same request as ``-i +M''.  When in
      doubt, use separate options with appropriate prefixes.

      -? -h    These two equivalent options select a usage (help) output
               list.  Lsof displays a shortened form of this output when it
               detects an error in the options supplied to it, after it has
               displayed messages explaining each error.  (Escape the `?'
               character as your shell requires.)

      -a       causes list selection options to be ANDed, as described
               above.

      -A A     is available on systems configured for AFS whose AFS kernel
               code is implemented via dynamic modules.  It allows the lsof
               user to specify A as an alternate name list file where the
               kernel addresses of the dynamic modules might be found.  See
               the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.) for more
               information about dynamic modules, their symbols, and how
               they affect lsof.

      -b       causes lsof to avoid kernel functions that might block -
               lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2).

               See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS and AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS
               sections for information on using this option.

      -c c     selects the listing of files for processes executing the
               command that begins with the characters of c.  Multiple
               commands may be specified, using multiple -c options.  They
               are joined in a single ORed set before participating in AND
               option selection.

               If c begins with a `^', then the following characters specify
               a command name whose processes are to be ignored (excluded.)

               If c begins and ends with a slash ('/'), the characters
               between the slashes are interpreted as a regular expression.
               Shell meta-characters in the regular expression must be
               quoted to prevent their interpretation by the shell.  The
               closing slash may be followed by these modifiers:


                    b    the regular expression is a basic one.
                    i    ignore the case of letters.
                    x    the regular expression is an extended one
                         (default).




                                    - 3 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



               See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.) for
               more information on basic and extended regular expressions.

               The simple command specification is tested first.  If that
               test fails, the command regular expression is applied.  If
               the simple command test succeeds, the command regular
               expression test isn't made.  This may result in ``no command
               found for regex:'' messages when lsof's -V option is
               specified.

      +c w     defines the maximum number of initial characters of the name,
               supplied by the UNIX dialect, of the UNIX command associated
               with a process to be printed in the COMMAND column.  (The
               lsof default is nine.)

               Note that many UNIX dialects do not supply all command name
               characters to lsof in the files and structures from which
               lsof obtains command name.  Often dialects limit the number
               of characters supplied in those sources.  For example, Linux
               2.4.27 and Solaris 9 both limit command name length to 16
               characters.

               If w is zero ('0'), all command characters supplied to lsof
               by the UNIX dialect will be printed.

               If w is less than the length of the column title,
               ``COMMAND'', it will be raised to that length.

      -C       disables the reporting of any path name components from the
               kernel's name cache.  See the KERNEL NAME CACHE section for
               more information.

      +d s     causes lsof to search for all open instances of directory s
               and the files and directories it contains at its top level.
               +d does NOT descend the directory tree, rooted at s.  The +D
               D option may be used to request a full-descent directory tree
               search, rooted at directory D.

               Processing of the +d option does not follow symbolic links
               within s unless the -x or -x  l option is also specified.
               Nor does it search for open files on file system mount points
               on subdirectories of s unless the -x or -x  f option is also
               specified.

               Note: the authority of the user of this option limits it to
               searching for files that the user has permission to examine
               with the system stat(2) function.

      -d s     specifies a list of file descriptors (FDs) to exclude from or
               include in the output listing.  The file descriptors are
               specified in the comma-separated set s - e.g., ``cwd,1,3'',



                                    - 4 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



               ``^6,^2''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

               The list is an exclusion list if all entries of the set begin
               with `^'.  It is an inclusion list if no entry begins with
               `^'.  Mixed lists are not permitted.

               A file descriptor number range may be in the set as long as
               neither member is empty, both members are numbers, and the
               ending member is larger than the starting one - e.g., ``0-7''
               or ``3-10''.  Ranges may be specified for exclusion if they
               have the `^' prefix - e.g., ``^0-7'' excludes all file
               descriptors 0 through 7.

               Multiple file descriptor numbers are joined in a single ORed
               set before participating in AND option selection.

               When there are exclusion and inclusion members in the set,
               lsof reports them as errors and exits with a non-zero return
               code.

               See the description of File Descriptor (FD) output values in
               the OUTPUT section for more information on file descriptor
               names.

      +D D     causes lsof to search for all open instances of directory D
               and all the files and directories it contains to its complete
               depth.

               Processing of the +D option does not follow symbolic links
               within D unless the -x or -x  l option is also specified.
               Nor does it search for open files on file system mount points
               on subdirectories of D unless the -x or -x  f option is also
               specified.

               Note: the authority of the user of this option limits it to
               searching for files that the user has permission to examine
               with the system stat(2) function.

               Further note: lsof may process this option slowly and require
               a large amount of dynamic memory to do it.  This is because
               it must descend the entire directory tree, rooted at D,
               calling stat(2) for each file and directory, building a list
               of all the files it finds, and searching that list for a
               match with every open file.  When directory D is large, these
               steps can take a long time, so use this option prudently.

      -D D     directs lsof's use of the device cache file.  The use of this
               option is sometimes restricted.  See the DEVICE CACHE FILE
               section and the sections that follow it for more information
               on this option.




                                    - 5 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



               -D must be followed by a function letter; the function letter
               may optionally be followed by a path name.  Lsof recognizes
               these function letters:


                    ? - report device cache file paths
                    b - build the device cache file
                    i - ignore the device cache file
                    r - read the device cache file
                    u - read and update the device cache file

               The b, r, and u functions, accompanied by a path name, are
               sometimes restricted.  When these functions are restricted,
               they will not appear in the description of the -D option that
               accompanies -h or -? option output.  See the DEVICE CACHE
               FILE section and the sections that follow it for more
               information on these functions and when they're restricted.

               The ? function reports the read-only and write paths that
               lsof can use for the device cache file, the names of any
               environment variables whose values lsof will examine when
               forming the device cache file path, and the format for the
               personal device cache file path.  (Escape the `?' character
               as your shell requires.)

               When available, the b, r, and u functions may be followed by
               the device cache file's path.  The standard default is
               .lsof_hostname in the home directory of the real user ID that
               executes lsof, but this could have been changed when lsof was
               configured and compiled.  (The output of the -h and -?
               options show the current default prefix - e.g., ``.lsof''.)
               The suffix, hostname, is the first component of the host's
               name returned by gethostname(2).

               When available, the b function directs lsof to build a new
               device cache file at the default or specified path.

               The i function directs lsof to ignore the default device
               cache file and obtain its information about devices via
               direct calls to the kernel.

               The r function directs lsof to read the device cache at the
               default or specified path, but prevents it from creating a
               new device cache file when none exists or the existing one is
               improperly structured.  The r function, when specified
               without a path name, prevents lsof from updating an incorrect
               or outdated device cache file, or creating a new one in its
               place.  The r function is always available when it is
               specified without a path name argument; it may be restricted
               by the permissions of the lsof process.




                                    - 6 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



               When available, the u function directs lsof to read the
               device cache file at the default or specified path, if
               possible, and to rebuild it, if necessary.  This is the
               default device cache file function when no -D option has been
               specified.

      +|-e s   exempts the file system whose path name is s from being
               subjected to kernel function calls that might block.  The +e
               option exempts stat(2), lstat(2) and most readlink(2) kernel
               function calls.  The -e option exempts only stat(2) and
               lstat(2) kernel function calls.  Multiple file systems may be
               specified with separate +|-e specifications and each may have
               readlink(2) calls exempted or not.

               This option is currently implemented only for Linux.

               CAUTION: this option can easily be mis-applied to other than
               the file system of interest, because it uses path name rather
               than the more reliable device and inode numbers.  (Device and
               inode numbers are acquired via the potentially blocking
               stat(2) kernel call and are thus not available, but see the
               +|-m m option as a possible alternative way to supply device
               numbers.) Use this option with great care and fully specify
               the path name of the file system to be exempted.

               When open files on exempted file systems are reported, it may
               not be possible to obtain all their information.  Therefore,
               some information columns will be blank, the characters
               ``UNKN'' preface the values in the TYPE column, and the
               applicable exemption option is added in parentheses to the
               end of the NAME column.  (Some device number information
               might be made available via the +|-m m option.)

      +|-f [cfgGn]
               f by itself clarifies how path name arguments are to be
               interpreted.  When followed by c, f, g, G, or n in any
               combination it specifies that the listing of kernel file
               structure information is to be enabled (`+') or inhibited
               (`-').

               Normally a path name argument is taken to be a file system
               name if it matches a mounted-on directory name reported by
               mount(8), or if it represents a block device, named in the
               mount output and associated with a mounted directory name.
               When +f is specified, all path name arguments will be taken
               to be file system names, and lsof will complain if any are
               not.  This can be useful, for example, when the file system
               name (mounted-on device) isn't a block device.  This happens
               for some CD-ROM file systems.





                                    - 7 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



               When -f is specified by itself, all path name arguments will
               be taken to be simple files.  Thus, for example, the ``-f --
               /'' arguments direct lsof to search for open files with a `/'
               path name, not all open files in the `/' (root) file system.

               Be careful to make sure +f and -f are properly terminated and
               aren't followed by a character (e.g., of the file or file
               system name) that might be taken as a parameter.  For
               example, use ``--'' after +f and -f as in these examples.


                    $ lsof +f -- /file/system/name
                    $ lsof -f -- /file/name

               The listing of information from kernel file structures,
               requested with the +f [cfgGn] option form, is normally
               inhibited, and is not available in whole or part for some
               dialects - e.g., /proc-based Linux kernels below 2.6.22.
               When the prefix to f is a plus sign (`+'), these characters
               request file structure information:


                    c    file structure use count (not Linux)
                    f    file structure address (not Linux)
                    g    file flag abbreviations (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
                    G    file flags in hexadecimal (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
                    n    file structure node address (not Linux)

               When the prefix is minus (`-') the same characters disable
               the listing of the indicated values.

               File structure addresses, use counts, flags, and node
               addresses may be used to detect more readily identical files
               inherited by child processes and identical files in use by
               different processes.  Lsof column output can be sorted by
               output columns holding the values and listed to identify
               identical file use, or lsof field output can be parsed by an
               AWK or Perl post-filter script, or by a C program.

      -F f     specifies a character list, f, that selects the fields to be
               output for processing by another program, and the character
               that terminates each output field.  Each field to be output
               is specified with a single character in f.  The field
               terminator defaults to NL, but may be changed to NUL (000).
               See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for a description
               of the field identification characters and the field output
               process.

               When the field selection character list is empty, all
               standard fields are selected (except the raw device field,
               security context and zone field for compatibility reasons)



                                    - 8 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



               and the NL field terminator is used.

               When the field selection character list contains only a zero
               (`0'), all fields are selected (except the raw device field
               for compatibility reasons) and the NUL terminator character
               is used.

               Other combinations of fields and their associated field
               terminator character must be set with explicit entries in f,
               as described in the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section.

               When a field selection character identifies an item lsof does
               not normally list - e.g., PPID, selected with -R -
               specification of the field character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also
               selects the listing of the item.

               When the field selection character list contains the single
               character `?', lsof will display a help list of the field
               identification characters.  (Escape the `?' character as your
               shell requires.)

      -g [s]   excludes or selects the listing of files for the processes
               whose optional process group IDentification (PGID) numbers
               are in the comma-separated set s - e.g., ``123'' or
               ``123,^456''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

               PGID numbers that begin with `^' (negation) represent
               exclusions.

               Multiple PGID numbers are joined in a single ORed set before
               participating in AND option selection.  However, PGID
               exclusions are applied without ORing or ANDing and take
               effect before other selection criteria are applied.

               The -g option also enables the output display of PGID
               numbers.  When specified without a PGID set that's all it
               does.

      -i [i]   selects the listing of files any of whose Internet address
               matches the address specified in i.  If no address is
               specified, this option selects the listing of all Internet
               and x.25 (HP-UX) network files.

