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 curl(1)                         Curl 7.27.0                         curl(1)
 Curl Manual                                                     Curl Manual

                                27 July 2012



 NAME
      curl - transfer a URL

 SYNOPSIS
      curl [options] [URL...]

 DESCRIPTION
      curl is a tool to transfer data from or to a server, using one of the
      supported protocols (DICT, FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, HTTP, HTTPS, IMAP,
      IMAPS, LDAP, LDAPS, POP3, POP3S, RTMP, RTSP, SCP, SFTP, SMTP, SMTPS,
      TELNET and TFTP).  The command is designed to work without user
      interaction.

      curl offers a busload of useful tricks like proxy support, user
      authentication, FTP upload, HTTP post, SSL connections, cookies, file
      transfer resume, Metalink, and more. As you will see below, the number
      of features will make your head spin!

      curl is powered by libcurl for all transfer-related features. See
      libcurl(3) for details.

 URL
      The URL syntax is protocol-dependent. You'll find a detailed
      description in RFC 3986.

      You can specify multiple URLs or parts of URLs by writing part sets
      within braces as in:

       http://site.{one,two,three}.com

      or you can get sequences of alphanumeric series by using [] as in:

       ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[1-100].txt
       ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[001-100].txt    (with leading zeros)
       ftp://ftp.letters.com/file[a-z].txt

      Nested sequences are not supported, but you can use several ones next
      to each other:

       http://any.org/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html

      You can specify any amount of URLs on the command line. They will be
      fetched in a sequential manner in the specified order.

      You can specify a step counter for the ranges to get every Nth number
      or letter:

       http://www.numericals.com/file[1-100:10].txt
       http://www.letters.com/file[a-z:2].txt



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      If you specify URL without protocol:// prefix, curl will attempt to
      guess what protocol you might want. It will then default to HTTP but
      try other protocols based on often-used host name prefixes. For
      example, for host names starting with "ftp." curl will assume you want
      to speak FTP.

      curl will do its best to use what you pass to it as a URL. It is not
      trying to validate it as a syntactically correct URL by any means but
      is instead very liberal with what it accepts.

      curl will attempt to re-use connections for multiple file transfers,
      so that getting many files from the same server will not do multiple
      connects / handshakes. This improves speed. Of course this is only
      done on files specified on a single command line and cannot be used
      between separate curl invokes.

 PROGRESS METER
      curl normally displays a progress meter during operations, indicating
      the amount of transferred data, transfer speeds and estimated time
      left, etc.

      curl displays this data to the terminal by default, so if you invoke
      curl to do an operation and it is about to write data to the terminal,
      it disables the progress meter as otherwise it would mess up the
      output mixing progress meter and response data.

      If you want a progress meter for HTTP POST or PUT requests, you need
      to redirect the response output to a file, using shell redirect (>),
      -o [file] or similar.

      It is not the same case for FTP upload as that operation does not spit
      out any response data to the terminal.

      If you prefer a progress "bar" instead of the regular meter, -# is
      your friend.

 OPTIONS
      Options start with one or two dashes. Many of the options require an
      addition value next to it.

      The short "single-dash" form of the options, -d for example, may be
      used with or without a space between it and its value, although a
      space is a recommended separator. The long "double-dash" form, --data
      for example, requires a space between it and its value.

      Short version options that don't need any additional values can be
      used immediately next to each other, like for example you can specify
      all the options -O, -L and -v at once as -OLv.




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      In general, all boolean options are enabled with --option and yet
      again disabled with --no-option. That is, you use the exact same
      option name but prefix it with "no-". However, in this list we mostly
      only list and show the --option version of them. (This concept with
      --no options was added in 7.19.0. Previously most options were toggled
      on/off on repeated use of the same command line option.)

      -#, --progress-bar
           Make curl display progress as a simple progress bar instead of
           the standard, more informational, meter.

      -0, --http1.0
           (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP version 1.0 instead of using its
           internally preferred: HTTP 1.1.

      --http1.1
           (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP version 1.1. This is the internal
           default version. (Added in 7.33.0)

      --http2.0
           (HTTP) Tells curl to issue its requests using HTTP 2.0. This
           requires that the underlying libcurl was built to support it.
           (Added in 7.33.0)

      -1, --tlsv1
           (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1 when negotiating with a
           remote TLS server.

      -2, --sslv2
           (SSL) Forces curl to use SSL version 2 when negotiating with a
           remote SSL server.

      -3, --sslv3
           (SSL) Forces curl to use SSL version 3 when negotiating with a
           remote SSL server.

      -4, --ipv4
           If curl is capable of resolving an address to multiple IP
           versions (which it is if it is IPv6-capable), this option tells
           curl to resolve names to IPv4 addresses only.

      -6, --ipv6
           If curl is capable of resolving an address to multiple IP
           versions (which it is if it is IPv6-capable), this option tells
           curl to resolve names to IPv6 addresses only.

      -a, --append
           (FTP/SFTP) When used in an upload, this will tell curl to append
           to the target file instead of overwriting it. If the file doesn't



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           exist, it will be created.  Note that this flag is ignored by
           some SSH servers (including OpenSSH).

      -A, --user-agent <agent string>
           (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server.
           Some badly done CGIs fail if this field isn't set to
           "Mozilla/4.0". To encode blanks in the string, surround the
           string with single quote marks. This can also be set with the -H,
           --header option of course.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      --anyauth
           (HTTP) Tells curl to figure out authentication method by itself,
           and use the most secure one the remote site claims to support.
           This is done by first doing a request and checking the response-
           headers, thus possibly inducing an extra network round-trip. This
           is used instead of setting a specific authentication method,
           which you can do with --basic, --digest, --ntlm, and --negotiate.

           Note that using --anyauth is not recommended if you do uploads
           from stdin, since it may require data to be sent twice and then
           the client must be able to rewind. If the need should arise when
           uploading from stdin, the upload operation will fail.

      -b, --cookie <name=data>
           (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP server as a cookie. It is
           supposedly the data previously received from the server in a
           "Set-Cookie:" line.  The data should be in the format
           "NAME1=VALUE1; NAME2=VALUE2".

           If no '=' symbol is used in the line, it is treated as a filename
           to use to read previously stored cookie lines from, which should
           be used in this session if they match. Using this method also
           activates the "cookie parser" which will make curl record
           incoming cookies too, which may be handy if you're using this in
           combination with the -L, --location option. The file format of
           the file to read cookies from should be plain HTTP headers or the
           Netscape/Mozilla cookie file format.

           NOTE that the file specified with -b, --cookie is only used as
           input. No cookies will be stored in the file. To store cookies,
           use the -c, --cookie-jar option or you could even save the HTTP
           headers to a file using -D, --dump-header!

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      -B, --use-ascii
           (FTP/LDAP) Enable ASCII transfer. For FTP, this can also be



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           enforced by using an URL that ends with ";type=A". This option
           causes data sent to stdout to be in text mode for win32 systems.

      --basic
           (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP Basic authentication. This is the
           default and this option is usually pointless, unless you use it
           to override a previously set option that sets a different
           authentication method (such as --ntlm, --digest, or --negotiate).

      -c, --cookie-jar <file name>
           (HTTP) Specify to which file you want curl to write all cookies
           after a completed operation. Curl writes all cookies previously
           read from a specified file as well as all cookies received from
           remote server(s). If no cookies are known, no file will be
           written. The file will be written using the Netscape cookie file
           format. If you set the file name to a single dash, "-", the
           cookies will be written to stdout.

           This command line option will activate the cookie engine that
           makes curl record and use cookies. Another way to activate it is
           to use the -b, --cookie option.

           If the cookie jar can't be created or written to, the whole curl
           operation won't fail or even report an error clearly. Using -v
           will get a warning displayed, but that is the only visible
           feedback you get about this possibly lethal situation.

