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 wwwstat(1)                                                       wwwstat(1)
                              03 November 1996



 NAME
      wwwstat - summarize WWW server (httpd) access statistics

 SYNOPSIS
      wwwstat [-F system_config] [-f user_config] [options...] [--] [ summary
              | logfile | + | - ]...

 DESCRIPTION
      wwwstat reads a sequence of httpd common logfile format (CLF)
      access_log files and/or prior wwwstat output summary files and/or the
      standard input and outputs a summary of the access statistics in HTML.
      Since wwwstat does not make any changes to the input files or write
      any files in the server directories, it can be run by any user with
      read access to the input logfile(s) and summary file(s).  This allows
      people other than the webmaster to run specialized analyses of just
      the things they are interested in summarizing.  wwwstat provides World
      Wide Web (WWW) access statistics, which does not necessarily
      correspond to statistics on individual users. It counts the number of
      HTTP requests received by the server and the amount of bytes
      transmitted in response to those requests, according to what is in the
      logfile(s), and outputs those counts as tables broken down by category
      of request.  wwwstat output summaries can be read by gwstat to produce
      fancy graphs of the summarized statistics. The splitlog program can be
      used to split a large logfile into separate files by entry prefix or
      URL path.  wwwstat is a perl script, which means you need to have a
      perl interpreter to run the program.  It has been tested with perl
      versions 4.036 and 5.002.

    Output Sections
      wwwstat's output consists of a set of cross-reference links, the sum
      totals and averages for the processed data, and a sequence of amount-
      by-category tables partitioned into sections.  The section categories
      are based on the characteristics evident from the access request, as
      provided by the common logfile format (see NOTES).  These include:

      Request Date        e.g., "Feb  2 1996"

      Request Hour        e.g., "00" through "23"

      Client Domain       The Fully-Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) suffix that
                          corresponds to an organization type or country
                          name.

      Reversed Subdomain  The FQDN, usually minus the first (machine name)
                          component, and reversed so that it is easier to
                          read when sorted.

      URL/Archive         Grouping based on Request-URI or non-success
                          status code.





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 wwwstat(1)                                                       wwwstat(1)
                              03 November 1996



      Identity            The user identity based on IdentityCheck token or
                          Authorization field.  Each section can be
                          enabled/disabled using the configuration files or
                          command-line options (see Section Display
                          Options).

    Output Table Format
      Inside each section, the statistics are presented as a preformatted
      table.  %Reqs %Byte  Bytes Sent  Requests   category-type
      ----- ----- ------------ -------- |---------------
      NN.NN NN.NN NNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNN | category-value
      100.0 100.0 NNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNN | category-value
      Requests    Requests received for this category-value.
      Bytes Sent  Bytes transmitted for this category-value.
      %Reqs       (<Requests>/<Total Requests>)*100.
      %Byte       (<Bytes Sent>/<Total Bytes>)*100.  The table can be sorted
                  by category-value (-sort key), number of requests received
                  (-sort req), or number of bytes received (-sort byte).  It
                  can also be limited to the -top N entries.

 OPTIONS
    Configuration Options
      These options define how wwwstat should establish defaults and
      interpret the command-line.

      -F filename
           Get system configuration defaults from the given file.  If used,
           this must be the first argument on the command-line, since it
           needs to be interpreted before the other command options.  The
           file wwwstat.rc is included with the distribution as an example
           of this file; it contains perl source code which directly sets
           the control and display options provided by wwwstat.  If filename
           is not a pathname, the include path (see FILES) is searched for
           filename.  An empty string as filename will disable this feature.
           [-F "wwwstat.rc"]

      -f filename
           Get user configuration defaults from the given file. If used,
           this must be the first argument on the command-line after -F (if
           any). The file is the same format as for the -F option (see
           wwwstat.rc).  If filename is not a pathname, the include path
           (see FILES) is searched for filename.  An empty string as
           filename will disable this feature.  [-f ".wwwstatrc"]

      --   Last option (the remaining arguments are treated as input files).

