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 DES_CRYPT(3)                                                   DES_CRYPT(3)




 NAME
      des_read_password, des_read_2password, des_string_to_key,
      des_string_to_2key, des_read_pw_string, des_random_key, des_set_key,
      des_key_sched, des_ecb_encrypt, des_3ecb_encrypt, des_cbc_encrypt,
      des_3cbc_encrypt, des_pcbc_encrypt, des_cfb_encrypt, des_ofb_encrypt,
      des_cbc_cksum, des_quad_cksum, des_enc_read, des_enc_write,
      des_set_odd_parity, des_is_weak_key, crypt - (non USA) DES encryption

 SYNOPSIS
      #include <des.h>

      int des_read_password(key,prompt,verify)
      des_cblock *key;
      char *prompt;
      int verify;

      int des_read_2password(key1,key2,prompt,verify)
      des_cblock *key1,*key2;
      char *prompt;
      int verify;

      int des_string_to_key(str,key)
      char *str;
      des_cblock *key;

      int des_string_to_2keys(str,key1,key2)
      char *str;
      des_cblock *key1,*key2;

      int des_read_pw_string(buf,length,prompt,verify)
      char *buf;
      int length;
      char *prompt;
      int verify;

      int des_random_key(key)
      des_cblock *key;

      int des_set_key(key,schedule)
      des_cblock *key;
      des_key_schedule schedule;

      int des_key_sched(key,schedule)
      des_cblock *key;
      des_key_schedule schedule;

      int des_ecb_encrypt(input,output,schedule,encrypt)
      des_cblock *input;
      des_cblock *output;
      des_key_schedule schedule;
      int encrypt;



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 DES_CRYPT(3)                                                    DES_CRYPT(3)




      int des_3ecb_encrypt(input,output,ks1,ks2,encrypt)
      des_cblock *input;
      des_cblock *output;
      des_key_schedule ks1,ks2;
      int encrypt;

      int des_cbc_encrypt(input,output,length,schedule,ivec,encrypt)
      des_cblock *input;
      des_cblock *output;
      long length;
      des_key_schedule schedule;
      des_cblock *ivec;
      int encrypt;

      int des_3cbc_encrypt(input,output,length,sk1,sk2,ivec1,ivec2,encrypt)
      des_cblock *input;
      des_cblock *output;
      long length;
      des_key_schedule sk1;
      des_key_schedule sk2;
      des_cblock *ivec1;
      des_cblock *ivec2;
      int encrypt;

      int des_pcbc_encrypt(input,output,length,schedule,ivec,encrypt)
      des_cblock *input;
      des_cblock *output;
      long length;
      des_key_schedule schedule;
      des_cblock *ivec;
      int encrypt;

      int des_cfb_encrypt(input,output,numbits,length,schedule,ivec,encrypt)
      unsigned char *input;
      unsigned char *output;
      int numbits;
      long length;
      des_key_schedule schedule;
      des_cblock *ivec;
      int encrypt;

      int des_ofb_encrypt(input,output,numbits,length,schedule,ivec)
      unsigned char *input,*output;
      int numbits;
      long length;
      des_key_schedule schedule;
      des_cblock *ivec;

      unsigned long des_cbc_cksum(input,output,length,schedule,ivec)
      des_cblock *input;
      des_cblock *output;



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 DES_CRYPT(3)                                                    DES_CRYPT(3)




      long length;
      des_key_schedule schedule;
      des_cblock *ivec;

      unsigned long des_quad_cksum(input,output,length,out_count,seed)
      des_cblock *input;
      des_cblock *output;
      long length;
      int out_count;
      des_cblock *seed;

      int des_check_key;

      int des_enc_read(fd,buf,len,sched,iv)
      int fd;
      char *buf;
      int len;
      des_key_schedule sched;
      des_cblock *iv;

      int des_enc_write(fd,buf,len,sched,iv)
      int fd;
      char *buf;
      int len;
      des_key_schedule sched;
      des_cblock *iv;

      extern int des_rw_mode;

      void des_set_odd_parity(key)
      des_cblock *key;

      int des_is_weak_key(key)
      des_cblock *key;

      char *crypt(passwd,salt)
      char *passwd;
      char *salt;

 DESCRIPTION
      This library contains a fast implementation of the DES encryption
      algorithm.