           If this option is used several times, the last specified file
           name will be used.

      -C, --continue-at <offset>
           Continue/Resume a previous file transfer at the given offset. The
           given offset is the exact number of bytes that will be skipped,
           counting from the beginning of the source file before it is
           transferred to the destination.  If used with uploads, the FTP
           server command SIZE will not be used by curl.

           Use "-C -" to tell curl to automatically find out where/how to
           resume the transfer. It then uses the given output/input files to
           figure that out.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      --ciphers <list of ciphers>
           (SSL) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list
           of ciphers must specify valid ciphers. Read up on SSL cipher list
           details on this URL:
           http://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ciphers.html




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           NSS ciphers are done differently than OpenSSL and GnuTLS. The
           full list of NSS ciphers is in the NSSCipherSuite entry at this
           URL:
           http://git.fedorahosted.org/cgit/mod_nss.git/plain/docs/mod_nss.html#Directives

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      --compressed
           (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of the algorithms
           curl supports, and save the uncompressed document.  If this
           option is used and the server sends an unsupported encoding, curl
           will report an error.

      --connect-timeout <seconds>
           Maximum time in seconds that you allow the connection to the
           server to take.  This only limits the connection phase, once curl
           has connected this option is of no more use.  Since 7.32.0, this
           option accepts decimal values, but the actual timeout will
           decrease in accuracy as the specified timeout increases in
           decimal precision. See also the -m, --max-time option.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      --create-dirs
           When used in conjunction with the -o option, curl will create the
           necessary local directory hierarchy as needed. This option
           creates the dirs mentioned with the -o option, nothing else. If
           the -o file name uses no dir or if the dirs it mentions already
           exist, no dir will be created.

           To create remote directories when using FTP or SFTP, try --ftp-
           create-dirs.

      --crlf
           (FTP) Convert LF to CRLF in upload. Useful for MVS (OS/390).

      --crlfile <file>
           (HTTPS/FTPS) Provide a file using PEM format with a Certificate
           Revocation List that may specify peer certificates that are to be
           considered revoked.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

           (Added in 7.19.7)

      -d, --data <data>
           (HTTP) Sends the specified data in a POST request to the HTTP
           server, in the same way that a browser does when a user has
           filled in an HTML form and presses the submit button. This will



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           cause curl to pass the data to the server using the content-type
           application/x-www-form-urlencoded.  Compare to -F, --form.

           -d, --data is the same as --data-ascii. To post data purely
           binary, you should instead use the --data-binary option. To URL-
           encode the value of a form field you may use --data-urlencode.

           If any of these options is used more than once on the same
           command line, the data pieces specified will be merged together
           with a separating &-symbol. Thus, using '-d name=daniel -d
           skill=lousy' would generate a post chunk that looks like
           'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

           If you start the data with the letter @, the rest should be a
           file name to read the data from, or - if you want curl to read
           the data from stdin.  The contents of the file must already be
           URL-encoded. Multiple files can also be specified. Posting data
           from a file named 'foobar' would thus be done with --data
           @foobar. When --data is told to read from a file like that,
           carriage returns and newlines will be stripped out.

      -D, --dump-header <file>
           Write the protocol headers to the specified file.

           This option is handy to use when you want to store the headers
           that an HTTP site sends to you. Cookies from the headers could
           then be read in a second curl invocation by using the -b, --
           cookie option! The -c, --cookie-jar option is however a better
           way to store cookies.

           When used in FTP, the FTP server response lines are considered
           being "headers" and thus are saved there.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.


      --data-ascii <data>
           See -d, --data.

      --data-binary <data>
           (HTTP) This posts data exactly as specified with no extra
           processing whatsoever.

           If you start the data with the letter @, the rest should be a
           filename.  Data is posted in a similar manner as --data-ascii
           does, except that newlines and carriage returns are preserved and
           conversions are never done.

           If this option is used several times, the ones following the



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           first will append data as described in -d, --data.

      --data-urlencode <data>
           (HTTP) This posts data, similar to the other --data options with
           the exception that this performs URL-encoding. (Added in 7.18.0)

           To be CGI-compliant, the <data> part should begin with a name
           followed by a separator and a content specification. The <data>
           part can be passed to curl using one of the following syntaxes:

           content
                This will make curl URL-encode the content and pass that on.
                Just be careful so that the content doesn't contain any = or
                @ symbols, as that will then make the syntax match one of
                the other cases below!

           =content
                This will make curl URL-encode the content and pass that on.
                The preceding = symbol is not included in the data.

           name=content
                This will make curl URL-encode the content part and pass
                that on. Note that the name part is expected to be URL-
                encoded already.

           @filename
                This will make curl load data from the given file (including
                any newlines), URL-encode that data and pass it on in the
                POST.

           name@filename
                This will make curl load data from the given file (including
                any newlines), URL-encode that data and pass it on in the
                POST. The name part gets an equal sign appended, resulting
                in name=urlencoded-file-content. Note that the name is
                expected to be URL-encoded already.

      --delegation LEVEL
           Set LEVEL to tell the server what it is allowed to delegate when
           it comes to user credentials. Used with GSS/kerberos.

           none Don't allow any delegation.

           policy
                Delegates if and only if the OK-AS-DELEGATE flag is set in
                the Kerberos service ticket, which is a matter of realm
                policy.

           always



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                Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.

      --digest
           (HTTP) Enables HTTP Digest authentication. This is an
           authentication scheme that prevents the password from being sent
           over the wire in clear text. Use this in combination with the
           normal -u, --user option to set user name and password. See also
           --ntlm, --negotiate and --anyauth for related options.

           If this option is used several times, only the first one is used.

      --disable-eprt
           (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the EPRT and LPRT commands
           when doing active FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first
           attempt to use EPRT, then LPRT before using PORT, but with this
           option, it will use PORT right away. EPRT and LPRT are extensions
           to the original FTP protocol, and may not work on all servers,
           but they enable more functionality in a better way than the
           traditional PORT command.

           --eprt can be used to explicitly enable EPRT again and --no-eprt
           is an alias for --disable-eprt.

           Disabling EPRT only changes the active behavior. If you want to
           switch to passive mode you need to not use -P, --ftp-port or
           force it with --ftp-pasv.

      --disable-epsv
           (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the EPSV command when doing
           passive FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first attempt to
           use EPSV before PASV, but with this option, it will not try using
           EPSV.

           --epsv can be used to explicitly enable EPSV again and --no-epsv
           is an alias for --disable-epsv.

           Disabling EPSV only changes the passive behavior. If you want to
           switch to active mode you need to use -P, --ftp-port.

      --dns-interface <interface>
           Tell curl to send outgoing DNS requests through <interface>. This
           option is a counterpart to --interface (which does not affect
           DNS). The supplied string must be an interface name (not an
           address).

           This option requires that libcurl was built with a resolver
           backend that supports this operation. The c-ares backend is the
           only such one. (Added in 7.33.0)




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      --dns-ipv4-addr <ip-address>
           Tell curl to bind to <ip-address> when making IPv4 DNS requests,
           so that the DNS requests originate from this address. The
           argument should be a single IPv4 address.

           This option requires that libcurl was built with a resolver
           backend that supports this operation. The c-ares backend is the
           only such one.  (Added in 7.33.0)

      --dns-ipv6-addr <ip-address>
           Tell curl to bind to <ip-address> when making IPv6 DNS requests,
           so that the DNS requests originate from this address. The
           argument should be a single IPv6 address.

           This option requires that libcurl was built with a resolver
           backend that supports this operation. The c-ares backend is the
           only such one.  (Added in 7.33.0)

      --dns-servers <ip-address,ip-address>
           Set the list of DNS servers to be used instead of the system
           default.  The list of IP addresses should be separated with
           commas. Port numbers may also optionally be given as :<port-
           number> after each IP address.