    Diagnostic Options
      These options provide information about wwwstat usage or about some
      unusual aspects of the logfile(s) being processed.





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 wwwstat(1)                                                       wwwstat(1)
                              03 November 1996



      -h   Help - display usage information to STDERR and then exit.

      -v   Verbose display to STDERR of each log entry processed.

      -x   Display to STDERR all requests resulting in HTTP error responses.

      -e   Display to STDERR all invalid log entries. Invalid log entries
           can occur if the server is miswriting or overwriting its own log,
           if the request is made by a broken client or proxy, or if a
           malicious attacker is trying to gain privileged access to your
           system.  For the latter reason, the webmaster should run wwwstat
           with this option on a regular basis.

    Display Options
      These options modify the output format.

      -H string
           Use the given string as the HTML title and heading for output.

      -X string
           Use the given string as the cross-reference URL to the last
           summary output.  Any occurrence of the characters "%M" or "%Y"
           are replaced by the month and year, respectively, of the month
           prior to the first log entry date.  The empty string will exclude
           any cross-reference.

      -R   Display the daily stats table sorted in reverse. This option is
           primarily for use with the gwstat program for producing graphs of
           the output.  -l
      -L   Do (-l) or don't (-L) display the full DNS hostname of clients in
           your local domain (which is determined by the configured value of
           $AppendToLocalhost) in the section on subdomain statistics.  The
           default [-L] is to strip the machine name from local addresses.
           -o
      -O   Do (-o) or don't (-O) display the full DNS hostname of clients
           outside your local domain in the section on subdomain statistics.
           The default [-O] is to strip the machine name from outside
           addresses.  -u
      -U   Do (-u) or don't (-U) display the IP address of clients with
           unresolved domain names in the section on subdomain statistics.
           The -dns option can be used to resolve some names, but not all IP
           hosts have a DNS name (SLIP/PPP connections) and sometimes a
           host's DNS service is inaccessible. The default [-U] is to group
           all such addresses under the category "Unresolved".  -dns
      -nodns
           Do (-dns) or don't (-nodns) use the system's hostname lookup
           facilities to find the DNS hostname associated with any
           unresolved IP addresses. Looking up a DNS name may be very slow,
           particularly when the results are negative (no DNS name), which
           is why a caching capability is included as well.  [-nodns]




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 wwwstat(1)                                                       wwwstat(1)
                              03 November 1996



      -cache filename
           Use the given DBM database as the read/write persistent DNS cache
           (the .dir and .pag extensions are appended automatically). Cached
           entries (including negative results) are removed after the time
           configured for $DNSexpires [two months].  No caching is performed
           if filename is the empty string, which may be needed if your
           system does not support DBM or NDBM functionality. Running -dns
           without a persistent cache is not recommended.  [-cache
           "dnscache"]

      -trunc N
           Truncate the URLs listed in the archive section after the Nth
           hierarchy level. This option is commonly used to reduce the
           output size and memory requirements of wwwstat by grouping the
           requests by directory tree instead of listing every URL.  The
           default [-trunc 0] is to display every requested URL.  -files
      -nofiles
           Do (-files) or don't (-nofiles) include the last component of a
           URL (usually the filename) in the archive section. This option is
           commonly used to reduce the output size and memory requirements
           of wwwstat by grouping the requests by directory instead of
           listing every URL.  The default [-files] is to display the entire
           requested URL.  -link
      -nolink
           Do (-link) or don't (-nolink) add a hypertext link around each
           archive URL.  This option is useful for local maintenance, but it
           is not recommended for publication of the HTML results (it often
           results in links to temporary or nonexistant resources, and leads
           people/robots to resources that might not be publically
           available).  [-nolink] -cgi
      -nocgi
           Do (-cgi) or don't (-nocgi) prefix the summary output with CGI
           header fields appropriate for use with the HTTP common gateway
           interface.  Using wwwstat as a CGI script is not recommended - it
           is usually better to simply run the wwwstat program periodically
           and serve the static output file.  [-nocgi]