               If -i4 or -i6 is specified with no following address, only
               files of the indicated IP version, IPv4 or IPv6, are
               displayed.  (An IPv6 specification may be used only if the
               dialects supports IPv6, as indicated by ``[46]'' and
               ``IPv[46]'' in lsof's -h or -? output.) Sequentially
               specifying -i4, followed by -i6 is the same as specifying -i,
               and vice-versa.  Specifying -i4, or -i6 after -i is the same
               as specifying -i4 or -i6 by itself.



                                    - 9 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



               Multiple addresses (up to a limit of 100) may be specified
               with multiple -i options.  (A port number or service name
               range is counted as one address.) They are joined in a single
               ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

               An Internet address is specified in the form (Items in square
               brackets are optional.):

               [46][protocol][@hostname|hostaddr][:service|port]

               where:
                    46 specifies the IP version, IPv4 or IPv6
                         that applies to the following address.
                         '6' may be be specified only if the UNIX
                         dialect supports IPv6.  If neither '4' nor
                         '6' is specified, the following address
                         applies to all IP versions.
                    protocol is a protocol name - TCP, UDP
                    hostname is an Internet host name.  Unless a
                         specific IP version is specified, open
                         network files associated with host names
                         of all versions will be selected.
                    hostaddr is a numeric Internet IPv4 address in
                         dot form; or an IPv6 numeric address in
                         colon form, enclosed in brackets, if the
                         UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  When an IP
                         version is selected, only its numeric
                         addresses may be specified.
                    service is an /etc/services name - e.g., smtp -
                         or a list of them.
                    port is a port number, or a list of them.

               IPv6 options may be used only if the UNIX dialect supports
               IPv6.  To see if the dialect supports IPv6, run lsof and
               specify the -h or -? (help) option.  If the displayed
               description of the -i option contains ``[46]'' and
               ``IPv[46]'', IPv6 is supported.

               IPv4 host names and addresses may not be specified if network
               file selection is limited to IPv6 with -i 6.  IPv6 host names
               and addresses may not be specified if network file selection
               is limited to IPv4 with -i 4.  When an open IPv4 network
               file's address is mapped in an IPv6 address, the open file's
               type will be IPv6, not IPv4, and its display will be selected
               by '6', not '4'.

               At least one address component - 4, 6, protocol, hostname,
               hostaddr, or service - must be supplied.  The `@' character,
               leading the host specification, is always required; as is the
               `:', leading the port specification.  Specify either hostname
               or hostaddr.  Specify either service name list or port number



                                   - 10 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



               list.  If a service name list is specified, the protocol may
               also need to be specified if the TCP, UDP and UDPLITE port
               numbers for the service name are different.  Use any case -
               lower or upper - for protocol.

               Service names and port numbers may be combined in a list
               whose entries are separated by commas and whose numeric range
               entries are separated by minus signs.  There may be no
               embedded spaces, and all service names must belong to the
               specified protocol.  Since service names may contain embedded
               minus signs, the starting entry of a range can't be a service
               name; it can be a port number, however.

               Here are some sample addresses:

                    -i6 - IPv6 only
                    TCP:25 - TCP and port 25
                    @1.2.3.4 - Internet IPv4 host address 1.2.3.4
                    @[3ffe:1ebc::1]:1234 - Internet IPv6 host address
                         3ffe:1ebc::1, port 1234
                    UDP:who - UDP who service port
                    TCP@lsof.itap:513 - TCP, port 513 and host name lsof.itap
                    tcp@foo:1-10,smtp,99 - TCP, ports 1 through 10,
                         service name smtp, port 99, host name foo
                    tcp@bar:1-smtp - TCP, ports 1 through smtp, host bar
                    :time - either TCP, UDP or UDPLITE time service port

      -K       selects the listing of tasks (threads) of processes, on
               dialects where task (thread) reporting is supported.  (If
               help output - i.e., the output of the -h or -? options -
               shows this option, then task (thread) reporting is supported
               by the dialect.)

               When -K and -a are both specified on Linux, and the tasks of
               a main process are selected by other options, the main
               process will also be listed as though it were a task, but
               without a task ID.  (See the description of the TID column in
               the OUTPUT section.)

               Where the FreeBSD version supports threads, all threads will
               be listed with their IDs.

               In general threads and tasks inherit the files of the caller,
               but may close some and open others, so lsof always reports
               all the open files of threads and tasks.

      -k k     specifies a kernel name list file, k, in place of /vmunix,
               /mach, etc.  -k is not available under AIX on the IBM
               RISC/System 6000.





                                   - 11 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      -l       inhibits the conversion of user ID numbers to login names.
               It is also useful when login name lookup is working
               improperly or slowly.

      +|-L [l] enables (`+') or disables (`-') the listing of file link
               counts, where they are available - e.g., they aren't
               available for sockets, or most FIFOs and pipes.

               When +L is specified without a following number, all link
               counts will be listed.  When -L is specified (the default),
               no link counts will be listed.

               When +L is followed by a number, only files having a link
               count less than that number will be listed.  (No number may
               follow -L.) A specification of the form ``+L1'' will select
               open files that have been unlinked.  A specification of the
               form ``+aL1 <file_system>'' will select unlinked open files
               on the specified file system.

               For other link count comparisons, use field output (-F) and a
               post-processing script or program.

      +|-m m   specifies an alternate kernel memory file or activates mount
               table supplement processing.

               The option form -m m specifies a kernel memory file, m, in
               place of /dev/kmem or /dev/mem - e.g., a crash dump file.

               The option form +m requests that a mount supplement file be
               written to the standard output file.  All other options are
               silently ignored.

               There will be a line in the mount supplement file for each
               mounted file system, containing the mounted file system
               directory, followed by a single space, followed by the device
               number in hexadecimal "0x" format - e.g.,


                    / 0x801

               Lsof can use the mount supplement file to get device numbers
               for file systems when it can't get them via stat(2) or
               lstat(2).

               The option form +m m identifies m as a mount supplement file.

               Note: the +m and +m m options are not available for all
               supported dialects.  Check the output of lsof's -h or -?
               options to see if the +m and +m m options are available.





                                   - 12 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      +|-M     Enables (+) or disables (-) the reporting of portmapper
               registrations for local TCP, UDP and UDPLITE ports, where
               port mapping is supported.  (See the last paragraph of this
               option description for information about where portmapper
               registration reporting is suported.)

               The default reporting mode is set by the lsof builder with
               the HASPMAPENABLED #define in the dialect's machine.h header
               file; lsof is distributed with the HASPMAPENABLED #define
               deactivated, so portmapper reporting is disabled by default
               and must be requested with +M.  Specifying lsof's -h or -?
               option will report the default mode.  Disabling portmapper
               registration when it is already disabled or enabling it when
               already enabled is acceptable.  When portmapper registration
               reporting is enabled, lsof displays the portmapper
               registration (if any) for local TCP, UDP or UDPLITE ports in
               square brackets immediately following the port numbers or
               service names - e.g., ``:1234[name]'' or ``:name[100083]''.
               The registration information may be a name or number,
               depending on what the registering program supplied to the
               portmapper when it registered the port.

               When portmapper registration reporting is enabled, lsof may
               run a little more slowly or even become blocked when access
               to the portmapper becomes congested or stopped.  Reverse the
               reporting mode to determine if portmapper registration
               reporting is slowing or blocking lsof.

               For purposes of portmapper registration reporting lsof
               considers a TCP, UDP or UDPLITE port local if: it is found in
               the local part of its containing kernel structure; or if it
               is located in the foreign part of its containing kernel
               structure and the local and foreign Internet addresses are
               the same; or if it is located in the foreign part of its
               containing kernel structure and the foreign Internet address
               is INADDR_LOOPBACK (127.0.0.1).  This rule may make lsof
               ignore some foreign ports on machines with multiple
               interfaces when the foreign Internet address is on a
               different interface from the local one.

               See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.) for
               further discussion of portmapper registration reporting
               issues.

               Portmapper registration reporting is supported only on
               dialects that have RPC header files.  (Some Linux
               distributions with GlibC 2.14 do not have them.) When
               portmapper registration reporting is supported, the -h or -?
               help output will show the +|-M option.





                                   - 13 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      -n       inhibits the conversion of network numbers to host names for
               network files.  Inhibiting conversion may make lsof run
               faster.  It is also useful when host name lookup is not
               working properly.

      -N       selects the listing of NFS files.

      -o       directs lsof to display file offset at all times.  It causes
               the SIZE/OFF output column title to be changed to OFFSET.
               Note: on some UNIX dialects lsof can't obtain accurate or
               consistent file offset information from its kernel data
               sources, sometimes just for particular kinds of files (e.g.,
               socket files.) Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives
               its location.) for more information.

               The -o and -s options are mutually exclusive; they can't both
               be specified.  When neither is specified, lsof displays
               whatever value - size or offset - is appropriate and
               available for the type of the file.

      -o o     defines the number of decimal digits (o) to be printed after
               the ``0t'' for a file offset before the form is switched to
               ``0x...''.  An o value of zero (unlimited) directs lsof to
               use the ``0t'' form for all offset output.

               This option does NOT direct lsof to display offset at all
               times; specify -o (without a trailing number) to do that.  -o
               o only specifies the number of digits after ``0t'' in either
               mixed size and offset or offset-only output.  Thus, for
               example, to direct lsof to display offset at all times with a
               decimal digit count of 10, use:


                    -o -o 10
               or
                    -oo10

               The default number of digits allowed after ``0t'' is normally
               8, but may have been changed by the lsof builder.  Consult
               the description of the -o o option in the output of the -h or
               -? option to determine the default that is in effect.

      -O       directs lsof to bypass the strategy it uses to avoid being
               blocked by some kernel operations - i.e., doing them in
               forked child processes.  See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS and
               AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS sections for more information on
               kernel operations that may block lsof.

               While use of this option will reduce lsof startup overhead,
               it may also cause lsof to hang when the kernel doesn't
               respond to a function.  Use this option cautiously.



                                   - 14 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      -p s     excludes or selects the listing of files for the processes
               whose optional process IDentification (PID) numbers are in
               the comma-separated set s - e.g., ``123'' or ``123,^456''.
               (There should be no spaces in the set.)

               PID numbers that begin with `^' (negation) represent
               exclusions.

               Multiple process ID numbers are joined in a single ORed set
               before participating in AND option selection.  However, PID
               exclusions are applied without ORing or ANDing and take
               effect before other selection criteria are applied.

      -P       inhibits the conversion of port numbers to port names for
               network files.  Inhibiting the conversion may make lsof run a
               little faster.  It is also useful when port name lookup is
               not working properly.

      +|-r [t[m<fmt>]]
               puts lsof in repeat mode.  There lsof lists open files as
               selected by other options, delays t seconds (default
               fifteen), then repeats the listing, delaying and listing
               repetitively until stopped by a condition defined by the
               prefix to the option.

               If the prefix is a `-', repeat mode is endless.  Lsof must be
               terminated with an interrupt or quit signal.

               If the prefix is `+', repeat mode will end the first cycle no
               open files are listed - and of course when lsof is stopped
               with an interrupt or quit signal.  When repeat mode ends
               because no files are listed, the process exit code will be
               zero if any open files were ever listed; one, if none were
               ever listed.

               Lsof marks the end of each listing: if field output is in
               progress (the -F, option has been specified), the default
               marker is `m'; otherwise the default marker is ``========''.
               The marker is followed by a NL character.

               The optional "m<fmt>" argument specifies a format for the
               marker line.  The <fmt> characters following `m' are
               interpreted as a format specification to the strftime(3)
               function, when both it and the localtime(3) function are
               available in the dialect's C library.  Consult the
               strftime(3) documentation for what may appear in its format
               specification.  Note that when field output is requested with
               the -F option, <fmt> cannot contain the NL format, ``%n''.
               Note also that when <fmt> contains spaces or other characters
               that affect the shell's interpretation of arguments, <fmt>
               must be quoted appropriately.



                                   - 15 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



               Repeat mode reduces lsof startup overhead, so it is more
               efficient to use this mode than to call lsof repetitively
               from a shell script, for example.

               To use repeat mode most efficiently, accompany +|-r with
               specification of other lsof selection options, so the amount
               of kernel memory access lsof does will be kept to a minimum.
               Options that filter at the process level - e.g., -c, -g, -p,
               -u - are the most efficient selectors.