           This option requires that libcurl was built with a resolver
           backend that supports this operation. The c-ares backend is the
           only such one.  (Added in 7.33.0)

      -e, --referer <URL>
           (HTTP) Sends the "Referer Page" information to the HTTP server.
           This can also be set with the -H, --header flag of course.  When
           used with -L, --location you can append ";auto" to the --referer
           URL to make curl automatically set the previous URL when it
           follows a Location: header. The ";auto" string can be used alone,
           even if you don't set an initial --referer.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      -E, --cert <certificate[:password]>
           (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified client certificate file
           when getting a file with HTTPS, FTPS or another SSL-based
           protocol. The certificate must be in PKCS#12 format if using
           Secure Transport, or PEM format if using any other engine.  If
           the optional password isn't specified, it will be queried for on
           the terminal. Note that this option assumes a "certificate" file
           that is the private key and the private certificate concatenated!
           See --cert and --key to specify them independently.

           If curl is built against the NSS SSL library then this option can



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           tell curl the nickname of the certificate to use within the NSS
           database defined by the environment variable SSL_DIR (or by
           default /etc/pki/nssdb). If the NSS PEM PKCS#11 module
           (libnsspem.so) is available then PEM files may be loaded. If you
           want to use a file from the current directory, please precede it
           with "./" prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.
           If the nickname contains ":", it needs to be preceded by "\" so
           that it is not recognized as password delimiter.  If the nickname
           contains "\", it needs to be escaped as "\\" so that it is not
           recognized as an escape character.

           (iOS and Mac OS X only) If curl is built against Secure
           Transport, then the certificate string can either be the name of
           a certificate/private key in the system or user keychain, or the
           path to a PKCS#12-encoded certificate and private key. If you
           want to use a file from the current directory, please precede it
           with "./" prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      --engine <name>
           Select the OpenSSL crypto engine to use for cipher operations.
           Use --engine list to print a list of build-time supported
           engines. Note that not all (or none) of the engines may be
           available at run-time.

      --environment
           (RISC OS ONLY) Sets a range of environment variables, using the
           names the -w option supports, to allow easier extraction of
           useful information after having run curl.

      --egd-file <file>
           (SSL) Specify the path name to the Entropy Gathering Daemon
           socket. The socket is used to seed the random engine for SSL
           connections. See also the --random-file option.

      --cert-type <type>
           (SSL) Tells curl what certificate type the provided certificate
           is in. PEM, DER and ENG are recognized types.  If not specified,
           PEM is assumed.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      --cacert <CA certificate>
           (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified certificate file to verify
           the peer. The file may contain multiple CA certificates. The
           certificate(s) must be in PEM format. Normally curl is built to
           use a default file for this, so this option is typically used to
           alter that default file.



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           curl recognizes the environment variable named 'CURL_CA_BUNDLE'
           if it is set, and uses the given path as a path to a CA cert
           bundle. This option overrides that variable.

           The windows version of curl will automatically look for a CA
           certs file named 'curl-ca-bundle.crt', either in the same
           directory as curl.exe, or in the Current Working Directory, or in
           any folder along your PATH.

           If curl is built against the NSS SSL library, the NSS PEM PKCS#11
           module (libnsspem.so) needs to be available for this option to
           work properly.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      --capath <CA certificate directory>
           (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified certificate directory to
           verify the peer. Multiple paths can be provided by separating
           them with ":" (e.g.  "path1:path2:path3"). The certificates must
           be in PEM format, and if curl is built against OpenSSL, the
           directory must have been processed using the c_rehash utility
           supplied with OpenSSL. Using --capath can allow OpenSSL-powered
           curl to make SSL-connections much more efficiently than using --
           cacert if the --cacert file contains many CA certificates.

           If this option is set, the default capath value will be ignored,
           and if it is used several times, the last one will be used.

      -f, --fail
           (HTTP) Fail silently (no output at all) on server errors. This is
           mostly done to better enable scripts etc to better deal with
           failed attempts. In normal cases when an HTTP server fails to
           deliver a document, it returns an HTML document stating so (which
           often also describes why and more). This flag will prevent curl
           from outputting that and return error 22.

           This method is not fail-safe and there are occasions where non-
           successful response codes will slip through, especially when
           authentication is involved (response codes 401 and 407).

      -F, --form <name=content>
           (HTTP) This lets curl emulate a filled-in form in which a user
           has pressed the submit button. This causes curl to POST data
           using the Content-Type multipart/form-data according to RFC 2388.
           This enables uploading of binary files etc. To force the
           'content' part to be a file, prefix the file name with an @ sign.
           To just get the content part from a file, prefix the file name
           with the symbol <. The difference between @ and < is then that @
           makes a file get attached in the post as a file upload, while the



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           < makes a text field and just get the contents for that text
           field from a file.

           Example, to send your password file to the server, where
           'password' is the name of the form-field to which /etc/passwd
           will be the input:

           curl -F password=@/etc/passwd www.mypasswords.com

           To read content from stdin instead of a file, use - as the
           filename. This goes for both @ and < constructs.

           You can also tell curl what Content-Type to use by using 'type=',
           in a manner similar to:

           curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html" url.com

           or

           curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" url.com

           You can also explicitly change the name field of a file upload
           part by setting filename=, like this:

           curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" url.com

           If filename/path contains ',' or ';', it must be quoted by
           double-quotes like:

           curl -F "file=@\"localfile\";filename=\"nameinpost\"" url.com

           or

           curl -F 'file=@"localfile";filename="nameinpost"' url.com

           Note that if a filename/path is quoted by double-quotes, any
           double-quote or backslash within the filename must be escaped by
           backslash.

           See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

           This option can be used multiple times.

      --ftp-account [data]
           (FTP) When an FTP server asks for "account data" after user name
           and password has been provided, this data is sent off using the
           ACCT command. (Added in 7.13.0)

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.



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      --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>
           (FTP) If authenticating with the USER and PASS commands fails,
           send this command.  When connecting to Tumbleweed's Secure
           Transport server over FTPS using a client certificate, using
           "SITE AUTH" will tell the server to retrieve the username from
           the certificate. (Added in 7.15.5)

      --ftp-create-dirs
           (FTP/SFTP) When an FTP or SFTP URL/operation uses a path that
           doesn't currently exist on the server, the standard behavior of
           curl is to fail. Using this option, curl will instead attempt to
           create missing directories.

      --ftp-method [method]
           (FTP) Control what method curl should use to reach a file on an
           FTP(S) server. The method argument should be one of the following
           alternatives:

           multicwd
                curl does a single CWD operation for each path part in the
                given URL. For deep hierarchies this means very many
                commands. This is how RFC 1738 says it should be done. This
                is the default but the slowest behavior.

           nocwd
                curl does no CWD at all. curl will do SIZE, RETR, STOR etc
                and give a full path to the server for all these commands.
                This is the fastest behavior.

           singlecwd
                curl does one CWD with the full target directory and then
                operates on the file "normally" (like in the multicwd case).
                This is somewhat more standards compliant than 'nocwd' but
                without the full penalty of 'multicwd'.
      (Added in 7.15.1)

      --ftp-pasv
           (FTP) Use passive mode for the data connection. Passive is the
           internal default behavior, but using this option can be used to
           override a previous -P/-ftp-port option. (Added in 7.11.0)

           If this option is used several times, only the first one is used.
           Undoing an enforced passive really isn't doable but you must then
           instead enforce the correct -P, --ftp-port again.

           Passive mode means that curl will try the EPSV command first and
           then PASV, unless --disable-epsv is used.

      --ftp-skip-pasv-ip



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           (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP address the server suggests in
           its response to curl's PASV command when curl connects the data
           connection. Instead curl will re-use the same IP address it
           already uses for the control connection. (Added in 7.14.2)

           This option has no effect if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used instead
           of PASV.