      There are two phases to the use of DES encryption.  The first is the
      generation of a des_key_schedule from a key, the second is the actual
      encryption.  A des key is of type des_cblock. This type is made from 8
      characters with odd parity.  The least significant bit in the
      character is the parity bit.  The key schedule is an expanded form of
      the key; it is used to speed the encryption process.





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 DES_CRYPT(3)                                                   DES_CRYPT(3)




      des_read_password writes the string specified by prompt to the
      standard output, turns off echo and reads an input string from
      standard input until terminated with a newline.  If verify is non-
      zero, it prompts and reads the input again and verifies that both
      entered passwords are the same.  The entered string is converted into
      a des key by using the des_string_to_key routine.  The new key is
      placed in the des_cblock that was passed (by reference) to the
      routine.  If there were no errors, des_read_password returns 0, -1 is
      returned if there was a terminal error and 1 is returned for any other
      error.

      des_read_2password operates in the same way as des_read_password
      except that it generates 2 keys by using the des_string_to_2key
      function.

      des_read_pw_string is called by des_read_password to read and verify a
      string from a terminal device.  The string is returned in buf. The
      size of buf is passed to the routine via the length parameter.

      des_string_to_key converts a string into a valid des key.

      des_string_to_2key converts a string into 2 valid des keys.  This
      routine is best suited for used to generate keys for use with
      des_3ecb_encrypt.

      des_random_key returns a random key that is made of a combination of
      process id, time and an increasing counter.

      Before a des key can be used it is converted into a des_key_schedule
      via the des_set_key routine.  If the des_check_key flag is non-zero,
      des_set_key will check that the key passed is of odd parity and is not
      a week or semi-weak key.  If the parity is wrong, then -1 is returned.
      If the key is a weak key, then -2 is returned.  If an error is
      returned, the key schedule is not generated.

      des_key_sched is another name for the des_set_key function.

      The following routines mostly operate on an input and output stream of
      des_cblock's.

      des_ecb_encrypt is the basic DES encryption routine that encrypts or
      decrypts a single 8-byte des_cblock in electronic code book mode.  It
      always transforms the input data, pointed to by input, into the output
      data, pointed to by the output argument.  If the encrypt argument is
      non-zero (DES_ENCRYPT), the input (cleartext) is encrypted in to the
      output (ciphertext) using the key_schedule specified by the schedule
      argument, previously set via des_set_key. If encrypt is zero
      (DES_DECRYPT), the input (now ciphertext) is decrypted into the output
      (now cleartext).  Input and output may overlap.  No meaningful value
      is returned.




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 DES_CRYPT(3)                                                   DES_CRYPT(3)




      des_3ecb_encrypt encrypts/decrypts the input block by using triple ecb
      DES encryption.  This involves encrypting the input with ks1,
      decryption with the key schedule ks2, and then encryption with the
      first again.  This routine greatly reduces the chances of brute force
      breaking of DES and has the advantage of if ks1 and ks2 are the same,
      it is equivalent to just encryption using ecb mode and ks1 as the key.

      des_cbc_encrypt encrypts/decrypts using the cipher-block-chaining mode
      of DES.  If the encrypt argument is non-zero, the routine cipher-
      block-chain encrypts the cleartext data pointed to by the input
      argument into the ciphertext pointed to by the output argument, using
      the key schedule provided by the schedule argument, and initialisation
      vector provided by the ivec argument.  If the length argument is not
      an integral multiple of eight bytes, the last block is copied to a
      temporary area and zero filled.  The output is always an integral
      multiple of eight bytes.  To make multiple cbc encrypt calls on a
      large amount of data appear to be one des_cbc_encrypt call, the ivec
      of subsequent calls should be the last 8 bytes of the output.

      des_3cbc_encrypt encrypts/decrypts the input block by using triple cbc
      DES encryption.  This involves encrypting the input with key schedule
      ks1, decryption with the key schedule ks2, and then encryption with
      the first again.  2 initialisation vectors are required, ivec1 and
      ivec2. Unlike des_cbc_encrypt, these initialisation vectors are
      modified by the subroutine.  This routine greatly reduces the chances
      of brute force breaking of DES and has the advantage of if ks1 and ks2
      are the same, it is equivalent to just encryption using cbc mode and
      ks1 as the key.

      des_pcbc_encrypt encrypt/decrypts using a modified block chaining
      mode.  It provides better error propagation characteristics than cbc
      encryption.