               Repeat mode is useful when coupled with field output (see the
               -F, option description) and a supervising awk or Perl script,
               or a C program.

      -R       directs lsof to list the Parent Process IDentification number
               in the PPID column.

      -s [p:s] s alone directs lsof to display file size at all times.  It
               causes the SIZE/OFF output column title to be changed to
               SIZE.  If the file does not have a size, nothing is
               displayed.

               The optional -s p:s form is available only for selected
               dialects, and only when the -h or -? help output lists it.

               When the optional form is available, the s may be followed by
               a protocol name (p), either TCP or UDP, a colon (`:') and a
               comma-separated protocol state name list, the option causes
               open TCP and UDP files to be excluded if their state name(s)
               are in the list (s) preceded by a `^'; or included if their
               name(s) are not preceded by a `^'.

               When an inclusion list is defined, only network files with
               state names in the list will be present in the lsof output.
               Thus, specifying one state name means that only network files
               with that lone state name will be listed.

               Case is unimportant in the protocol or state names, but there
               may be no spaces and the colon (`:') separating the protocol
               name (p) and the state name list (s) is required.

               If only TCP and UDP files are to be listed, as controlled by
               the specified exclusions and inclusions, the -i option must
               be specified, too.  If only a single protocol's files are to
               be listed, add its name as an argument to the -i option.

               For example, to list only network files with TCP state
               LISTEN, use:


                    -iTCP -sTCP:LISTEN



                                   - 16 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



               Or, for example, to list network files with all UDP states
               except Idle, use:


                    -iUDP -sUDP:Idle

               State names vary with UNIX dialects, so it's not possible to
               provide a complete list.  Some common TCP state names are:
               CLOSED, IDLE, BOUND, LISTEN, ESTABLISHED, SYN_SENT, SYN_RCDV,
               ESTABLISHED, CLOSE_WAIT, FIN_WAIT1, CLOSING, LAST_ACK,
               FIN_WAIT_2, and TIME_WAIT.  Two common UDP state names are
               Unbound and Idle.

               See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.) for
               more information on how to use protocol state exclusion and
               inclusion, including examples.

               The -o (without a following decimal digit count) and -s
               option (without a following protocol and state name list) are
               mutually exclusive; they can't both be specified.  When
               neither is specified, lsof displays whatever value - size or
               offset - is appropriate and available for the type of file.

               Since some types of files don't have true sizes - sockets,
               FIFOs, pipes, etc. - lsof displays for their sizes the
               content amounts in their associated kernel buffers, if
               possible.

      -S [t]   specifies an optional time-out seconds value for kernel
               functions - lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2) - that might
               otherwise deadlock.  The minimum for t is two; the default,
               fifteen; when no value is specified, the default is used.

               See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS section for more information.

      -T [t]   controls the reporting of some TCP/TPI information, also
               reported by netstat(1), following the network addresses.  In
               normal output the information appears in parentheses, each
               item except TCP or TPI state name identified by a keyword,
               followed by `=', separated from others by a single space:


                    <TCP or TPI state name>
                    QR=<read queue length>
                    QS=<send queue length>
                    SO=<socket options and values>
                    SS=<socket states>
                    TF=<TCP flags and values>
                    WR=<window read length>
                    WW=<window write length>




                                   - 17 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



               Not all values are reported for all UNIX dialects.  Items
               values (when available) are reported after the item name and
               '='.

               When the field output mode is in effect (See OUTPUT FOR OTHER
               PROGRAMS.) each item appears as a field with a `T' leading
               character.

               -T with no following key characters disables TCP/TPI
               information reporting.

               -T with following characters selects the reporting of
               specific TCP/TPI information:


                    f    selects reporting of socket options,
                         states and values, and TCP flags and
                         values.
                    q    selects queue length reporting.
                    s    selects connection state reporting.
                    w    selects window size reporting.

               Not all selections are enabled for some UNIX dialects.  State
               may be selected for all dialects and is reported by default.
               The -h or -? help output for the -T option will show what
               selections may be used with the UNIX dialect.

               When -T is used to select information - i.e., it is followed
               by one or more selection characters - the displaying of state
               is disabled by default, and it must be explicitly selected
               again in the characters following -T.  (In effect, then, the
               default is equivalent to -Ts.) For example, if queue lengths
               and state are desired, use -Tqs.

               Socket options, socket states, some socket values, TCP flags
               and one TCP value may be reported (when available in the UNIX
               dialect) in the form of the names that commonly appear after
               SO_, so_, SS_, TCP_  and TF_ in the dialect's header files -
               most often <sys/socket.h>, <sys/socketvar.h> and
               <netinet/tcp_var.h>.  Consult those header files for the
               meaning of the flags, options, states and values.

               ``SO='' precedes socket options and values; ``SS='', socket
               states; and ``TF='', TCP flags and values.

               If a flag or option has a value, the value will follow an '='
               and the name -- e.g., ``SO=LINGER=5'', ``SO=QLIM=5'',
               ``TF=MSS=512''.  The following seven values may be reported:


                    Name



                                   - 18 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



                    Reported  Description (Common Symbol)

                    KEEPALIVE keep alive time (SO_KEEPALIVE)
                    LINGER    linger time (SO_LINGER)
                    MSS       maximum segment size (TCP_MAXSEG)
                    PQLEN     partial listen queue connections
                    QLEN      established listen queue connections
                    QLIM      established listen queue limit
                    RCVBUF    receive buffer length (SO_RCVBUF)
                    SNDBUF    send buffer length (SO_SNDBUF)

               Details on what socket options and values, socket states, and
               TCP flags and values may be displayed for particular UNIX
               dialects may be found in the answer to the ``Why doesn't lsof
               report socket options, socket states, and TCP flags and
               values for my dialect?'' and ``Why doesn't lsof report the
               partial listen queue connection count for my dialect?''
               questions in the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its
               location.)

      -t       specifies that lsof should produce terse output with process
               identifiers only and no header - e.g., so that the output may
               be piped to kill(1).  -t selects the -w option.

      -u s     selects the listing of files for the user whose login names
               or user ID numbers are in the comma-separated set s - e.g.,
               ``abe'', or ``548,root''.  (There should be no spaces in the
               set.)

               Multiple login names or user ID numbers are joined in a
               single ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

               If a login name or user ID is preceded by a `^', it becomes a
               negation - i.e., files of processes owned by the login name
               or user ID will never be listed.  A negated login name or
               user ID selection is neither ANDed nor ORed with other
               selections; it is applied before all other selections and
               absolutely excludes the listing of the files of the process.
               For example, to direct lsof to exclude the listing of files
               belonging to root processes, specify ``-u^root'' or ``-u^0''.

      -U       selects the listing of UNIX domain socket files.

      -v       selects the listing of lsof version information, including:
               revision number; when the lsof binary was constructed; who
               constructed the binary and where; the name of the compiler
               used to construct the lsof binary; the version number of the
               compiler when readily available; the compiler and loader
               flags used to construct the lsof binary; and system
               information, typically the output of uname's -a option.




                                   - 19 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      -V       directs lsof to indicate the items it was asked to list and
               failed to find - command names, file names, Internet
               addresses or files, login names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, and
               UIDs.

               When other options are ANDed to search options, or
               compile-time options restrict the listing of some files, lsof
               may not report that it failed to find a search item when an
               ANDed option or compile-time option prevents the listing of
               the open file containing the located search item.

               For example, ``lsof -V -iTCP@foobar -a -d 999'' may not
               report a failure to locate open files at ``TCP@foobar'' and
               may not list any, if none have a file descriptor number of
               999.  A similar situation arises when HASSECURITY and
               HASNOSOCKSECURITY are defined at compile time and they
               prevent the listing of open files.

      +|-w     Enables (+) or disables (-) the suppression of warning
               messages.

               The lsof builder may choose to have warning messages disabled
               or enabled by default.  The default warning message state is
               indicated in the output of the -h or -? option.  Disabling
               warning messages when they are already disabled or enabling
               them when already enabled is acceptable.

               The -t option selects the -w option.

      -x [fl]  may accompany the +d and +D options to direct their
               processing to cross over symbolic links and|or file system
               mount points encountered when scanning the directory (+d) or
               directory tree (+D).

               If -x is specified by itself without a following parameter,
               cross-over processing of both symbolic links and file system
               mount points is enabled.  Note that when -x is specified
               without a parameter, the next argument must begin with '-' or
               '+'.

               The optional 'f' parameter enables file system mount point
               cross-over processing; 'l', symbolic link cross-over
               processing.

               The -x option may not be supplied without also supplying a +d
               or +D option.

      -X       This is a dialect-specific option.

          AIX:
               This IBM AIX RISC/System 6000 option requests the reporting



                                   - 20 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



               of executed text file and shared library references.

               WARNING: because this option uses the kernel readx()
               function, its use on a busy AIX system might cause an
               application process to hang so completely that it can neither
               be killed nor stopped.  I have never seen this happen or had
               a report of its happening, but I think there is a remote
               possibility it could happen.

               By default use of readx() is disabled.  On AIX 5L and above
               lsof may need setuid-root permission to perform the actions
               this option requests.

               The lsof builder may specify that the -X option be restricted
               to processes whose real UID is root.  If that has been done,
               the -X option will not appear in the -h or -? help output
               unless the real UID of the lsof process is root.  The default
               lsof distribution allows any UID to specify -X, so by default
               it will appear in the help output.

               When AIX readx() use is disabled, lsof may not be able to
               report information for all text and loader file references,
               but it may also avoid exacerbating an AIX kernel directory
               search kernel error, known as the Stale Segment ID bug.

               The readx() function, used by lsof or any other program to
               access some sections of kernel virtual memory, can trigger
               the Stale Segment ID bug.  It can cause the kernel's
               dir_search() function to believe erroneously that part of an
               in-memory copy of a file system directory has been zeroed.
               Another application process, distinct from lsof, asking the
               kernel to search the directory - e.g., by using open(2) - can
               cause dir_search() to loop forever, thus hanging the
               application process.

               Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)
               and the 00README file of the lsof distribution for a more
               complete description of the Stale Segment ID bug, its APAR,
               and methods for defining readx() use when compiling lsof.

          Linux:
               This Linux option requests that lsof skip the reporting of
               information on all open TCP, UDP and UDPLITE IPv4 and IPv6
               files.

               This Linux option is most useful when the system has an
               extremely large number of open TCP, UDP and UDPLITE files,
               the processing of whose information in the /proc/net/tcp* and
               /proc/net/udp* files would take lsof a long time, and whose
               reporting is not of interest.




                                   - 21 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



               Use this option with care and only when you are sure that the
               information you want lsof to display isn't associated with
               open TCP, UDP or UDPLITE socket files.

          Solaris 10 and above:
               This Solaris 10 and above option requests the reporting of
               cached paths for files that have been deleted - i.e., removed
               with rm(1) or unlink(2).

               The cached path is followed by the string `` (deleted)'' to
               indicate that the path by which the file was opened has been
               deleted.

               Because intervening changes made to the path - i.e., renames
               with mv(1) or rename(2) - are not recorded in the cached
               path, what lsof reports is only the path by which the file
               was opened, not its possibly different final path.

      -z [z]   specifies how Solaris 10 and higher zone information is to be
               handled.

               Without a following argument - e.g., NO z - the option
               specifies that zone names are to be listed in the ZONE output
               column.

               The -z option may be followed by a zone name, z.  That causes
               lsof to list only open files for processes in that zone.
               Multiple -z z option and argument pairs may be specified to
               form a list of named zones.  Any open file of any process in
               any of the zones will be listed, subject to other conditions
               specified by other options and arguments.

      -Z [Z]   specifies how SELinux security contexts are to be handled.
               It and 'Z' field output character support are inhibited when
               SELinux is disabled in the running Linux kernel.  See OUTPUT
               FOR OTHER PROGRAMS for more information on the 'Z' field
               output character.