      --ftp-pret
           (FTP) Tell curl to send a PRET command before PASV (and EPSV).
           Certain FTP servers, mainly drftpd, require this non-standard
           command for directory listings as well as up and downloads in
           PASV mode.  (Added in 7.20.x)

      --ftp-ssl-ccc
           (FTP) Use CCC (Clear Command Channel) Shuts down the SSL/TLS
           layer after authenticating. The rest of the control channel
           communication will be unencrypted. This allows NAT routers to
           follow the FTP transaction. The default mode is passive. See --
           ftp-ssl-ccc-mode for other modes.  (Added in 7.16.1)

      --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode [active/passive]
           (FTP) Use CCC (Clear Command Channel) Sets the CCC mode. The
           passive mode will not initiate the shutdown, but instead wait for
           the server to do it, and will not reply to the shutdown from the
           server. The active mode initiates the shutdown and waits for a
           reply from the server.  (Added in 7.16.2)

      --ftp-ssl-control
           (FTP) Require SSL/TLS for the FTP login, clear for transfer.
           Allows secure authentication, but non-encrypted data transfers
           for efficiency.  Fails the transfer if the server doesn't support
           SSL/TLS.  (Added in 7.16.0) that can still be used but will be
           removed in a future version.

      --form-string <name=string>
           (HTTP) Similar to --form except that the value string for the
           named parameter is used literally. Leading '@' and '<'
           characters, and the ';type=' string in the value have no special
           meaning. Use this in preference to --form if there's any
           possibility that the string value may accidentally trigger the
           '@' or '<' features of --form.

      -g, --globoff
           This option switches off the "URL globbing parser". When you set
           this option, you can specify URLs that contain the letters {}[]
           without having them being interpreted by curl itself. Note that
           these letters are not normal legal URL contents but they should
           be encoded according to the URI standard.



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      -G, --get
           When used, this option will make all data specified with -d, --
           data, --data-binary or --data-urlencode to be used in an HTTP GET
           request instead of the POST request that otherwise would be used.
           The data will be appended to the URL with a '?' separator.

           If used in combination with -I, the POST data will instead be
           appended to the URL with a HEAD request.

           If this option is used several times, only the first one is used.
           This is because undoing a GET doesn't make sense, but you should
           then instead enforce the alternative method you prefer.

      -H, --header <header>
           (HTTP) Extra header to use when getting a web page. You may
           specify any number of extra headers. Note that if you should add
           a custom header that has the same name as one of the internal
           ones curl would use, your externally set header will be used
           instead of the internal one. This allows you to make even
           trickier stuff than curl would normally do. You should not
           replace internally set headers without knowing perfectly well
           what you're doing. Remove an internal header by giving a
           replacement without content on the right side of the colon, as
           in: -H "Host:". If you send the custom header with no-value then
           its header must be terminated with a semicolon, such as -H "X-
           Custom-Header;" to send "X-Custom-Header:".

           curl will make sure that each header you add/replace is sent with
           the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that as a
           part of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
           returns, they will only mess things up for you.

           See also the -A, --user-agent and -e, --referer options.

           This option can be used multiple times to add/replace/remove
           multiple headers.

      --hostpubmd5 <md5>
           (SCP/SFTP) Pass a string containing 32 hexadecimal digits. The
           string should be the 128 bit MD5 checksum of the remote host's
           public key, curl will refuse the connection with the host unless
           the md5sums match. (Added in 7.17.1)

      --ignore-content-length
           (HTTP) Ignore the Content-Length header. This is particularly
           useful for servers running Apache 1.x, which will report
           incorrect Content-Length for files larger than 2 gigabytes.

      -i, --include



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           (HTTP) Include the HTTP-header in the output. The HTTP-header
           includes things like server-name, date of the document, HTTP-
           version and more...

      -I, --head
           (HTTP/FTP/FILE) Fetch the HTTP-header only! HTTP-servers feature
           the command HEAD which this uses to get nothing but the header of
           a document. When used on an FTP or FILE file, curl displays the
           file size and last modification time only.

      --interface <name>
           Perform an operation using a specified interface. You can enter
           interface name, IP address or host name. An example could look
           like:

            curl --interface eth0:1 http://www.netscape.com/

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      -j, --junk-session-cookies
           (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this
           option will make it discard all "session cookies". This will
           basically have the same effect as if a new session is started.
           Typical browsers always discard session cookies when they're
           closed down.

      -J, --remote-header-name
           (HTTP) This option tells the -O, --remote-name option to use the
           server-specified Content-Disposition filename instead of
           extracting a filename from the URL.

           There's no attempt to decode %-sequences (yet) in the provided
           file name, so this option may provide you with rather unexpected
           file names.

      -k, --insecure
           (SSL) This option explicitly allows curl to perform "insecure"
           SSL connections and transfers. All SSL connections are attempted
           to be made secure by using the CA certificate bundle installed by
           default. This makes all connections considered "insecure" fail
           unless -k, --insecure is used.

           See this online resource for further details:
           http://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html

      -K, --config <config file>
           Specify which config file to read curl arguments from. The config
           file is a text file in which command line arguments can be
           written which then will be used as if they were written on the



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           actual command line.

           Options and their parameters must be specified on the same config
           file line, separated by whitespace, colon, or the equals sign.
           Long option names can optionally be given in the config file
           without the initial double dashes and if so, the colon or equals
           characters can be used as separators. If the option is specified
           with one or two dashes, there can be no colon or equals character
           between the option and its parameter.

           If the parameter is to contain whitespace, the parameter must be
           enclosed within quotes. Within double quotes, the following
           escape sequences are available: \\, \", \t, \n, \r and \v. A
           backslash preceding any other letter is ignored. If the first
           column of a config line is a '#' character, the rest of the line
           will be treated as a comment. Only write one option per physical
           line in the config file.

           Specify the filename to -K, --config as '-' to make curl read the
           file from stdin.

           Note that to be able to specify a URL in the config file, you
           need to specify it using the --url option, and not by simply
           writing the URL on its own line. So, it could look similar to
           this:

           url = "http://curl.haxx.se/docs/"

           When curl is invoked, it always (unless -q is used) checks for a
           default config file and uses it if found. The default config file
           is checked for in the following places in this order:

           1) curl tries to find the "home dir": It first checks for the
           CURL_HOME and then the HOME environment variables. Failing that,
           it uses getpwuid() on UNIX-like systems (which returns the home
           dir given the current user in your system). On Windows, it then
           checks for the APPDATA variable, or as a last resort the
           '%USERPROFILE%\Application Data'.

           2) On windows, if there is no _curlrc file in the home dir, it
           checks for one in the same dir the curl executable is placed. On
           UNIX-like systems, it will simply try to load .curlrc from the
           determined home dir.

           # --- Example file ---
           # this is a comment
           url = "curl.haxx.se"
           output = "curlhere.html"
           user-agent = "superagent/1.0"



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           # and fetch another URL too
           url = "curl.haxx.se/docs/manpage.html"
           -O
           referer = "http://nowhereatall.com/"
           # --- End of example file ---

           This option can be used multiple times to load multiple config
           files.

      --keepalive-time <seconds>
           This option sets the time a connection needs to remain idle
           before sending keepalive probes and the time between individual
           keepalive probes. It is currently effective on operating systems
           offering the TCP_KEEPIDLE and TCP_KEEPINTVL socket options
           (meaning Linux, recent AIX, HP-UX and more). This option has no
           effect if --no-keepalive is used. (Added in 7.18.0)

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
           If unspecified, the option defaults to 60 seconds.