    Section Display Options
      These options change the display of entire sections (as opposed to the
      entries within those sections).  They allow the user to enable or
      disable an entire section, set the sorting method for that section,
      and limit the number of displayed entries for that section.  These
      options are context-sensitive and processed in the order given.  -all
      -noall
           Include (-all) or exclude (-noall) all of the display sections.
           The -noall option is commonly used just prior to one or more of
           the other section options, such that only the listed sections are
           displayed.  -daily
      -nodaily
           Include (-daily) or exclude (-nodaily) the section of statistics
           by request date and set the scope for later -sort and -top



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                              03 November 1996



           options to this section.  -hourly
      -nohourly
           Include (-hourly) or exclude (-nohourly) the section of
           statistics by request hour and set the scope for later -sort and
           -top options to this section.  -domain
      -nodomain
           Include (-domain) or exclude (-nodomain) the section of
           statistics by the client's Internet domain and set the scope for
           later -sort and -top options to this section.  -subdomain
      -nosubdomain
           Include (-subdomain) or exclude (-nosubdomain) the section of
           statistics by the client's Internet subdomain (reversed for
           display) and set the scope for later -sort and -top options to
           this section.  -archive
      -noarchive
           Include (-archive) or exclude (-noarchive) the section of
           statistics by requested URL/archive and set the scope for later
           -sort and -top options to this section.  -r -ident
      -noident
           Include (-r or -ident) or exclude (-noident) the section of
           statistics by the identity of the user (if IdentityCheck is ON)
           or the authentication userid (if supplied) and set the scope for
           later -sort and -top options to this section.  DO NOT PUBLISH
           this information, as that would reveal security-related
           identities and be a violation of privacy.  This option is
           provided for administrative purposes only.

      -sort (key|byte|req)
           Sort this section by its primary key, the number of bytes
           transmitted, or the number of requests received.  [-sort key]

      -top N
           Display only the top N entries for this section. This option
           assumes that the -sort option has been set to either bytes or
           requests.

      -both
           Display both the top N entries for this section [10, sorted by
           requests], and then the full section (all entries) sorted by key.

    Search Options
      These options are used to limit the analysis to requests matching a
      pattern.  The pattern is supplied in the form of a perl regular
      expression, except that the characters "+" and "." are escaped
      automatically unless the -noescape option is given.  Enclose the
      pattern in single-quotes to prevent the command shell from
      interpreting some special characters.  Multiple occurrences of the
      same option results in an OR-ing of the regular expressions.  Search
      options are only applied to logfile entries; any summary files input
      must have been created with the same search options.  -a regexp




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 wwwstat(1)                                                       wwwstat(1)
                              03 November 1996



      -A regexp
           Include (-a) or exclude (-A) all requests containing a
           hostname/IP address matching the given perl regular expression.
           -c regexp
      -C regexp
           Include (-c) or exclude (-C) all requests resulting in an HTTP
           status code matching the given perl regular expression.  -d
           regexp
      -D regexp
           Include (-d) or exclude (-D) all requests occurring on a date
           (e.g., "Feb  2 1994") matching the given perl regular expression.
           -t regexp
      -T regexp
           Include (-t) or exclude (-T) all requests occurring during the
           hour (e.g., "23" is 11pm - 12pm) matching the given perl regular
           expression.  -m regexp
      -M regexp
           Include (-m) or exclude (-M) all requests using an HTTP method
           (e.g., "HEAD") matching the given perl regular expression.  -n
           regexp
      -N regexp
           Include (-n) or exclude (-N) all requests on a URL (archive name)
           matching the given perl regular expression.

      -noescape
           Do not escape the special characters ("+" and ".") in the
           remaining search options.

 INPUT
      After parsing the options, the remaining arguments on the command-line
      are treated as input arguments and are read in the order given.  If no
      input arguments are given, the configured default logfile is read [+].