               Without a following argument - e.g., NO Z - the option
               specifies that security contexts are to be listed in the
               SECURITY-CONTEXT output column.

               The -Z option may be followed by a wildcard security context
               name, Z.  That causes lsof to list only open files for
               processes in that security context.  Multiple -Z Z option and
               argument pairs may be specified to form a list of security
               contexts.  Any open file of any process in any of the
               security contexts will be listed, subject to other conditions
               specified by other options and arguments.  Note that Z can be
               A:B:C or *:B:C or A:B:* or *:*:C to match against the A:B:C
               context.



                                   - 22 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      --       The double minus sign option is a marker that signals the end
               of the keyed options.  It may be used, for example, when the
               first file name begins with a minus sign.  It may also be
               used when the absence of a value for the last keyed option
               must be signified by the presence of a minus sign in the
               following option and before the start of the file names.

      names    These are path names of specific files to list.  Symbolic
               links are resolved before use.  The first name may be
               separated from the preceding options with the ``--'' option.

               If a name is the mounted-on directory of a file system or the
               device of the file system, lsof will list all the files open
               on the file system.  To be considered a file system, the name
               must match a mounted-on directory name in mount(8) output, or
               match the name of a block device associated with a mounted-on
               directory name.  The +|-f option may be used to force lsof to
               consider a name a file system identifier (+f) or a simple
               file (-f).

               If name is a path to a directory that is not the mounted-on
               directory name of a file system, it is treated just as a
               regular file is treated - i.e., its listing is restricted to
               processes that have it open as a file or as a
               process-specific directory, such as the root or current
               working directory.  To request that lsof look for open files
               inside a directory name, use the +d s and +D D options.

               If a name is the base name of a family of multiplexed files -
               e. g, AIX's /dev/pt[cs] - lsof will list all the associated
               multiplexed files on the device that are open - e.g.,
               /dev/pt[cs]/1, /dev/pt[cs]/2, etc.

               If a name is a UNIX domain socket name, lsof will usually
               search for it by the characters of the name alone - exactly
               as it is specified and is recorded in the kernel socket
               structure.  (See the next paragraph for an exception to that
               rule for Linux.) Specifying a relative path - e.g., ./file -
               in place of the file's absolute path - e.g., /tmp/file -
               won't work because lsof must match the characters you specify
               with what it finds in the kernel UNIX domain socket
               structures.

               If a name is a Linux UNIX domain socket name, in one case
               lsof is able to search for it by its device and inode number,
               allowing name to be a relative path.  The case requires that
               the absolute path -- i.e., one beginning with a slash ('/')
               be used by the process that created the socket, and hence be
               stored in the /proc/net/unix file; and it requires that lsof
               be able to obtain the device and node numbers of both the
               absolute path in /proc/net/unix and name via successful



                                   - 23 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



               stat(2) system calls.  When those conditions are met, lsof
               will be able to search for the UNIX domain socket when some
               path to it is is specified in name.  Thus, for example, if
               the path is /dev/log, and an lsof search is initiated when
               the working directory is /dev, then name could be ./log.

               If a name is none of the above, lsof will list any open files
               whose device and inode match that of the specified path name.

               If you have also specified the -b option, the only names you
               may safely specify are file systems for which your mount
               table supplies alternate device numbers.  See the AVOIDING
               KERNEL BLOCKS and ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS sections for more
               information.

               Multiple file names are joined in a single ORed set before
               participating in AND option selection.

 AFS
      Lsof supports the recognition of AFS files for these dialects (and AFS
      versions):

           AIX 4.1.4 (AFS 3.4a)
           HP-UX 9.0.5 (AFS 3.4a)
           Linux 1.2.13 (AFS 3.3)
           Solaris 2.[56] (AFS 3.4a)

      It may recognize AFS files on other versions of these dialects, but
      has not been tested there.  Depending on how AFS is implemented, lsof
      may recognize AFS files in other dialects, or may have difficulties
      recognizing AFS files in the supported dialects.

      Lsof may have trouble identifying all aspects of AFS files in
      supported dialects when AFS kernel support is implemented via dynamic
      modules whose addresses do not appear in the kernel's variable name
      list.  In that case, lsof may have to guess at the identity of AFS
      files, and might not be able to obtain volume information from the
      kernel that is needed for calculating AFS volume node numbers.  When
      lsof can't compute volume node numbers, it reports blank in the NODE
      column.

      The -A A option is available in some dialect implementations of lsof
      for specifying the name list file where dynamic module kernel
      addresses may be found.  When this option is available, it will be
      listed in the lsof help output, presented in response to the -h or -?

      See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.) for more
      information about dynamic modules, their symbols, and how they affect
      lsof options.





                                   - 24 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      Because AFS path lookups don't seem to participate in the kernel's
      name cache operations, lsof can't identify path name components for
      AFS files.

 SECURITY
      Lsof has three features that may cause security concerns.  First, its
      default compilation mode allows anyone to list all open files with it.
      Second, by default it creates a user-readable and user-writable device
      cache file in the home directory of the real user ID that executes
      lsof.  (The list-all-open-files and device cache features may be
      disabled when lsof is compiled.) Third, its -k and -m options name
      alternate kernel name list or memory files.

      Restricting the listing of all open files is controlled by the
      compile-time HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY options.  When
      HASSECURITY is defined, lsof will allow only the root user to list all
      open files.  The non-root user may list only open files of processes
      with the same user IDentification number as the real user ID number of
      the lsof process (the one that its user logged on with).

      However, if HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY are both defined, anyone
      may list open socket files, provided they are selected with the -i
      option.

      When HASSECURITY is not defined, anyone may list all open files.

      Help output, presented in response to the -h or -? option, gives the
      status of the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY definitions.

      See the Security section of the 00README file of the lsof distribution
      for information on building lsof with the HASSECURITY and
      HASNOSOCKSECURITY options enabled.

      Creation and use of a user-readable and user-writable device cache
      file is controlled by the compile-time HASDCACHE option.  See the
      DEVICE CACHE FILE section and the sections that follow it for details
      on how its path is formed.  For security considerations it is
      important to note that in the default lsof distribution, if the real
      user ID under which lsof is executed is root, the device cache file
      will be written in root's home directory - e.g., / or /root.  When
      HASDCACHE is not defined, lsof does not write or attempt to read a
      device cache file.

      When HASDCACHE is defined, the lsof help output, presented in response
      to the -h, -D?, or -? options, will provide device cache file handling
      information.  When HASDCACHE is not defined, the -h or -? output will
      have no -D option description.

      Before you decide to disable the device cache file feature - enabling
      it improves the performance of lsof by reducing the startup overhead
      of examining all the nodes in /dev (or /devices) - read the discussion



                                   - 25 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      of it in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution and the lsof FAQ
      (The FAQ section gives its location.)

      WHEN IN DOUBT, YOU CAN TEMPORARILY DISABLE THE USE OF THE DEVICE CACHE
      FILE WITH THE -Di OPTION.

      When lsof user declares alternate kernel name list or memory files
      with the -k and -m options, lsof checks the user's authority to read
      them with access(2).  This is intended to prevent whatever special
      power lsof's modes might confer on it from letting it read files not
      normally accessible via the authority of the real user ID.

 OUTPUT
      This section describes the information lsof lists for each open file.
      See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for additional information
      on output that can be processed by another program.

      Lsof only outputs printable (declared so by isprint(3)) 8 bit
      characters.  Non-printable characters are printed in one of three
      forms: the C ``\[bfrnt]'' form; the control character `^' form (e.g.,
      ``^@''); or hexadecimal leading ``\x'' form (e.g., ``\xab'').  Space
      is non-printable in the COMMAND column (``\x20'') and printable
      elsewhere.

      For some dialects - if HASSETLOCALE is defined in the dialect's
      machine.h header file - lsof will print the extended 8 bit characters
      of a language locale.  The lsof process must be supplied a language
      locale environment variable (e.g., LANG) whose value represents a
      known language locale in which the extended characters are considered
      printable by isprint(3).  Otherwise lsof considers the extended
      characters non-printable and prints them according to its rules for
      non-printable characters, stated above.  Consult your dialect's
      setlocale(3) man page for the names of other environment variables
      that may be used in place of LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, etc.

      Lsof's language locale support for a dialect also covers wide
      characters - e.g., UTF-8 - when HASSETLOCALE and HASWIDECHAR are
      defined in the dialect's machine.h header file, and when a suitable
      language locale has been defined in the appropriate environment
      variable for the lsof process.  Wide characters are printable under
      those conditions if iswprint(3) reports them to be.  If HASSETLOCALE,
      HASWIDECHAR and a suitable language locale aren't defined, or if
      iswprint(3) reports wide characters that aren't printable, lsof
      considers the wide characters non-printable and prints each of their 8
      bits according to its rules for non-printable characters, stated
      above.

      Consult the answers to the "Language locale support" questions in the
      lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.) for more information.





                                   - 26 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      Lsof dynamically sizes the output columns each time it runs,
      guaranteeing that each column is a minimum size.  It also guarantees
      that each column is separated from its predecessor by at least one
      space.

      COMMAND    contains the first nine characters of the name of the UNIX
                 command associated with the process.  If a non-zero w value
                 is specified to the +c w option, the column contains the
                 first w characters of the name of the UNIX command
                 associated with the process up to the limit of characters
                 supplied to lsof by the UNIX dialect.  (See the description
                 of the +c w command or the lsof FAQ for more information.
                 The FAQ section gives its location.)

                 If w is less than the length of the column title,
                 ``COMMAND'', it will be raised to that length.

                 If a zero w value is specified to the +c w option, the
                 column contains all the characters of the name of the UNIX
                 command associated with the process.

                 All command name characters maintained by the kernel in its
                 structures are displayed in field output when the command
                 name descriptor (`c') is specified.  See the OUTPUT FOR
                 OTHER COMMANDS section for information on selecting field
                 output and the associated command name descriptor.

      PID        is the Process IDentification number of the process.

      TID        is the task (thread) IDentification number, if task
                 (thread) reporting is supported by the dialect and a task
                 (thread) is being listed.  (If help output - i.e., the
                 output of the -h or -? options - shows this option, then
                 task (thread) reporting is supported by the dialect.)

                 A blank TID column in Linux indicates a process - i.e., a
                 non-task.

      ZONE       is the Solaris 10 and higher zone name.  This column must
                 be selected with the -z option.

      SECURITY-CONTEXT
                 is the SELinux security context.  This column must be
                 selected with the -Z option.  Note that the -Z option is
                 inhibited when SELinux is disabled in the running Linux
                 kernel.

      PPID       is the Parent Process IDentification number of the process.
                 It is only displayed when the -R option has been specified.





                                   - 27 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      PGID       is the process group IDentification number associated with
                 the process.  It is only displayed when the -g option has
                 been specified.

      USER       is the user ID number or login name of the user to whom the
                 process belongs, usually the same as reported by ps(1).
                 However, on Linux USER is the user ID number or login that
                 owns the directory in /proc where lsof finds information
                 about the process.  Usually that is the same value reported
                 by ps(1), but may differ when the process has changed its
                 effective user ID.  (See the -l option description for
                 information on when a user ID number or login name is
                 displayed.)

      FD         is the File Descriptor number of the file or:


                      cwd  current working directory;
                      Lnn  library references (AIX);
                      err  FD information error (see NAME column);
                      jld  jail directory (FreeBSD);
                      ltx  shared library text (code and data);
                      Mxx  hex memory-mapped type number xx.
                      m86  DOS Merge mapped file;
                      mem  memory-mapped file;
                      mmap memory-mapped device;
                      pd   parent directory;
                      rtd  root directory;
                      tr   kernel trace file (OpenBSD);
                      txt  program text (code and data);
                      v86  VP/ix mapped file;

                 FD is followed by one of these characters, describing the
                 mode under which the file is open:

                      r for read access;
                      w for write access;
                      u for read and write access;
                      space if mode unknown and no lock
                           character follows;
                      `-' if mode unknown and lock
                           character follows.