      --key <key>
           (SSL/SSH) Private key file name. Allows you to provide your
           private key in this separate file.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      --key-type <type>
           (SSL) Private key file type. Specify which type your --key
           provided private key is. DER, PEM, and ENG are supported. If not
           specified, PEM is assumed.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      --krb <level>
           (FTP) Enable Kerberos authentication and use. The level must be
           entered and should be one of 'clear', 'safe', 'confidential', or
           'private'. Should you use a level that is not one of these,
           'private' will instead be used.

           This option requires a library built with kerberos4 or GSSAPI
           (GSS-Negotiate) support. This is not very common. Use -V, --
           version to see if your curl supports it.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      -l, --list-only
           (FTP) When listing an FTP directory, this switch forces a name-
           only view. This is especially useful if the user wants to
           machine-parse the contents of an FTP directory since the normal



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           directory view doesn't use a standard look or format. When used
           like this, the option causes a NLST command to be sent to the
           server instead of LIST.

           Note: Some FTP servers list only files in their response to NLST;
           they do not include sub-directories and symbolic links.

           (POP3) When retrieving a specific email from POP3, this switch
           forces a LIST command to be performed instead of RETR. This is
           particularly useful if the user wants to see if a specific
           message id exists on the server and what size it is.

           Note: When combined with -X, --request <command>, this option can
           be used to send an UIDL command instead, so the user may use the
           email's unique identifier rather than it's message id to make the
           request. (Added in 7.21.5)

      -L, --location
           (HTTP/HTTPS) If the server reports that the requested page has
           moved to a different location (indicated with a Location: header
           and a 3XX response code), this option will make curl redo the
           request on the new place. If used together with -i, --include or
           -I, --head, headers from all requested pages will be shown. When
           authentication is used, curl only sends its credentials to the
           initial host. If a redirect takes curl to a different host, it
           won't be able to intercept the user+password. See also --
           location-trusted on how to change this. You can limit the amount
           of redirects to follow by using the --max-redirs option.

           When curl follows a redirect and the request is not a plain GET
           (for example POST or PUT), it will do the following request with
           a GET if the HTTP response was 301, 302, or 303. If the response
           code was any other 3xx code, curl will re-send the following
           request using the same unmodified method.

      --libcurl <file>
           Append this option to any ordinary curl command line, and you
           will get a libcurl-using C source code written to the file that
           does the equivalent of what your command-line operation does!

           If this option is used several times, the last given file name
           will be used. (Added in 7.16.1)

      --limit-rate <speed>
           Specify the maximum transfer rate you want curl to use. This
           feature is useful if you have a limited pipe and you'd like your
           transfer not to use your entire bandwidth.

           The given speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix is



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           appended.  Appending 'k' or 'K' will count the number as
           kilobytes, 'm' or M' makes it megabytes, while 'g' or 'G' makes
           it gigabytes. Examples: 200K, 3m and 1G.

           The given rate is the average speed counted during the entire
           transfer. It means that curl might use higher transfer speeds in
           short bursts, but over time it uses no more than the given rate.

           If you also use the -Y, --speed-limit option, that option will
           take precedence and might cripple the rate-limiting slightly, to
           help keeping the speed-limit logic working.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      --local-port <num>[-num]
           Set a preferred number or range of local port numbers to use for
           the connection(s).  Note that port numbers by nature are a scarce
           resource that will be busy at times so setting this range to
           something too narrow might cause unnecessary connection setup
           failures. (Added in 7.15.2)

      --location-trusted
           (HTTP/HTTPS) Like -L, --location, but will allow sending the name
           + password to all hosts that the site may redirect to. This may
           or may not introduce a security breach if the site redirects you
           to a site to which you'll send your authentication info (which is
           plaintext in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).

      -m, --max-time <seconds>
           Maximum time in seconds that you allow the whole operation to
           take.  This is useful for preventing your batch jobs from hanging
           for hours due to slow networks or links going down.  Since
           7.32.0, this option accepts decimal values, but the actual
           timeout will decrease in accuracy as the specified timeout
           increases in decimal precision.  See also the --connect-timeout
           option.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      --mail-auth <address>
           (SMTP) Specify a single address. This will be used to specify the
           authentication address (identity) of a submitted message that is
           being relayed to another server.

           (Added in 7.25.0)

      --mail-from <address>
           (SMTP) Specify a single address that the given mail should get
           sent from.



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           (Added in 7.20.0)

      --max-filesize <bytes>
           Specify the maximum size (in bytes) of a file to download. If the
           file requested is larger than this value, the transfer will not
           start and curl will return with exit code 63.

           NOTE: The file size is not always known prior to download, and
           for such files this option has no effect even if the file
           transfer ends up being larger than this given limit. This
           concerns both FTP and HTTP transfers.

      --mail-rcpt <address>
           (SMTP) Specify a single address, user name or mailing list name.

           When performing a mail transfer, the recipient should specify a
           valid email address to send the mail to. (Added in 7.20.0)

           When performing an address verification (VRFY command), the
           recipient should be specified as the user name or user name and
           domain (as per Section 3.5 of RFC5321). (Added in 7.34.0)

           When performing a mailing list expand (EXPN command), the
           recipient should be specified using the mailing list name, such
           as "Friends" or "London-Office".  (Added in 7.34.0)

      --max-redirs <num>
           Set maximum number of redirection-followings allowed. If -L, --
           location is used, this option can be used to prevent curl from
           following redirections "in absurdum". By default, the limit is
           set to 50 redirections. Set this option to -1 to make it
           limitless.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      --metalink
           This option can tell curl to parse and process a given URI as
           Metalink file (both version 3 and 4 (RFC 5854) are supported) and
           make use of the mirrors listed within for failover if there are
           errors (such as the file or server not being available). It will
           also verify the hash of the file after the download completes.
           The Metalink file itself is downloaded and processed in memory
           and not stored in the local file system.

           Example to use a remote Metalink file:

           curl --metalink http://www.example.com/example.metalink

           To use a Metalink file in the local file system, use FILE



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           protocol (file://):

           curl --metalink file://example.metalink

           Please note that if FILE protocol is disabled, there is no way to
           use a local Metalink file at the time of this writing. Also note
           that if --metalink and --include are used together, --include
           will be ignored. This is because including headers in the
           response will break Metalink parser and if the headers are
           included in the file described in Metalink file, hash check will
           fail.

           (Added in 7.27.0, if built against the libmetalink library.)

      -n, --netrc
           Makes curl scan the .netrc (_netrc on Windows) file in the user's
           home directory for login name and password. This is typically
           used for FTP on UNIX. If used with HTTP, curl will enable user
           authentication. See netrc(4) or ftp(1) for details on the file
           format. Curl will not complain if that file doesn't have the
           right permissions (it should not be either world- or group-
           readable). The environment variable "HOME" is used to find the
           home directory.

           A quick and very simple example of how to setup a .netrc to allow
           curl to FTP to the machine host.domain.com with user name
           'myself' and password 'secret' should look similar to:

           machine host.domain.com login myself password secret

      -N, --no-buffer
           Disables the buffering of the output stream. In normal work
           situations, curl will use a standard buffered output stream that
           will have the effect that it will output the data in chunks, not
           necessarily exactly when the data arrives.  Using this option
           will disable that buffering.

           Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can
           thus use --buffer to enforce the buffering.

      --netrc-file
           This option is similar to --netrc, except that you provide the
           path (absolute or relative) to the netrc file that Curl should
           use.  You can only specify one netrc file per invocation. If
           several --netrc-file options are provided, only the last one will
           be used.  (Added in 7.21.5)

           This option overrides any use of --netrc as they are mutually
           exclusive.  It will also abide by --netrc-optional if specified.



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      --netrc-optional
           Very similar to --netrc, but this option makes the .netrc usage
           optional and not mandatory as the --netrc option does.


      --negotiate
           (HTTP) Enables GSS-Negotiate authentication. The GSS-Negotiate
           method was designed by Microsoft and is used in their web
           applications. It is primarily meant as a support for Kerberos5
           authentication but may be also used along with another
           authentication method. For more information see IETF draft
           draft-brezak-spnego-http-04.txt.