      -    Read from standard input (STDIN).

      +    Read the default logfile. [as configured]

      filename...
           Read the given file and determine from the first line whether it
           is a previous output summary or a CLF logfile.  If the filename's
           extension indicates that is is compressed (gz|z|Z), then pipe it
           through the configured decompression program [gunzip -c] first.
           Summary files must have been created with the same (or similar)
           configuration and command-line options as the currently running
           program; if not, weird things will happen.

 USAGE
      wwwstat is used for many purposes:

        o  as a diagnostic utility for measuring server activity, finding
           incorrect URL references, and detecting attempted misuse of the



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 wwwstat(1)                                                       wwwstat(1)
                              03 November 1996



           server;

        o  as a public relations tool for measuring technology or
           information transfer (i.e., Is the message getting out? To the
           right people?);

        o  as an archival tool for tracking web usage over time without
           storing the entire logfile; and,

        o  most often, as an easy mechanism for justifying all the hard work
           that went into creating the web content that people out there are
           requesting.  In most cases, wwwstat is run on a periodic basis
           (nightly, weekly, and/or monthly) by a wrapper program as a
           crontab entry shortly after midnight, typically in conjunction
           with rotating the current logfile.  The output is usually
           directed to a temporary file which can later be moved to a
           published location.  The temporary file is necessary to avoid
           erasing your published file during wwwstat's processing (which
           would look very odd if someone tried to GET it from your web).
           wwwstat can be run as a CGI script (-cgi), but that is not
           recommended unless the input logfile is very small.  All of the
           command-line options, and a few options that are not available
           from the command-line, can be changed within the user and system
           configuration files (see wwwstat.rc).  These files are actually
           perl library modules which are executed as part of the program's
           initialization.  The example provided with the distribution
           includes complete documentation on what variables can be set and
           their range of values.

    Perl Regular Expressions
      The Search Options and many of the configuration file settings allow
      for full use of perl regular expressions (with the exception that the
      -a, -A, -n and -N options treat '+' and '.' characters as normal
      alphabetic characters unless they are preceded by the -noescape
      option).  Most people only need to know the following special
      characters:
      ^       at start of pattern, means "starts with pattern".
      $       at end of pattern, means "ends with pattern".
      (...)   groups pattern elements as a single element.
      ?       matches preceding element zero or one times.
      *       matches preceding element zero or more times.
      +       matches preceding element one or more times.
      .       matches any single character.
      [...]   denotes a class of characters to match. [^...] negates the
              class.  Inside a class, '-' indicates a range of characters.
      (A|B|C) matches if A or B or C matches.  Depending on your command
              shell, some special characters may need to be escaped on the
              command line or enclosed in single-quotes to avoid shell
              interpretation.





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 wwwstat(1)                                                       wwwstat(1)
                              03 November 1996



 EXAMPLES
      Summarize requests from commercial domains.
           wwwstat -a '.com$'

      Summarize requests from the host kiwi.ics.uci.edu
           wwwstat -a '^kiwi.ics.uci.edu$'

      Summarize requests not from kiwi.ics.uci.edu
           wwwstat -A '^kiwi.ics.uci.edu$'

      Summarize requests resulting in temporary redirects
           wwwstat -c '302'

      Summarize requests resulting in server errors
           wwwstat -c '^5'

      Summarize unsuccessful requests
           wwwstat -C '^2' -C '304'

      Summarize requests in first week of the month
           wwwstat -d ' [1-7] '

      Summarize requests in second week of the month
           wwwstat -d ' ([89]|1[0-4]) '

      Summarize requests in third week of the month
           wwwstat -d ' (1[5-9]|2[01]) '

      Summarize requests in fourth week of the month
           wwwstat -d ' 2[2-8] '

      Summarize requests in leftover days of the month
           wwwstat -d ' (29|30|31) '