                 The mode character is followed by one of these lock
                 characters, describing the type of lock applied to the
                 file:

                      N for a Solaris NFS lock of unknown type;
                      r for read lock on part of the file;
                      R for a read lock on the entire file;
                      w for a write lock on part of the file;



                                   - 28 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



                      W for a write lock on the entire file;
                      u for a read and write lock of any length;
                      U for a lock of unknown type;
                      x for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on part      of the
                 file;
                      X for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on the      entire
                 file;
                      space if there is no lock.

                 See the LOCKS section for more information on the lock
                 information character.

                 The FD column contents constitutes a single field for
                 parsing in post-processing scripts.

      TYPE       is the type of the node associated with the file - e.g.,
                 GDIR, GREG, VDIR, VREG, etc.

                 or ``IPv4'' for an IPv4 socket;

                 or ``IPv6'' for an open IPv6 network file - even if its
                 address is IPv4, mapped in an IPv6 address;

                 or ``ax25'' for a Linux AX.25 socket;

                 or ``inet'' for an Internet domain socket;

                 or ``lla'' for a HP-UX link level access file;

                 or ``rte'' for an AF_ROUTE socket;

                 or ``sock'' for a socket of unknown domain;

                 or ``unix'' for a UNIX domain socket;

                 or ``x.25'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                 or ``BLK'' for a block special file;

                 or ``CHR'' for a character special file;

                 or ``DEL'' for a Linux map file that has been deleted;

                 or ``DIR'' for a directory;

                 or ``DOOR'' for a VDOOR file;

                 or ``FIFO'' for a FIFO special file;

                 or ``KQUEUE'' for a BSD style kernel event queue file;




                                   - 29 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



                 or ``LINK'' for a symbolic link file;

                 or ``MPB'' for a multiplexed block file;

                 or ``MPC'' for a multiplexed character file;

                 or ``NOFD'' for a Linux /proc/<PID>/fd directory that can't
                 be opened -- the directory path appears in the NAME column,
                 followed by an error message;

                 or ``PAS'' for a /proc/as file;

                 or ``PAXV'' for a /proc/auxv file;

                 or ``PCRE'' for a /proc/cred file;

                 or ``PCTL'' for a /proc control file;

                 or ``PCUR'' for the current /proc process;

                 or ``PCWD'' for a /proc current working directory;

                 or ``PDIR'' for a /proc directory;

                 or ``PETY'' for a /proc executable type (etype);

                 or ``PFD'' for a /proc file descriptor;

                 or ``PFDR'' for a /proc file descriptor directory;

                 or ``PFIL'' for an executable /proc file;

                 or ``PFPR'' for a /proc FP register set;

                 or ``PGD'' for a /proc/pagedata file;

                 or ``PGID'' for a /proc group notifier file;

                 or ``PIPE'' for pipes;

                 or ``PLC'' for a /proc/lwpctl file;

                 or ``PLDR'' for a /proc/lpw directory;

                 or ``PLDT'' for a /proc/ldt file;

                 or ``PLPI'' for a /proc/lpsinfo file;

                 or ``PLST'' for a /proc/lstatus file;





                                   - 30 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



                 or ``PLU'' for a /proc/lusage file;

                 or ``PLWG'' for a /proc/gwindows file;

                 or ``PLWI'' for a /proc/lwpsinfo file;

                 or ``PLWS'' for a /proc/lwpstatus file;

                 or ``PLWU'' for a /proc/lwpusage file;

                 or ``PLWX'' for a /proc/xregs file'

                 or ``PMAP'' for a /proc map file (map);

                 or ``PMEM'' for a /proc memory image file;

                 or ``PNTF'' for a /proc process notifier file;

                 or ``POBJ'' for a /proc/object file;

                 or ``PODR'' for a /proc/object directory;

                 or ``POLP'' for an old format /proc light weight process
                 file;

                 or ``POPF'' for an old format /proc PID file;

                 or ``POPG'' for an old format /proc page data file;

                 or ``PORT'' for a SYSV named pipe;

                 or ``PREG'' for a /proc register file;

                 or ``PRMP'' for a /proc/rmap file;

                 or ``PRTD'' for a /proc root directory;

                 or ``PSGA'' for a /proc/sigact file;

                 or ``PSIN'' for a /proc/psinfo file;

                 or ``PSTA'' for a /proc status file;

                 or ``PSXSEM'' for a POSIX semaphore file;

                 or ``PSXSHM'' for a POSIX shared memory file;

                 or ``PUSG'' for a /proc/usage file;

                 or ``PW'' for a /proc/watch file;




                                   - 31 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



                 or ``PXMP'' for a /proc/xmap file;

                 or ``REG'' for a regular file;

                 or ``SMT'' for a shared memory transport file;

                 or ``STSO'' for a stream socket;

                 or ``UNNM'' for an unnamed type file;

                 or ``XNAM'' for an OpenServer Xenix special file of unknown
                 type;

                 or ``XSEM'' for an OpenServer Xenix semaphore file;

                 or ``XSD'' for an OpenServer Xenix shared data file;

                 or the four type number octets if the corresponding name
                 isn't known.

      FILE-ADDR  contains the kernel file structure address when f has been
                 specified to +f;

      FCT        contains the file reference count from the kernel file
                 structure when c has been specified to +f;

      FILE-FLAG  when g or G has been specified to +f, this field contains
                 the contents of the f_flag[s] member of the kernel file
                 structure and the kernel's per-process open file flags (if
                 available); `G' causes them to be displayed in hexadecimal;
                 `g', as short-hand names; two lists may be displayed with
                 entries separated by commas, the lists separated by a
                 semicolon (`;'); the first list may contain short-hand
                 names for f_flag[s] values from the following table:


                      AIO       asynchronous I/O (e.g., FAIO)
                      AP        append
                      ASYN      asynchronous I/O (e.g., FASYNC)
                      BAS       block, test, and set in use
                      BKIU      block if in use
                      BL        use block offsets
                      BSK       block seek
                      CA        copy avoid
                      CIO       concurrent I/O
                      CLON      clone
                      CLRD      CL read
                      CR        create
                      DF        defer
                      DFI       defer IND
                      DFLU      data flush



                                   - 32 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



                      DIR       direct
                      DLY       delay
                      DOCL      do clone
                      DSYN      data-only integrity
                      DTY       must be a directory
                      EVO       event only
                      EX        open for exec
                      EXCL      exclusive open
                      FSYN      synchronous writes
                      GCDF      defer during unp_gc() (AIX)
                      GCMK      mark during unp_gc() (AIX)
                      GTTY      accessed via /dev/tty
                      HUP       HUP in progress
                      KERN      kernel
                      KIOC      kernel-issued ioctl
                      LCK       has lock
                      LG        large file
                      MBLK      stream message block
                      MK        mark
                      MNT       mount
                      MSYN      multiplex synchronization
                      NATM      don't update atime
                      NB        non-blocking I/O
                      NBDR      no BDRM check
                      NBIO      SYSV non-blocking I/O
                      NBF       n-buffering in effect
                      NC        no cache
                      ND        no delay
                      NDSY      no data synchronization
                      NET       network
                      NFLK      don't follow links
                      NMFS      NM file system
                      NOTO      disable background stop
                      NSH       no share
                      NTTY      no controlling TTY
                      OLRM      OLR mirror
                      PAIO      POSIX asynchronous I/O
                      PP        POSIX pipe
                      R         read
                      RC        file and record locking cache
                      REV       revoked
                      RSH       shared read
                      RSYN      read synchronization
                      RW        read and write access
                      SL        shared lock
                      SNAP      cooked snapshot
                      SOCK      socket
                      SQSH      Sequent shared set on open
                      SQSV      Sequent SVM set on open
                      SQR       Sequent set repair on open
                      SQS1      Sequent full shared open



                                   - 33 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



                      SQS2      Sequent partial shared open
                      STPI      stop I/O
                      SWR       synchronous read
                      SYN       file integrity while writing
                      TCPM      avoid TCP collision
                      TR        truncate
                      W         write
                      WKUP      parallel I/O synchronization
                      WTG       parallel I/O synchronization
                      VH        vhangup pending
                      VTXT      virtual text
                      XL        exclusive lock

                 this list of names was derived from F* #define's in dialect
                 header files <fcntl.h>, <linux</fs.h>, <sys/fcntl.c>,
                 <sys/fcntlcom.h>, and <sys/file.h>; see the lsof.h header
                 file for a list showing the correspondence between the
                 above short-hand names and the header file definitions;

                 the second list (after the semicolon) may contain
                 short-hand names for kernel per-process open file flags
                 from this table:


                      ALLC      allocated
                      BR        the file has been read
                      BHUP      activity stopped by SIGHUP
                      BW        the file has been written
                      CLSG      closing
                      CX        close-on-exec (see fcntl(F_SETFD))
                      LCK       lock was applied
                      MP        memory-mapped
                      OPIP      open pending - in progress
                      RSVW      reserved wait
                      SHMT      UF_FSHMAT set (AIX)
                      USE       in use (multi-threaded)

      NODE-ID    (or INODE-ADDR for some dialects) contains a unique
                 identifier for the file node (usually the kernel vnode or
                 inode address, but also occasionally a concatenation of
                 device and node number) when n has been specified to +f;

      DEVICE     contains the device numbers, separated by commas, for a
                 character special, block special, regular, directory or NFS
                 file;

                 or ``memory'' for a memory file system node under Tru64
                 UNIX;

                 or the address of the private data area of a Solaris socket
                 stream;



                                   - 34 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



                 or a kernel reference address that identifies the file (The
                 kernel reference address may be used for FIFO's, for
                 example.);

                 or the base address or device name of a Linux AX.25 socket
                 device.

                 Usually only the lower thirty two bits of Tru64 UNIX kernel
                 addresses are displayed.

      SIZE, SIZE/OFF, or OFFSET
                 is the size of the file or the file offset in bytes.  A
                 value is displayed in this column only if it is available.
                 Lsof displays whatever value - size or offset - is
                 appropriate for the type of the file and the version of
                 lsof.

                 On some UNIX dialects lsof can't obtain accurate or
                 consistent file offset information from its kernel data
                 sources, sometimes just for particular kinds of files
                 (e.g., socket files.) In other cases, files don't have true
                 sizes - e.g., sockets, FIFOs, pipes - so lsof displays for
                 their sizes the content amounts it finds in their kernel
                 buffer descriptors (e.g., socket buffer size counts or
                 TCP/IP window sizes.) Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section
                 gives its location.) for more information.

                 The file size is displayed in decimal; the offset is
                 normally displayed in decimal with a leading ``0t'' if it
                 contains 8 digits or less; in hexadecimal with a leading
                 ``0x'' if it is longer than 8 digits.  (Consult the -o o
                 option description for information on when 8 might default
                 to some other value.)

                 Thus the leading ``0t'' and ``0x'' identify an offset when
                 the column may contain both a size and an offset (i.e., its
                 title is SIZE/OFF).

                 If the -o option is specified, lsof always displays the
                 file offset (or nothing if no offset is available) and
                 labels the column OFFSET.  The offset always begins with
                 ``0t'' or ``0x'' as described above.

                 The lsof user can control the switch from ``0t'' to ``0x''
                 with the -o o option.  Consult its description for more
                 information.

                 If the -s option is specified, lsof always displays the
                 file size (or nothing if no size is available) and labels
                 the column SIZE.  The -o and -s options are mutually
                 exclusive; they can't both be specified.



                                   - 35 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



                 For files that don't have a fixed size - e.g., don't reside
                 on a disk device - lsof will display appropriate
                 information about the current size or position of the file
                 if it is available in the kernel structures that define the
                 file.

      NLINK      contains the file link count when +L has been specified;

      NODE       is the node number of a local file;

                 or the inode number of an NFS file in the server host;

                 or the Internet protocol type - e. g, ``TCP'';

                 or ``STR'' for a stream;

                 or ``CCITT'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                 or the IRQ or inode number of a Linux AX.25 socket device.