           If you want to enable Negotiate for your proxy authentication,
           then use --proxy-negotiate.

           This option requires a library built with GSSAPI support. This is
           not very common. Use -V, --version to see if your version
           supports GSS-Negotiate.

           When using this option, you must also provide a fake -u, --user
           option to activate the authentication code properly. Sending a
           '-u :' is enough as the user name and password from the -u option
           aren't actually used.

           If this option is used several times, only the first one is used.

      --no-keepalive
           Disables the use of keepalive messages on the TCP connection, as
           by default curl enables them.

           Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can
           thus use --keepalive to enforce keepalive.

      --no-sessionid
           (SSL) Disable curl's use of SSL session-ID caching.  By default
           all transfers are done using the cache. Note that while nothing
           should ever get hurt by attempting to reuse SSL session-IDs,
           there seem to be broken SSL implementations in the wild that may
           require you to disable this in order for you to succeed. (Added
           in 7.16.0)

           Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can
           thus use --sessionid to enforce session-ID caching.

      --noproxy <no-proxy-list>
           Comma-separated list of hosts which do not use a proxy, if one is
           specified.  The only wildcard is a single * character, which
           matches all hosts, and effectively disables the proxy. Each name



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           in this list is matched as either a domain which contains the
           hostname, or the hostname itself. For example, local.com would
           match local.com, local.com:80, and www.local.com, but not
           www.notlocal.com.  (Added in 7.19.4).

      --ntlm
           (HTTP) Enables NTLM authentication. The NTLM authentication
           method was designed by Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers.
           It is a proprietary protocol, reverse-engineered by clever people
           and implemented in curl based on their efforts. This kind of
           behavior should not be endorsed, you should encourage everyone
           who uses NTLM to switch to a public and documented authentication
           method instead, such as Digest.

           If you want to enable NTLM for your proxy authentication, then
           use --proxy-ntlm.

           This option requires a library built with SSL support. Use -V,
           --version to see if your curl supports NTLM.

           If this option is used several times, only the first one is used.

      -o, --output <file>
           Write output to <file> instead of stdout. If you are using {} or
           [] to fetch multiple documents, you can use '#' followed by a
           number in the <file> specifier. That variable will be replaced
           with the current string for the URL being fetched. Like in:

             curl http://{one,two}.site.com -o "file_#1.txt"

           or use several variables like:

             curl http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com -o "#1_#2"

           You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you
           have.

           See also the --create-dirs option to create the local directories
           dynamically. Specifying the output as '-' (a single dash) will
           force the output to be done to stdout.

      -O, --remote-name
           Write output to a local file named like the remote file we get.
           (Only the file part of the remote file is used, the path is cut
           off.)

           The remote file name to use for saving is extracted from the
           given URL, nothing else.




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           Consequentially, the file will be saved in the current working
           directory. If you want the file saved in a different directory,
           make sure you change current working directory before you invoke
           curl with the -O, --remote-name flag!

           There is no URL decoding done on the file name. If it has %20 or
           other URL encoded parts of the name, they will end up as-is as
           file name.

           You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you
           have.

      --oauth2-bearer
           (IMAP, POP3, SMTP) Specify the Bearer Token for OAUTH 2.0 server
           authentication. The Bearer Token is used in conjunction with the
           user name which can be specified as part of the --url or -u, --
           user options.

           The Bearer Token and user name are formatted according to RFC
           6750.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      -p, --proxytunnel
           When an HTTP proxy is used (-x, --proxy), this option will cause
           non-HTTP protocols to attempt to tunnel through the proxy instead
           of merely using it to do HTTP-like operations. The tunnel
           approach is made with the HTTP proxy CONNECT request and requires
           that the proxy allows direct connect to the remote port number
           curl wants to tunnel through to.

      -P, --ftp-port <address>
           (FTP) Reverses the default initiator/listener roles when
           connecting with FTP. This switch makes curl use active mode. In
           practice, curl then tells the server to connect back to the
           client's specified address and port, while passive mode asks the
           server to setup an IP address and port for it to connect to.
           <address> should be one of:

           interface
                i.e "eth0" to specify which interface's IP address you want
                to use (Unix only)

           IP address
                i.e "192.168.10.1" to specify the exact IP address

           host name
                i.e "my.host.domain" to specify the machine




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           -    make curl pick the same IP address that is already used for
                the control connection

      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
      Disable the use of PORT with --ftp-pasv. Disable the attempt to use
      the EPRT command instead of PORT by using --disable-eprt. EPRT is
      really PORT++.

      Starting in 7.19.5, you can append ":[start]-[end]" to the right of
      the address, to tell curl what TCP port range to use. That means you
      specify a port range, from a lower to a higher number. A single number
      works as well, but do note that it increases the risk of failure since
      the port may not be available.

      --pass <phrase>
           (SSL/SSH) Passphrase for the private key

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      --post301
           (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC 2616/10.3.2 and not convert POST
           requests into GET requests when following a 301 redirection. The
           non-RFC behaviour is ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl does the
           conversion by default to maintain consistency. However, a server
           may require a POST to remain a POST after such a redirection.
           This option is meaningful only when using -L, --location (Added
           in 7.17.1)

      --post302
           (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC 2616/10.3.2 and not convert POST
           requests into GET requests when following a 302 redirection. The
           non-RFC behaviour is ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl does the
           conversion by default to maintain consistency. However, a server
           may require a POST to remain a POST after such a redirection.
           This option is meaningful only when using -L, --location (Added
           in 7.19.1)

      --post303
           (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC 2616/10.3.2 and not convert POST
           requests into GET requests when following a 303 redirection. The
           non-RFC behaviour is ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl does the
           conversion by default to maintain consistency. However, a server
           may require a POST to remain a POST after such a redirection.
           This option is meaningful only when using -L, --location (Added
           in 7.26.0)

      --proto <protocols>
           Tells curl to use the listed protocols for its initial retrieval.
           Protocols are evaluated left to right, are comma separated, and



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           are each a protocol name or 'all', optionally prefixed by zero or
           more modifiers. Available modifiers are:

           +  Permit this protocol in addition to protocols already
              permitted (this is the default if no modifier is used).

           -  Deny this protocol, removing it from the list of protocols
              already permitted.

           =  Permit only this protocol (ignoring the list already
              permitted), though subject to later modification by subsequent
              entries in the comma separated list.

           For example:

           --proto -ftps  uses the default protocols, but disables ftps

           --proto -all,https,+http
                          only enables http and https

           --proto =http,https
                          also only enables http and https

           Unknown protocols produce a warning. This allows scripts to
           safely rely on being able to disable potentially dangerous
           protocols, without relying upon support for that protocol being
           built into curl to avoid an error.

           This option can be used multiple times, in which case the effect
           is the same as concatenating the protocols into one instance of
           the option.

           (Added in 7.20.2)

      --proto-redir <protocols>
           Tells curl to use the listed protocols after a redirect. See --
           proto for how protocols are represented.

           (Added in 7.20.2)

      --proxy-anyauth
           Tells curl to pick a suitable authentication method when
           communicating with the given proxy. This might cause an extra
           request/response round-trip. (Added in 7.13.2)

      --proxy-basic
           Tells curl to use HTTP Basic authentication when communicating
           with the given proxy. Use --basic for enabling HTTP Basic with a
           remote host. Basic is the default authentication method curl uses



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           with proxies.

      --proxy-digest
           Tells curl to use HTTP Digest authentication when communicating
           with the given proxy. Use --digest for enabling HTTP Digest with
           a remote host.