      des_cfb_encrypt encrypt/decrypts using cipher feedback mode.  This
      method takes an array of characters as input and outputs and array of
      characters.  It does not require any padding to 8 character groups.
      Note: the ivec variable is changed and the new changed value needs to
      be passed to the next call to this function.  Since this function runs
      a complete DES ecb encryption per numbits, this function is only
      suggested for use when sending small numbers of characters.

      des_ofb_encrypt encrypt using output feedback mode.  This method takes
      an array of characters as input and outputs and array of characters.
      It does not require any padding to 8 character groups.  Note: the ivec
      variable is changed and the new changed value needs to be passed to
      the next call to this function.  Since this function runs a complete
      DES ecb encryption per numbits, this function is only suggested for
      use when sending small numbers of characters.

      des_cbc_cksum produces an 8 byte checksum based on the input stream
      (via cbc encryption).  The last 4 bytes of the checksum is returned



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 DES_CRYPT(3)                                                   DES_CRYPT(3)




      and the complete 8 bytes is placed in output.

      des_quad_cksum returns a 4 byte checksum from the input bytes.  The
      algorithm can be iterated over the input, depending on out_count, 1,
      2, 3 or 4 times.  If output is non-NULL, the 8 bytes generated by each
      pass are written into output.

      des_enc_write is used to write len bytes to file descriptor fd from
      buffer buf. The data is encrypted via pcbc_encrypt (default) using
      sched for the key and iv as a starting vector.  The actual data send
      down fd consists of 4 bytes (in network byte order) containing the
      length of the following encrypted data.  The encrypted data then
      follows, padded with random data out to a multiple of 8 bytes.

      des_enc_read is used to read len bytes from file descriptor fd into
      buffer buf. The data being read from fd is assumed to have come from
      des_enc_write and is decrypted using sched for the key schedule and iv
      for the initial vector.  The des_enc_read/des_enc_write pair can be
      used to read/write to files, pipes and sockets.  I have used them in
      implementing a version of rlogin in which all data is encrypted.

      des_rw_mode is used to specify the encryption mode to use with
      des_enc_read and des_end_write. If set to DES_PCBC_MODE (the default),
      des_pcbc_encrypt is used.  If set to DES_CBC_MODE des_cbc_encrypt is
      used.  These two routines and the variable are not part of the normal
      MIT library.

      des_set_odd_parity sets the parity of the passed key to odd.  This
      routine is not part of the standard MIT library.

      des_is_weak_key returns 1 is the passed key is a weak key (pick again
      :-), 0 if it is ok.  This routine is not part of the standard MIT
      library.

      crypt is a replacement for the normal system crypt.  It is much faster
      than the system crypt.

 FILES
      /usr/include/des.h
      /usr/lib/libdes.a

      The encryption routines have been tested on 16bit, 32bit and 64bit
      machines of various endian and even works under VMS.

 BUGS
      If you think this manual is sparse, read the des_crypt(3) manual from
      the MIT kerberos (or bones outside of the USA) distribution.

      des_cfb_encrypt and des_ofb_encrypt operates on input of 8 bits.  What
      this means is that if you set numbits to 12, and length to 2, the
      first 12 bits will come from the 1st input byte and the low half of



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 DES_CRYPT(3)                                                   DES_CRYPT(3)




      the second input byte.  The second 12 bits will have the low 8 bits
      taken from the 3rd input byte and the top 4 bits taken from the 4th
      input byte.  The same holds for output.  This function has been
      implemented this way because most people will be using a multiple of 8
      and because once you get into pulling bytes input bytes apart things
      get ugly!

      des_read_pw_string is the most machine/OS dependent function and
      normally generates the most problems when porting this code.

      des_string_to_key is probably different from the MIT version since
      there are lots of fun ways to implement one-way encryption of a text
      string.

      The routines are optimised for 32 bit machines and so are not
      efficient on IBM PCs.

      NOTE: extensive work has been done on this library since this document
      was origionally written.  Please try to read des.doc from the libdes
      distribution since it is far more upto date and documents more of the
      functions.  Libdes is now also being shipped as part of SSLeay, a
      general cryptographic library that amonst other things implements
      netscapes SSL protocoll.  The most recent version can be found in
      SSLeay distributions.

 AUTHOR
      Eric Young (eay@mincom.oz.au or eay@psych.psy.uq.oz.au)



























                                    - 7 -       Formatted:  January 26, 2021