      NAME       is the name of the mount point and file system on which the
                 file resides;

                 or the name of a file specified in the names option (after
                 any symbolic links have been resolved);

                 or the name of a character special or block special device;

                 or the local and remote Internet addresses of a network
                 file; the local host name or IP number is followed by a
                 colon (':'), the port, ``->'', and the two-part remote
                 address; IP addresses may be reported as numbers or names,
                 depending on the +|-M, -n, and -P options; colon-separated
                 IPv6 numbers are enclosed in square brackets; IPv4
                 INADDR_ANY and IPv6 IN6_IS_ADDR_UNSPECIFIED addresses, and
                 zero port numbers are represented by an asterisk ('*'); a
                 UDP destination address may be followed by the amount of
                 time elapsed since the last packet was sent to the
                 destination; TCP, UDP and UDPLITE remote addresses may be
                 followed by TCP/TPI information in parentheses - state
                 (e.g., ``(ESTABLISHED)'', ``(Unbound)''), queue sizes, and
                 window sizes (not all dialects) - in a fashion similar to
                 what netstat(1) reports; see the -T option description or
                 the description of the TCP/TPI field in OUTPUT FOR OTHER
                 PROGRAMS for more information on state, queue size, and
                 window size;

                 or the address or name of a UNIX domain socket, possibly
                 including a stream clone device name, a file system
                 object's path name, local and foreign kernel addresses,
                 socket pair information, and a bound vnode address;



                                   - 36 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



                 or the local and remote mount point names of an NFS file;

                 or ``STR'', followed by the stream name;

                 or a stream character device name, followed by ``->'' and
                 the stream name or a list of stream module names, separated
                 by ``->'';

                 or ``STR:'' followed by the SCO OpenServer stream device
                 and module names, separated by ``->'';

                 or system directory name, `` -- '', and as many components
                 of the path name as lsof can find in the kernel's name
                 cache for selected dialects (See the KERNEL NAME CACHE
                 section for more information.);

                 or ``PIPE->'', followed by a Solaris kernel pipe
                 destination address;

                 or ``COMMON:'', followed by the vnode device information
                 structure's device name, for a Solaris common vnode;

                 or the address family, followed by a slash (`/'), followed
                 by fourteen comma-separated bytes of a non-Internet raw
                 socket address;

                 or the HP-UX x.25 local address, followed by the virtual
                 connection number (if any), followed by the remote address
                 (if any);

                 or ``(dead)'' for disassociated Tru64 UNIX files -
                 typically terminal files that have been flagged with the
                 TIOCNOTTY ioctl and closed by daemons;

                 or ``rd=<offset>'' and ``wr=<offset>'' for the values of
                 the read and write offsets of a FIFO;

                 or ``clone n:/dev/event'' for SCO OpenServer file clones of
                 the /dev/event device, where n is the minor device number
                 of the file;

                 or ``(socketpair: n)'' for a Solaris 2.6, 8, 9  or 10 UNIX
                 domain socket, created by the socketpair(3N) network
                 function;

                 or ``no PCB'' for socket files that do not have a protocol
                 block associated with them, optionally followed by ``,
                 CANTSENDMORE'' if sending on the socket has been disabled,
                 or ``, CANTRCVMORE'' if receiving on the socket has been
                 disabled (e.g., by the shutdown(2) function);




                                   - 37 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



                 or the local and remote addresses of a Linux IPX socket
                 file in the form <net>:[<node>:]<port>, followed in
                 parentheses by the transmit and receive queue sizes, and
                 the connection state;

                 or ``dgram'' or ``stream'' for the type UnixWare 7.1.1 and
                 above in-kernel UNIX domain sockets, followed by a colon
                 (':') and the local path name when available, followed by
                 ``->'' and the remote path name or kernel socket address in
                 hexadecimal when available;

                 or the association value, association index, endpoint
                 value, local address, local port, remote address and remote
                 port for Linux SCTP sockets;

                 or ``protocol: '' followed by the Linux socket's protocol
                 attribute.

      For dialects that support a ``namefs'' file system, allowing one file
      to be attached to another with fattach(3C), lsof will add
      ``(FA:<address1><direction><address2>)'' to the NAME column.
      <address1> and <address2> are hexadecimal vnode addresses.
      <direction> will be ``<-'' if <address2> has been fattach'ed to this
      vnode whose address is <address1>; and ``->'' if <address1>, the vnode
      address of this vnode, has been fattach'ed to <address2>.  <address1>
      may be omitted if it already appears in the DEVICE column.

      Lsof may add two parenthetical notes to the NAME column for open
      Solaris 10 files: ``(?)'' if lsof considers the path name of
      questionable accuracy; and ``(deleted)'' if the -X option has been
      specified and lsof detects the open file's path name has been deleted.
      Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.) for more
      information on these NAME column additions.

 LOCKS
      Lsof can't adequately report the wide variety of UNIX dialect file
      locks in a single character.  What it reports in a single character is
      a compromise between the information it finds in the kernel and the
      limitations of the reporting format.

      Moreover, when a process holds several byte level locks on a file,
      lsof only reports the status of the first lock it encounters.  If it
      is a byte level lock, then the lock character will be reported in
      lower case - i.e., `r', `w', or `x' - rather than the upper case
      equivalent reported for a full file lock.

      Generally lsof can only report on locks held by local processes on
      local files.  When a local process sets a lock on a remotely mounted
      (e.g., NFS) file, the remote server host usually records the lock
      state.  One exception is Solaris - at some patch levels of 2.3, and in
      all versions above 2.4, the Solaris kernel records information on



                                   - 38 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      remote locks in local structures.

      Lsof has trouble reporting locks for some UNIX dialects.  Consult the
      BUGS section of this manual page or the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section
      gives its location.) for more information.

 OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS
      When the -F option is specified, lsof produces output that is suitable
      for processing by another program - e.g, an awk or Perl script, or a C
      program.

      Each unit of information is output in a field that is identified with
      a leading character and terminated by a NL (012) (or a NUL (000) if
      the 0 (zero) field identifier character is specified.) The data of the
      field follows immediately after the field identification character and
      extends to the field terminator.

      It is possible to think of field output as process and file sets.  A
      process set begins with a field whose identifier is `p' (for process
      IDentifier (PID)).  It extends to the beginning of the next PID field
      or the beginning of the first file set of the process, whichever comes
      first.  Included in the process set are fields that identify the
      command, the process group IDentification (PGID) number, the task
      (thread) ID (TID), and the user ID (UID) number or login name.

      A file set begins with a field whose identifier is `f' (for file
      descriptor).  It is followed by lines that describe the file's access
      mode, lock state, type, device, size, offset, inode, protocol, name
      and stream module names.  It extends to the beginning of the next file
      or process set, whichever comes first.

      When the NUL (000) field terminator has been selected with the 0
      (zero) field identifier character, lsof ends each process and file set
      with a NL (012) character.

      Lsof always produces one field, the PID (`p') field.  All other fields
      may be declared optionally in the field identifier character list that
      follows the -F option.  When a field selection character identifies an
      item lsof does not normally list - e.g., PPID, selected with -R -
      specification of the field character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also selects
      the listing of the item.

      It is entirely possible to select a set of fields that cannot easily
      be parsed - e.g., if the field descriptor field is not selected, it
      may be difficult to identify file sets.  To help you avoid this
      difficulty, lsof supports the -F option; it selects the output of all
      fields with NL terminators (the -F0 option pair selects the output of
      all fields with NUL terminators).  For compatibility reasons neither
      -F nor -F0 select the raw device field.





                                   - 39 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      These are the fields that lsof will produce.  The single character
      listed first is the field identifier.

           a    file access mode
           c    process command name (all characters from proc or
                user structure)
           C    file structure share count
           d    file's device character code
           D    file's major/minor device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
           f    file descriptor
           F    file structure address (0x<hexadecimal>)
           G    file flaGs (0x<hexadecimal>; names if +fg follows)
           g    process group ID
           i    file's inode number
           K    tasK ID
           k    link count
           l    file's lock status
           L    process login name
           m    marker between repeated output
           n    file name, comment, Internet address
           N    node identifier (ox<hexadecimal>
           o    file's offset (decimal)
           p    process ID (always selected)
           P    protocol name
           r    raw device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
           R    parent process ID
           s    file's size (decimal)
           S    file's stream identification
           t    file's type
           T    TCP/TPI information, identified by prefixes (the
                `=' is part of the prefix):
                    QR=<read queue size>
                    QS=<send queue size>
                    SO=<socket options and values> (not all dialects)
                    SS=<socket states> (not all dialects)
                    ST=<connection state>
                    TF=<TCP flags and values> (not all dialects)
                    WR=<window read size>  (not all dialects)
                    WW=<window write size>  (not all dialects)
                (TCP/TPI information isn't reported for all supported
                  UNIX dialects. The -h or -? help output for the
                  -T option will show what TCP/TPI reporting can be
                  requested.)
           u    process user ID
           z    Solaris 10 and higher zone name
           Z    SELinux security context (inhibited when SELinux is disabled)
           0    use NUL field terminator character in place of NL
           1-9  dialect-specific field identifiers (The output
                of -F? identifies the information to be found
                in dialect-specific fields.)




                                   - 40 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      You can get on-line help information on these characters and their
      descriptions by specifying the -F? option pair.  (Escape the `?'
      character as your shell requires.) Additional information on field
      content can be found in the OUTPUT section.

      As an example, ``-F pcfn'' will select the process ID (`p'), command
      name (`c'), file descriptor (`f') and file name (`n') fields with an
      NL field terminator character; ``-F pcfn0'' selects the same output
      with a NUL (000) field terminator character.

      Lsof doesn't produce all fields for every process or file set, only
      those that are available.  Some fields are mutually exclusive: file
      device characters and file major/minor device numbers; file inode
      number and protocol name; file name and stream identification; file
      size and offset.  One or the other member of these mutually exclusive
      sets will appear in field output, but not both.

      Normally lsof ends each field with a NL (012) character.  The 0 (zero)
      field identifier character may be specified to change the field
      terminator character to a NUL (000).  A NUL terminator may be easier
      to process with xargs (1), for example, or with programs whose quoting
      mechanisms may not easily cope with the range of characters in the
      field output.  When the NUL field terminator is in use, lsof ends each
      process and file set with a NL (012).

      Three aids to producing programs that can process lsof field output
      are included in the lsof distribution.  The first is a C header file,
      lsof_fields.h, that contains symbols for the field identification
      characters, indexes for storing them in a table, and explanation
      strings that may be compiled into programs.  Lsof uses this header
      file.

      The second aid is a set of sample scripts that process field output,
      written in awk, Perl 4, and Perl 5.  They're located in the scripts
      subdirectory of the lsof distribution.

      The third aid is the C library used for the lsof test suite.  The test
      suite is written in C and uses field output to validate the correct
      operation of lsof.  The library can be found in the tests/LTlib.c file
      of the lsof distribution.  The library uses the first aid, the
      lsof_fields.h header file.

 BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS
      Lsof can be blocked by some kernel functions that it uses - lstat(2),
      readlink(2), and stat(2).  These functions are stalled in the kernel,
      for example, when the hosts where mounted NFS file systems reside
      become inaccessible.

      Lsof attempts to break these blocks with timers and child processes,
      but the techniques are not wholly reliable.  When lsof does manage to
      break a block, it will report the break with an error message.  The



                                   - 41 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      messages may be suppressed with the -t and -w options.

      The default timeout value may be displayed with the -h or -? option,
      and it may be changed with the -S [t] option.  The minimum for t is
      two seconds, but you should avoid small values, since slow system
      responsiveness can cause short timeouts to expire unexpectedly and
      perhaps stop lsof before it can produce any output.

      When lsof has to break a block during its access of mounted file
      system information, it normally continues, although with less
      information available to display about open files.

      Lsof can also be directed to avoid the protection of timers and child
      processes when using the kernel functions that might block by
      specifying the -O option.  While this will allow lsof to start up with
      less overhead, it exposes lsof completely to the kernel situations
      that might block it.  Use this option cautiously.

 AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS
      You can use the -b option to tell lsof to avoid using kernel functions
      that would block.  Some cautions apply.