      --proxy-negotiate
           Tells curl to use HTTP Negotiate authentication when
           communicating with the given proxy. Use --negotiate for enabling
           HTTP Negotiate with a remote host. (Added in 7.17.1)

      --proxy-ntlm
           Tells curl to use HTTP NTLM authentication when communicating
           with the given proxy. Use --ntlm for enabling NTLM with a remote
           host.

      --proxy1.0 <proxyhost[:port]>
           Use the specified HTTP 1.0 proxy. If the port number is not
           specified, it is assumed at port 1080.

           The only difference between this and the HTTP proxy option (-x,
           --proxy), is that attempts to use CONNECT through the proxy will
           specify an HTTP 1.0 protocol instead of the default HTTP 1.1.

      --pubkey <key>
           (SSH) Public key file name. Allows you to provide your public key
           in this separate file.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      -q   If used as the first parameter on the command line, the curlrc
           config file will not be read and used. See the -K, --config for
           details on the default config file search path.

      -Q, --quote <command>
           (FTP/SFTP) Send an arbitrary command to the remote FTP or SFTP
           server. Quote commands are sent BEFORE the transfer takes place
           (just after the initial PWD command in an FTP transfer, to be
           exact). To make commands take place after a successful transfer,
           prefix them with a dash '-'.  To make commands be sent after curl
           has changed the working directory, just before the transfer
           command(s), prefix the command with a '+' (this is only supported
           for FTP). You may specify any number of commands. If the server
           returns failure for one of the commands, the entire operation
           will be aborted. You must send syntactically correct FTP commands
           as RFC 959 defines to FTP servers, or one of the commands listed
           below to SFTP servers.  This option can be used multiple times.
           When speaking to an FTP server, prefix the command with an



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           asterisk (*) to make curl continue even if the command fails as
           by default curl will stop at first failure.

           SFTP is a binary protocol. Unlike for FTP, curl interprets SFTP
           quote commands itself before sending them to the server.  File
           names may be quoted shell-style to embed spaces or special
           characters.  Following is the list of all supported SFTP quote
           commands:

           chgrp group file
                The chgrp command sets the group ID of the file named by the
                file operand to the group ID specified by the group operand.
                The group operand is a decimal integer group ID.

           chmod mode file
                The chmod command modifies the file mode bits of the
                specified file. The mode operand is an octal integer mode
                number.

           chown user file
                The chown command sets the owner of the file named by the
                file operand to the user ID specified by the user operand.
                The user operand is a decimal integer user ID.

           ln source_file target_file
                The ln and symlink commands create a symbolic link at the
                target_file location pointing to the source_file location.

           mkdir directory_name
                The mkdir command creates the directory named by the
                directory_name operand.

           pwd  The pwd command returns the absolute pathname of the current
                working directory.

           rename source target
                The rename command renames the file or directory named by
                the source operand to the destination path named by the
                target operand.

           rm file
                The rm command removes the file specified by the file
                operand.

           rmdir directory
                The rmdir command removes the directory entry specified by
                the directory operand, provided it is empty.

           symlink source_file target_file



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                See ln.

      -r, --range <range>
           (HTTP/FTP/SFTP/FILE) Retrieve a byte range (i.e a partial
           document) from a HTTP/1.1, FTP or SFTP server or a local FILE.
           Ranges can be specified in a number of ways.

           0-499     specifies the first 500 bytes

           500-999   specifies the second 500 bytes

           -500      specifies the last 500 bytes

           9500-     specifies the bytes from offset 9500 and forward

           0-0,-1    specifies the first and last byte only(*)(H)

           500-700,600-799
                     specifies 300 bytes from offset 500(H)

           100-199,500-599
                     specifies two separate 100-byte ranges(*)(H)

      (*) = NOTE that this will cause the server to reply with a multipart
      response!

      Only digit characters (0-9) are valid in the 'start' and 'stop' fields
      of the 'start-stop' range syntax. If a non-digit character is given in
      the range, the server's response will be unspecified, depending on the
      server's configuration.

      You should also be aware that many HTTP/1.1 servers do not have this
      feature enabled, so that when you attempt to get a range, you'll
      instead get the whole document.

      FTP and SFTP range downloads only support the simple 'start-stop'
      syntax (optionally with one of the numbers omitted). FTP use depends
      on the extended FTP command SIZE.

      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      -R, --remote-time
           When used, this will make curl attempt to figure out the
           timestamp of the remote file, and if that is available make the
           local file get that same timestamp.

      --random-file <file>
           (SSL) Specify the path name to file containing what will be
           considered as random data. The data is used to seed the random



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           engine for SSL connections.  See also the --egd-file option.

      --raw
           (HTTP) When used, it disables all internal HTTP decoding of
           content or transfer encodings and instead makes them passed on
           unaltered, raw. (Added in 7.16.2)

      --remote-name-all
           This option changes the default action for all given URLs to be
           dealt with as if -O, --remote-name were used for each one. So if
           you want to disable that for a specific URL after --remote-name-
           all has been used, you must use "-o -" or --no-remote-name.
           (Added in 7.19.0)

      --resolve <host:port:address>
           Provide a custom address for a specific host and port pair. Using
           this, you can make the curl requests(s) use a specified address
           and prevent the otherwise normally resolved address to be used.
           Consider it a sort of /etc/hosts alternative provided on the
           command line. The port number should be the number used for the
           specific protocol the host will be used for. It means you need
           several entries if you want to provide address for the same host
           but different ports.

           This option can be used many times to add many host names to
           resolve.

           (Added in 7.21.3)

      --retry <num>
           If a transient error is returned when curl tries to perform a
           transfer, it will retry this number of times before giving up.
           Setting the number to 0 makes curl do no retries (which is the
           default). Transient error means either: a timeout, an FTP 4xx
           response code or an HTTP 5xx response code.

           When curl is about to retry a transfer, it will first wait one
           second and then for all forthcoming retries it will double the
           waiting time until it reaches 10 minutes which then will be the
           delay between the rest of the retries.  By using --retry-delay
           you disable this exponential backoff algorithm. See also --
           retry-max-time to limit the total time allowed for retries.
           (Added in 7.12.3)

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      --retry-delay <seconds>
           Make curl sleep this amount of time before each retry when a
           transfer has failed with a transient error (it changes the



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           default backoff time algorithm between retries). This option is
           only interesting if --retry is also used. Setting this delay to
           zero will make curl use the default backoff time.  (Added in
           7.12.3)

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      --retry-max-time <seconds>
           The retry timer is reset before the first transfer attempt.
           Retries will be done as usual (see --retry) as long as the timer
           hasn't reached this given limit. Notice that if the timer hasn't
           reached the limit, the request will be made and while performing,
           it may take longer than this given time period. To limit a single
           request's maximum time, use -m, --max-time.  Set this option to
           zero to not timeout retries. (Added in 7.12.3)

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      -s, --silent
           Silent or quiet mode. Don't show progress meter or error
           messages.  Makes Curl mute. It will still output the data you ask
           for, potentially even to the terminal/stdout unless you redirect
           it.

      --sasl-ir
           Enable initial response in SASL authentication.  (Added in
           7.31.0)

      -S, --show-error
           When used with -s it makes curl show an error message if it
           fails.

      --ssl
           (FTP, POP3, IMAP, SMTP) Try to use SSL/TLS for the connection.
           Reverts to a non-secure connection if the server doesn't support
           SSL/TLS.  See also --ftp-ssl-control and --ssl-reqd for different
           levels of encryption required. (Added in 7.20.0)

           This option was formerly known as --ftp-ssl (Added in 7.11.0).
           That option name can still be used but will be removed in a
           future version.

      --ssl-reqd
           (FTP, POP3, IMAP, SMTP) Require SSL/TLS for the connection.
           Terminates the connection if the server doesn't support SSL/TLS.
           (Added in 7.20.0)

           This option was formerly known as --ftp-ssl-reqd (added in
           7.15.5). That option name can still be used but will be removed



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           in a future version.