      Summarize requests in February
           wwwstat -d 'Feb'

      Summarize requests in year 1994
           wwwstat -d '1994'

      Summarize requests not in April
           wwwstat -D 'Apr'

      Summarize requests between midnight and 1am
           wwwstat -t '00'

      Summarize requests not received between noon and 1pm
           wwwstat -T '12'

      Summarize requests with a gif extension
           wwwstat -n '.gif$'



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 wwwstat(1)                                                       wwwstat(1)
                              03 November 1996



      Summarize requests under user's URL
           wwwstat -n '^/~user/'

      Summarize requests not under "hidden" paths
           wwwstat -N '/hidden/'

 ENVIRONMENT
      HOME        Location of user's home directory, placed on INC path.

      LOGDIR      Used instead of HOME if latter is undefined.

      PERLLIB     A colon-separated list of directories in which to look for
                  include and configuration files.

 FILES
      Unless a pathname is supplied, the configuration files are obtained
      from the current directory, the user's home directory (HOME or
      LOGDIR), the standard library path (PERLLIB), and the directory
      indicated by the command pathname (in that order).

      .wwwstatrc     User configuration file.

      wwwstat.rc     System configuration file.

      domains.pl     Mapping of Internet domain to country or organization.
                     dnscache.dir
      dnscache.pag   DBM files for persistent DNS cache.

 SEE ALSO
      crontab(1), gwstat(1), httpd(1m), perl(1), splitlog(1) More info and
      the latest version of wwwstat can be obtained from
           http://www.ics.uci.edu/pub/websoft/wwwstat/
            ftp://www.ics.uci.edu/pub/websoft/wwwstat/ If you have any
      suggestions, bug reports, fixes, or enhancements, please join the
      <wwwstat-users@ics.uci.edu> mailing list by sending e-mail with
      "subscribe" in the subject of the message to the request address
      <wwwstat-users-request@ics.uci.edu>.  The list is archived at the
      above address.

    More About HTTP
      HTTP/1.1 Proposed Standard
           R. Fielding, J. Gettys, J. C. Mogul, H. Frystyk, and T. Berners-
           Lee.  "Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", U.C. Irvine,
           DEC, MIT/LCS, August 1996.
           http://www.ics.uci.edu/pub/ietf/http/

    More About Perl
      The Perl Language Home Page
           http://www.perl.com/perl/index.html





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 wwwstat(1)                                                       wwwstat(1)
                              03 November 1996



      Johan Vromans' Perl Reference Guide
           http://www.xs4all.nl/~jvromans/perlref.html

 DIAGNOSTICS
      See also the Diagnostic Options above.

      "[none] to [none]" dates
           wwwstat did not find any matching data to summarize.  If you get
           such an empty summary, it means that either: 1) there was no
           valid data (the input files are all invalid or empty), or 2) none
           of the data matched the search options given.  Try using the -e
           option to show invalid data.

      100% unresolved
           If the subdomain section indicates that all of the client
           requests come from unresolved hostnames (IP addresses), this
           probably means that your server is running without DNS resolution
           (common for very busy sites).  You can use the -dns option to
           have wwwstat perform the hostname lookups.  If 100% of the hosts
           are still unresolved with the -dns option in effect, then it may
           be that all of the clients accessing your server are doing so
           from temporary SLIP/PPP addresses without DNS names, or it may be
           a problem with wwwstat's DNS cache (delete the cache files), with
           your system's DNS software (contact your system administrator),
           or with your network connection.