      First, using this option usually requires that your system supply
      alternate device numbers in place of the device numbers that lsof
      would normally obtain with the lstat(2) and stat(2) kernel functions.
      See the ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS section for more information on
      alternate device numbers.

      Second, you can't specify names for lsof to locate unless they're file
      system names.  This is because lsof needs to know the device and inode
      numbers of files listed with names in the lsof options, and the -b
      option prevents lsof from obtaining them.  Moreover, since lsof only
      has device numbers for the file systems that have alternates, its
      ability to locate files on file systems depends completely on the
      availability and accuracy of the alternates.  If no alternates are
      available, or if they're incorrect, lsof won't be able to locate files
      on the named file systems.

      Third, if the names of your file system directories that lsof obtains
      from your system's mount table are symbolic links, lsof won't be able
      to resolve the links.  This is because the -b option causes lsof to
      avoid the kernel readlink(2) function it uses to resolve symbolic
      links.

      Finally, using the -b option causes lsof to issue warning messages
      when it needs to use the kernel functions that the -b option directs
      it to avoid.  You can suppress these messages by specifying the -w
      option, but if you do, you won't see the alternate device numbers
      reported in the warning messages.





                                   - 42 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



 ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS
      On some dialects, when lsof has to break a block because it can't get
      information about a mounted file system via the lstat(2) and stat(2)
      kernel functions, or because you specified the -b option, lsof can
      obtain some of the information it needs - the device number and
      possibly the file system type - from the system mount table.  When
      that is possible, lsof will report the device number it obtained.
      (You can suppress the report by specifying the -w option.)

      You can assist this process if your mount table is supported with an
      /etc/mtab or /etc/mnttab file that contains an options field by adding
      a ``dev=xxxx'' field for mount points that do not have one in their
      options strings.  Note: you must be able to edit the file - i.e., some
      mount tables like recent Solaris /etc/mnttab or Linux /proc/mounts are
      read-only and can't be modified.

      You may also be able to supply device numbers using the +m and +m m
      options, provided they are supported by your dialect.  Check the
      output of lsof's -h or -? options to see if the +m and +m m options
      are available.

      The ``xxxx'' portion of the field is the hexadecimal value of the file
      system's device number.  (Consult the st_dev field of the output of
      the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the appropriate values for your
      file systems.) Here's an example from a Sun Solaris 2.6 /etc/mnttab
      for a file system remotely mounted via NFS:

           nfs  ignore,noquota,dev=2a40001

      There's an advantage to having ``dev=xxxx'' entries in your mount
      table file, especially for file systems that are mounted from remote
      NFS servers.  When a remote server crashes and you want to identify
      its users by running lsof on one of its clients, lsof probably won't
      be able to get output from the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the
      file system.  If it can obtain the file system's device number from
      the mount table, it will be able to display the files open on the
      crashed NFS server.

      Some dialects that do not use an ASCII /etc/mtab or /etc/mnttab file
      for the mount table may still provide an alternative device number in
      their internal mount tables.  This includes AIX, Apple Darwin,
      FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, and Tru64 UNIX.  Lsof knows how to obtain
      the alternative device number for these dialects and uses it when its
      attempt to lstat(2) or stat(2) the file system is blocked.

      If you're not sure your dialect supplies alternate device numbers for
      file systems from its mount table, use this lsof incantation to see if
      it reports any alternate device numbers:

           lsof -b




                                   - 43 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      Look for standard error file warning messages that begin ``assuming
      "dev=xxxx" from ...''.

 KERNEL NAME CACHE
      Lsof is able to examine the kernel's name cache or use other kernel
      facilities (e.g., the ADVFS 4.x tag_to_path() function under Tru64
      UNIX) on some dialects for most file system types, excluding AFS, and
      extract recently used path name components from it.  (AFS file system
      path lookups don't use the kernel's name cache; some Solaris VxFS file
      system operations apparently don't use it, either.)

      Lsof reports the complete paths it finds in the NAME column.  If lsof
      can't report all components in a path, it reports in the NAME column
      the file system name, followed by a space, two `-' characters, another
      space, and the name components it has located, separated by the `/'
      character.

      When lsof is run in repeat mode - i.e., with the -r option specified -
      the extent to which it can report path name components for the same
      file may vary from cycle to cycle.  That's because other running
      processes can cause the kernel to remove entries from its name cache
      and replace them with others.

      Lsof's use of the kernel name cache to identify the paths of files can
      lead it to report incorrect components under some circumstances.  This
      can happen when the kernel name cache uses device and node number as a
      key (e.g., SCO OpenServer) and a key on a rapidly changing file system
      is reused.  If the UNIX dialect's kernel doesn't purge the name cache
      entry for a file when it is unlinked, lsof may find a reference to the
      wrong entry in the cache.  The lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its
      location.) has more information on this situation.

      Lsof can report path name components for these dialects:

           FreeBSD
           HP-UX
           Linux
           NetBSD
           NEXTSTEP
           OpenBSD
           OPENSTEP
           SCO OpenServer
           SCO|Caldera UnixWare
           Solaris
           Tru64 UNIX

      Lsof can't report path name components for these dialects:

           AIX





                                   - 44 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      If you want to know why lsof can't report path name components for
      some dialects, see the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

 DEVICE CACHE FILE
      Examining all members of the /dev (or /devices) node tree with stat(2)
      functions can be time consuming.  What's more, the information that
      lsof needs - device number, inode number, and path - rarely changes.

      Consequently, lsof normally maintains an ASCII text file of cached
      /dev (or /devices) information (exception: the /proc-based Linux lsof
      where it's not needed.) The local system administrator who builds lsof
      can control the way the device cache file path is formed, selecting
      from these options:

           Path from the -D option;
           Path from an environment variable;
           System-wide path;
           Personal path (the default);
           Personal path, modified by an environment variable.

      Consult the output of the -h, -D? , or -? help options for the current
      state of device cache support.  The help output lists the default
      read-mode device cache file path that is in effect for the current
      invocation of lsof.  The -D? option output lists the read-only and
      write device cache file paths, the names of any applicable environment
      variables, and the personal device cache path format.

      Lsof can detect that the current device cache file has been
      accidentally or maliciously modified by integrity checks, including
      the computation and verification of a sixteen bit Cyclic Redundancy
      Check (CRC) sum on the file's contents.  When lsof senses something
      wrong with the file, it issues a warning and attempts to remove the
      current cache file and create a new copy, but only to a path that the
      process can legitimately write.

      The path from which a lsof process may attempt to read a device cache
      file may not be the same as the path to which it can legitimately
      write.  Thus when lsof senses that it needs to update the device cache
      file, it may choose a different path for writing it from the path from
      which it read an incorrect or outdated version.

      If available, the -Dr option will inhibit the writing of a new device
      cache file.  (It's always available when specified without a path name
      argument.)

      When a new device is added to the system, the device cache file may
      need to be recreated.  Since lsof compares the mtime of the device
      cache file with the mtime and ctime of the /dev (or /devices)
      directory, it usually detects that a new device has been added; in
      that case lsof issues a warning message and attempts to rebuild the
      device cache file.



                                   - 45 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      Whenever lsof writes a device cache file, it sets its ownership to the
      real UID of the executing process, and its permission modes to 0600,
      this restricting its reading and writing to the file's owner.

 LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS
      Two permissions of the lsof executable affect its ability to access
      device cache files.  The permissions are set by the local system
      administrator when lsof is installed.

      The first and rarer permission is setuid-root.  It comes into effect
      when lsof is executed; its effective UID is then root, while its real
      (i.e., that of the logged-on user) UID is not.  The lsof distribution
      recommends that versions for these dialects run setuid-root.

           HP-UX 11.11 and 11.23
           Linux

      The second and more common permission is setgid.  It comes into effect
      when the effective group IDentification number (GID) of the lsof
      process is set to one that can access kernel memory devices - e.g.,
      ``kmem'', ``sys'', or ``system''.

      An lsof process that has setgid permission usually surrenders the
      permission after it has accessed the kernel memory devices.  When it
      does that, lsof can allow more liberal device cache path formations.
      The lsof distribution recommends that versions for these dialects run
      setgid and be allowed to surrender setgid permission.

           AIX 5.[12] and 5.3-ML1
           Apple Darwin 7.x Power Macintosh systems
           FreeBSD 4.x, 4.1x, 5.x and [6789].x for x86-based systems
           FreeBSD 5.x and [6789].x for Alpha, AMD64 and Sparc64-based
               systems
           HP-UX 11.00
           NetBSD 1.[456], 2.x and 3.x for Alpha, x86, and SPARC-based
               systems
           NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for NEXTSTEP architectures
           OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.[0-9] for x86-based systems
           OPENSTEP 4.x
           SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.6 for x86-based systems
           SCO|Caldera UnixWare 7.1.4 for x86-based systems
           Solaris 2.6, 8, 9 and 10
           Tru64 UNIX 5.1

      (Note: lsof for AIX 5L and above needs setuid-root permission if its
      -X option is used.)

      Lsof for these dialects does not support a device cache, so the
      permissions given to the executable don't apply to the device cache
      file.




                                   - 46 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



           Linux

 DEVICE CACHE FILE PATH FROM THE -D OPTION
      The -D option provides limited means for specifying the device cache
      file path.  Its ? function will report the read-only and write device
      cache file paths that lsof will use.

      When the -D b, r, and u functions are available, you can use them to
      request that the cache file be built in a specific location (b[path]);
      read but not rebuilt (r[path]); or read and rebuilt (u[path]).  The b,
      r, and u functions are restricted under some conditions.  They are
      restricted when the lsof process is setuid-root.  The path specified
      with the r function is always read-only, even when it is available.

      The b, r, and u functions are also restricted when the lsof process
      runs setgid and lsof doesn't surrender the setgid permission.  (See
      the LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS section for
      a list of implementations that normally don't surrender their setgid
      permission.)

      A further -D function, i (for ignore), is always available.

      When available, the b function tells lsof to read device information
      from the kernel with the stat(2) function and build a device cache
      file at the indicated path.

      When available, the r function tells lsof to read the device cache
      file, but not update it.  When a path argument accompanies -Dr, it
      names the device cache file path.  The r function is always available
      when it is specified without a path name argument.  If lsof is not
      running setuid-root and surrenders its setgid permission, a path name
      argument may accompany the r function.

      When available, the u function tells lsof to attempt to read and use
      the device cache file.  If it can't read the file, or if it finds the
      contents of the file incorrect or outdated, it will read information
      from the kernel, and attempt to write an updated version of the device
      cache file, but only to a path it considers legitimate for the lsof
      process effective and real UIDs.

 DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE
      Lsof's second choice for the device cache file is the contents of the
      LSOFDEVCACHE environment variable.  It avoids this choice if the lsof
      process is setuid-root, or the real UID of the process is root.

      A further restriction applies to a device cache file path taken from
      the LSOFDEVCACHE environment variable: lsof will not write a device
      cache file to the path if the lsof process doesn't surrender its
      setgid permission.  (See the LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE
      FILE ACCESS section for information on implementations that don't
      surrender their setgid permission.)



                                   - 47 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      The local system administrator can disable the use of the LSOFDEVCACHE
      environment variable or change its name when building lsof.  Consult
      the output of -D? for the environment variable's name.

 SYSTEM-WIDE DEVICE CACHE PATH
      The local system administrator may choose to have a system-wide device
      cache file when building lsof.  That file will generally be
      constructed by a special system administration procedure when the
      system is booted or when the contents of /dev or /devices) changes.
      If defined, it is lsof's third device cache file path choice.

      You can tell that a system-wide device cache file is in effect for
      your local installation by examining the lsof help option output -
      i.e., the output from the -h or -? option.

      Lsof will never write to the system-wide device cache file path by
      default.  It must be explicitly named with a -D function in a
      root-owned procedure.  Once the file has been written, the procedure
      must change its permission modes to 0644 (owner-read and owner-write,
      group-read, and other-read).

 PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH (DEFAULT)
      The default device cache file path of the lsof distribution is one
      recorded in the home directory of the real UID that executes lsof.
      Added to the home directory is a second path component of the form
      .lsof_hostname.

      This is lsof's fourth device cache file path choice, and is usually
      the default.  If a system-wide device cache file path was defined when
      lsof was built, this fourth choice will be applied when lsof can't
      find the system-wide device cache file.  This is the only time lsof
      uses two paths when reading the device cache file.

      The hostname part of the second component is the base name of the
      executing host, as returned by gethostname(2).  The base name is
      defined to be the characters preceding the first `.' in the
      gethostname(2) output, or all the gethostname(2) output if it contains
      no `.'.

      The device cache file belongs to the user ID and is readable and
      writable by the user ID alone - i.e., its modes are 0600.  Each
      distinct real user ID on a given host that executes lsof has a
      distinct device cache file.  The hostname part of the path
      distinguishes device cache files in an NFS-mounted home directory into
      which device cache files are written from several different hosts.

      The personal device cache file path formed by this method represents a
      device cache file that lsof will attempt to read, and will attempt to
      write should it not exist or should its contents be incorrect or
      outdated.




                                   - 48 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      The -Dr option without a path name argument will inhibit the writing
      of a new device cache file.

      The -D? option will list the format specification for constructing the
      personal device cache file.  The conversions used in the format
      specification are described in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof
      distribution.

 MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH
      If this option is defined by the local system administrator when lsof
      is built, the LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable contents may be used
      to add a component of the personal device cache file path.

      The LSOFPERSDCPATH variable contents are inserted in the path at the
      place marked by the local system administrator with the ``%p''
      conversion in the HASPERSDC format specification of the dialect's
      machine.h header file.  (It's placed right after the home directory in
      the default lsof distribution.)

      Thus, for example, if LSOFPERSDCPATH contains ``LSOF'', the home
      directory is ``/Homes/abe'', the host name is
      ``lsof.itap.purdue.edu'', and the HASPERSDC format is the default
      (``%h/%p.lsof_%L''), the modified personal device cache file path is:

           /Homes/abe/LSOF/.lsof_vic

      The LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable is ignored when the lsof
      process is setuid-root or when the real UID of the process is root.

      Lsof will not write to a modified personal device cache file path if
      the lsof process doesn't surrender setgid permission.  (See the LSOF
      PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS section for a list of
      implementations that normally don't surrender their setgid
      permission.)

      If, for example, you want to create a sub-directory of personal device
      cache file paths by using the LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable to
      name it, and lsof doesn't surrender its setgid permission, you will
      have to allow lsof to create device cache files at the standard
      personal path and move them to your subdirectory with shell commands.

      The local system administrator may: disable this option when lsof is
      built; change the name of the environment variable from LSOFPERSDCPATH
      to something else; change the HASPERSDC format to include the personal
      path component in another place; or exclude the personal path
      component entirely.  Consult the output of the -D? option for the
      environment variable's name and the HASPERSDC format specification.

 DIAGNOSTICS
      Errors are identified with messages on the standard error file.




                                   - 49 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      Lsof returns a one (1) if any error was detected, including the
      failure to locate command names, file names, Internet addresses or
      files, login names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, or UIDs it was asked to
      list.  If the -V option is specified, lsof will indicate the search
      items it failed to list.

      It returns a zero (0) if no errors were detected and if it was able to
      list some information about all the specified search arguments.

      When lsof cannot open access to /dev (or /devices) or one of its
      subdirectories, or get information on a file in them with stat(2), it
      issues a warning message and continues.  That lsof will issue warning
      messages about inaccessible files in /dev (or /devices) is indicated
      in its help output - requested with the -h or >B -?  options -  with
      the message:

           Inaccessible /dev warnings are enabled.

      The warning message may be suppressed with the -w option.  It may also
      have been suppressed by the system administrator when lsof was
      compiled by the setting of the WARNDEVACCESS definition.  In this
      case, the output from the help options will include the message:

           Inaccessible /dev warnings are disabled.

      Inaccessible device warning messages usually disappear after lsof has
      created a working device cache file.

 EXAMPLES
      For a more extensive set of examples, documented more fully, see the
      00QUICKSTART file of the lsof distribution.

      To list all open files, use:

           lsof

      To list all open Internet, x.25 (HP-UX), and UNIX domain files, use:

           lsof -i -U

      To list all open IPv4 network files in use by the process whose PID is
      1234, use:

           lsof -i 4 -a -p 1234

      Presuming the UNIX dialect supports IPv6, to list only open IPv6
      network files, use:

           lsof -i 6





                                   - 50 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      To list all files using any protocol on ports 513, 514, or 515 of host
      wonderland.cc.purdue.edu, use:

           lsof -i @wonderland.cc.purdue.edu:513-515

      To list all files using any protocol on any port of mace.cc.purdue.edu
      (cc.purdue.edu is the default domain), use:

           lsof -i @mace

      To list all open files for login name ``abe'', or user ID 1234, or
      process 456, or process 123, or process 789, use:

           lsof -p 456,123,789 -u 1234,abe

      To list all open files on device /dev/hd4, use:

           lsof /dev/hd4

      To find the process that has /u/abe/foo open, use:

           lsof /u/abe/foo

      To send a SIGHUP to the processes that have /u/abe/bar open, use:

           kill -HUP `lsof -t /u/abe/bar`

      To find any open file, including an open UNIX domain socket file, with
      the name /dev/log, use:

           lsof /dev/log

      To find processes with open files on the NFS file system named
      /nfs/mount/point whose server is inaccessible, and presuming your
      mount table supplies the device number for /nfs/mount/point, use:

           lsof -b /nfs/mount/point

      To do the preceding search with warning messages suppressed, use:

           lsof -bw /nfs/mount/point

      To ignore the device cache file, use:

           lsof -Di

      To obtain PID and command name field output for each process, file
      descriptor, file device number, and file inode number for each file of
      each process, use:





                                   - 51 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



           lsof -FpcfDi

      To list the files at descriptors 1 and 3 of every process running the
      lsof command for login ID ``abe'' every 10 seconds, use:

           lsof -c lsof -a -d 1 -d 3 -u abe -r10

      To list the current working directory of processes running a command
      that is exactly four characters long and has an 'o' or 'O' in
      character three, use this regular expression form of the -c c option:

           lsof -c /^..o.$/i -a -d cwd

      To find an IP version 4 socket file by its associated numeric dot-form
      address, use:

           lsof -i@128.210.15.17

      To find an IP version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports
      IPv6) by its associated numeric colon-form address, use:

           lsof -i@[0:1:2:3:4:5:6:7]

      To find an IP version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports
      IPv6) by an associated numeric colon-form address that has a run of
      zeroes in it - e.g., the loop-back address - use:

           lsof -i@[::1]

      To obtain a repeat mode marker line that contains the current time,
      use:

           lsof -rm====%T====

      To add spaces to the previous marker line, use:

           lsof -r "m==== %T ===="

 BUGS
      Since lsof reads kernel memory in its search for open files, rapid
      changes in kernel memory may produce unpredictable results.

      When a file has multiple record locks, the lock status character
      (following the file descriptor) is derived from a test of the first
      lock structure, not from any combination of the individual record
      locks that might be described by multiple lock structures.

      Lsof can't search for files with restrictive access permissions by
      name unless it is installed with root set-UID permission.  Otherwise
      it is limited to searching for files to which its user or its set-GID
      group (if any) has access permission.



                                   - 52 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      The display of the destination address of a raw socket (e.g., for
      ping) depends on the UNIX operating system.  Some dialects store the
      destination address in the raw socket's protocol control block, some
      do not.

      Lsof can't always represent Solaris device numbers in the same way
      that ls(1) does.  For example, the major and minor device numbers that
      the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions report for the directory on which
      CD-ROM files are mounted (typically /cdrom) are not the same as the
      ones that it reports for the device on which CD-ROM files are mounted
      (typically /dev/sr0).  (Lsof reports the directory numbers.)

      The support for /proc file systems is available only for BSD and Tru64
      UNIX dialects, Linux, and dialects derived from SYSV R4 - e.g.,
      FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris, UnixWare.

      Some /proc file items - device number, inode number, and file size -
      are unavailable in some dialects.  Searching for files in a /proc file
      system may require that the full path name be specified.

      No text (txt) file descriptors are displayed for Linux processes.  All
      entries for files other than the current working directory, the root
      directory, and numerical file descriptors are labeled mem descriptors.

      Lsof can't search for Tru64 UNIX named pipes by name, because their
      kernel implementation of lstat(2) returns an improper device number
      for a named pipe.

      Lsof can't report fully or correctly on HP-UX 9.01, 10.20, and 11.00
      locks because of insufficient access to kernel data or errors in the
      kernel data.  See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)
      for details.

      The AIX SMT file type is a fabrication.  It's made up for file
      structures whose type (15) isn't defined in the AIX
      /usr/include/sys/file.h header file.  One way to create such file
      structures is to run X clients with the DISPLAY variable set to
      ``:0.0''.

      The +|-f[cfgGn] option is not supported under /proc-based Linux lsof,
      because it doesn't read kernel structures from kernel memory.

 ENVIRONMENT
      Lsof may access these environment variables.

      LANG              defines a language locale.  See setlocale(3) for the
                        names of other variables that can be used in place
                        of LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_TYPE, etc.

      LSOFDEVCACHE      defines the path to a device cache file.  See the
                        DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE



                                   - 53 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



                        section for more information.

      LSOFPERSDCPATH    defines the middle component of a modified personal
                        device cache file path.  See the MODIFIED PERSONAL
                        DEVICE CACHE PATH section for more information.

 FAQ
      Frequently-asked questions and their answers (an FAQ) are available in
      the 00FAQ file of the lsof distribution.

      That file is also available via anonymous ftp from
      lsof.itap.purdue.edu at pub/tools/unix/lsofFAQ.  The URL is:

           ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof/FAQ

 FILES
      /dev/kmem         kernel virtual memory device

      /dev/mem          physical memory device

      /dev/swap         system paging device

      .lsof_hostname    lsof's device cache file (The suffix, hostname, is
                        the first component of the host's name returned by
                        gethostname(2).)

 AUTHORS
      Lsof was written by Victor A. Abell <abe@purdue.edu> of Purdue
      University.  Many others have contributed to lsof.  They're listed in
      the 00CREDITS file of the lsof distribution.

 DISTRIBUTION
      The latest distribution of lsof is available via anonymous ftp from
      the host lsof.itap.purdue.edu.  You'll find the lsof distribution in
      the pub/tools/unix/lsof directory.

      You can also use this URL:

           ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof

      Lsof is also mirrored elsewhere.  When you access lsof.itap.purdue.edu
      and change to its pub/tools/unix/lsof directory, you'll be given a
      list of some mirror sites.  The pub/tools/unix/lsof directory also
      contains a more complete list in its mirrors file.  Use mirrors with
      caution - not all mirrors always have the latest lsof revision.

      Some pre-compiled Lsof executables are available on
      lsof.itap.purdue.edu, but their use is discouraged - it's better that
      you build your own from the sources.  If you feel you must use a
      pre-compiled executable, please read the cautions that appear in the
      README files of the pub/tools/unix/lsof/binaries subdirectories and in



                                   - 54 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017






 LSOF(8)                                                             LSOF(8)
                                Revision-4.87



      the 00* files of the distribution.

      More information on the lsof distribution can be found in its
      README.lsof_<version> file.  If you intend to get the lsof
      distribution and build it, please read README.lsof_<version> and the
      other 00* files of the distribution before sending questions to the
      author.

 SEE ALSO
      Not all the following manual pages may exist in every UNIX dialect to
      which lsof has been ported.

      access(2), awk(1), crash(1), fattach(3C), ff(1), fstat(8), fuser(1),
      gethostname(2), isprint(3), kill(1), localtime(3), lstat(2),
      modload(8), mount(8), netstat(1), ofiles(8L), perl(1), ps(1),
      readlink(2), setlocale(3), stat(2), strftime(3), time(2), uname(1).






































                                   - 55 -     Formatted:  September 24, 2017