 NOTES
    Hits vs Requests vs Visitors
      wwwstat counts HTTP requests received by the server.  When a request
      is successful, it is often referred to as a "hit". Retrieving a single
      image is one GET request. Retrieving an HTML page is also one GET
      request, but that does not include the separate requests made for in-
      line images or related objects.  Checking to see if a cached image is
      still valid (a HEAD or conditional GET) is also one request.  In all
      sections except the archive section, wwwstat shows the statistics for
      all requests (successful or not).  In the archive section, it normally
      shows all non-successful requests under a special category for the
      status code and only successful requests (hits) under the URL or
      archive tree associated with the request.  However, this grouping of
      non-successful requests is disabled when wwwstat is used with the
      search options -n, -c, and -C, since those options are normally used
      for finding error conditions.  wwwstat does not count "visitors" --
      individual people or programs making the requests. HTTP does not, by
      default, provide any information that can be accurately correlated to
      an individual person, though it is possible (in an unreliable manner)
      to use HTTP extensions and request profiles as a means of tracking
      individual client programs.  Such tracking requires extensive
      resources (memory and diskspace) and is often considered a violation
      of privacy.  With the exception of the ident section, wwwstat does not
      reveal information about the individual people making requests.
      Unless the output is limited to a specific URL or a specific hostname,



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                              03 November 1996



      wwwstat's output does not connect the requester to the URL being
      requested.

    Common Logfile Format
      The httpd common logfile format (CLF) was defined in early 1994 as the
      result of discussions among server and access_log analyzer developers
      (Roy Fielding, John Franks, Kevin Hughes, Ari Luotonen, Rob McCool,
      and Tony Sanders) on how to make it easier for analysis tools to be
      used across multiple servers.  The format is: remote_host ident
      authuser [date-time zone] "Request-Line" Status-Code bytes
      where          means
      ------------   --------------------------------------
      remote_host    Client DNS hostname or IP address
      ident          Identity check token or "-"
      authuser       Authorization user-id or "-"
      date-time      dd/Mmm/yyyy:hh:mm:ss
      zone           +dddd or -dddd
      Request-Line   The first line of the HTTP request, which normally
                     includes the method, URL, and HTTP-version.
      Status-Code    Response status from server or "-"
      bytes          Size of Entity-Body transmitted or "-"
      ------------   -------------------------------------- with each field
                     separated by a single space (it turns out that problems
                     occur if the ident token contains a space, which was
                     not anticipated by the original designers).

 LIMITATIONS
      wwwstat cannot be more accurate than its input.  The common logfile
      format does not include the amount of bytes transferred in HTTP header
      fields and in error responses.  wwwstat attempts to estimate those
      bytes based on the response code.  Although the built-in estimates
      will suffice for most applications, your results will be more accurate
      if the estimates are customized for the particular server software
      that generated the logfile.  Modern httpd servers have extended the
      CLF to include additional fields (Referer and User-Agent) or to make
      the entire format configurable.  Although wwwstat is able to read
      logfiles which append information to the CLF, it will not make use of
      that additional information.  However, wwwstat is written in perl, so
      if you want to parse a different format all you have to do is change
      the parsing code.  wwwstat does not do anything with Referer [sic] or
      User-Agent information that may be present in extended logfiles.  In
      order to do anything interesting with Referer, the program would have
      to build a Request-URI x Referer x Count table, which would require
      huge gobs of memory and is better done using a separate program with a
      persistent database.  Naturally, this is easy to do once you learn
      perl.

 AUTHOR
      Roy Fielding (fielding@ics.uci.edu), University of California, Irvine.
      Please do not send questions or requests to the author, since the
      number of requests has long since overwhelmed his ability to reply,



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 wwwstat(1)                                                       wwwstat(1)
                              03 November 1996



      and all future support will be through the mailing list (see above).
      wwwstat was originally based on a multi-server statistics program
      called fwgstat-0.035 by Jonathan Magid (jem@sunsite.unc.edu) which, in
      turn, was heavily based on xferstats (packaged with the version 17 of
      the Wuarchive FTP daemon) by Chris Myers (chris@wugate.wustl.edu).
      This work has been sponsored in part by the Defense Advanced Research
      Projects Agency under Grant Numbers MDA972-91-J-1010 and F30602-94-C-
      0218.  This software does not necessarily reflect the position or
      policy of the U.S. Government and no official endorsement should be
      inferred.












































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