      --ssl-allow-beast
           (SSL) This option tells curl to not work around a security flaw
           in the SSL3 and TLS1.0 protocols known as BEAST.  If this option
           isn't used, the SSL layer may use work-arounds known to cause
           interoperability problems with some older SSL implementations.
           WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and by using this
           flag you ask for exactly that.  (Added in 7.25.0)

      --socks4 <host[:port]>
           Use the specified SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is not
           specified, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.15.2)

           This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
           are mutually exclusive.

           Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a
           socks4 proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4:// protocol prefix.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      --socks4a <host[:port]>
           Use the specified SOCKS4a proxy. If the port number is not
           specified, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.18.0)

           This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
           are mutually exclusive.

           Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a
           socks4a proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4a:// protocol
           prefix.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      --socks5-hostname <host[:port]>
           Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy (and let the proxy resolve the
           host name). If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at
           port 1080. (Added in 7.18.0)

           This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
           are mutually exclusive.

           Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a
           socks5 hostname proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5h://
           protocol prefix.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
           (This option was previously wrongly documented and used as --



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           socks without the number appended.)

      --socks5 <host[:port]>
           Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy - but resolve the host name
           locally. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at
           port 1080.

           This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
           are mutually exclusive.

           Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a
           socks5 proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5:// protocol prefix.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
           (This option was previously wrongly documented and used as --
           socks without the number appended.)

           This option (as well as --socks4) does not work with IPV6, FTPS
           or LDAP.

      --socks5-gssapi-service <servicename>
           The default service name for a socks server is rcmd/server-fqdn.
           This option allows you to change it.

           Examples: --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-service sockd would
           use sockd/proxy-name --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-service
           sockd/real-name would use sockd/real-name for cases where the
           proxy-name does not match the principal name.  (Added in 7.19.4).

      --socks5-gssapi-nec
           As part of the gssapi negotiation a protection mode is
           negotiated. RFC 1961 says in section 4.3/4.4 it should be
           protected, but the NEC reference implementation does not.  The
           option --socks5-gssapi-nec allows the unprotected exchange of the
           protection mode negotiation. (Added in 7.19.4).

      --stderr <file>
           Redirect all writes to stderr to the specified file instead. If
           the file name is a plain '-', it is instead written to stdout.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      -t, --telnet-option <OPT=val>
           Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are:

           TTYPE=<term> Sets the terminal type.

           XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets the X display location.




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           NEW_ENV=<var,val> Sets an environment variable.

      -T, --upload-file <file>
           This transfers the specified local file to the remote URL. If
           there is no file part in the specified URL, Curl will append the
           local file name. NOTE that you must use a trailing / on the last
           directory to really prove to Curl that there is no file name or
           curl will think that your last directory name is the remote file
           name to use. That will most likely cause the upload operation to
           fail. If this is used on an HTTP(S) server, the PUT command will
           be used.

           Use the file name "-" (a single dash) to use stdin instead of a
           given file.  Alternately, the file name "." (a single period) may
           be specified instead of "-" to use stdin in non-blocking mode to
           allow reading server output while stdin is being uploaded.

           You can specify one -T for each URL on the command line. Each -T
           + URL pair specifies what to upload and to where. curl also
           supports "globbing" of the -T argument, meaning that you can
           upload multiple files to a single URL by using the same URL
           globbing style supported in the URL, like this:

           curl -T "{file1,file2}" http://www.uploadtothissite.com

           or even

           curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.picturemania.com/upload/

      --tcp-nodelay
           Turn on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3) man
           page for details about this option. (Added in 7.11.2)

      --tftp-blksize <value>
           (TFTP) Set TFTP BLKSIZE option (must be >512). This is the block
           size that curl will try to use when transferring data to or from
           a TFTP server. By default 512 bytes will be used.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

           (Added in 7.20.0)

      --tlsauthtype <authtype>
           Set TLS authentication type. Currently, the only supported option
           is "SRP", for TLS-SRP (RFC 5054). If --tlsuser and --tlspassword
           are specified but --tlsauthtype is not, then this option defaults
           to "SRP".  (Added in 7.21.4)

      --tlspassword <password>



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           Set password for use with the TLS authentication method specified
           with --tlsauthtype. Requires that --tlsuser also be set.  (Added
           in 7.21.4)

      --tlsuser <user>
           Set username for use with the TLS authentication method specified
           with --tlsauthtype. Requires that --tlspassword also be set.
           (Added in 7.21.4)

      --tlsv1.0
           (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.0 when negotiating with a
           remote TLS server.  (Added in 7.34.0)

      --tlsv1.1
           (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.1 when negotiating with a
           remote TLS server.  (Added in 7.34.0)

      --tlsv1.2
           (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.2 when negotiating with a
           remote TLS server.  (Added in 7.34.0)

      --tr-encoding
           (HTTP) Request a compressed Transfer-Encoding response using one
           of the algorithms curl supports, and uncompress the data while
           receiving it.

           (Added in 7.21.6)

      --trace <file>
           Enables a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
           including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use
           "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

           This option overrides previous uses of -v, --verbose or --trace-
           ascii.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      --trace-ascii <file>
           Enables a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
           including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use
           "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

           This is very similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and
           only shows the ASCII part of the dump. It makes smaller output
           that might be easier to read for untrained humans.

           This option overrides previous uses of -v, --verbose or --trace.




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           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      --trace-time
           Prepends a time stamp to each trace or verbose line that curl
           displays.  (Added in 7.14.0)

      -u, --user <user:password;options>
           Specify the user name, password and optional login options to use
           for server authentication. Overrides -n, --netrc and --netrc-
           optional.

           If you simply specify the user name, with or without the login
           options, curl will prompt for a password.

           If you use an SSPI-enabled curl binary and perform NTLM
           authentication, you can force curl to select the user name and
           password from your environment by simply specifying a single
           colon with this option: "-u :" or by specfying the login options
           on their own, for example "-u ;auth=NTLM".

           You can use the optional login options part to specify protocol
           specific options that may be used during authentication. At
           present only IMAP, POP3 and SMTP support login options as part of
           the user login information. For more information about the login
           options please see RFC 2384, RFC 5092 and IETF draft draft-
           earhart-url-smtp-00.txt (Added in 7.31.0).

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      -U, --proxy-user <user:password>
           Specify the user name and password to use for proxy
           authentication.

           If you use an SSPI-enabled curl binary and do NTLM
           authentication, you can force curl to pick up the user name and
           password from your environment by simply specifying a single
           colon with this option: "-U :".

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      --url <URL>
           Specify a URL to fetch. This option is mostly handy when you want
           to specify URL(s) in a config file.

           This option may be used any number of times. To control where
           this URL is written, use the -o, --output or the -O, --remote-
           name options.

      -v, --verbose



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           Makes the fetching more verbose/talkative. Mostly useful for
           debugging. A line starting with '>' means "header data" sent by
           curl, '<' means "header data" received by curl that is hidden in
           normal cases, and a line starting with '*' means additional info
           provided by curl.

           Note that if you only want HTTP headers in the output, -i, --
           include might be the option you're looking for.

           If you think this option still doesn't give you enough details,
           consider using --trace or --trace-ascii instead.

           This option overrides previous uses of --trace-ascii or --trace.

           Use -s, --silent to make curl quiet.

      -w, --write-out <format>
           Defines what to display on stdout after a completed and
           successful operation. The format is a string that may contain
           plain text mixed with any number of variables. The string can be
           specified as "string", to get read from a particular file you
           specify it "@filename" and to tell curl to read the format from
           stdin you write "@-".

           The variables present in the output format will be substituted by
           the value or text that curl thinks fit, as described below. All
           variables are specified as %{variable_name} and to output a
           normal % you just write them as %%. You can output a newline by
           using \n, a carriage return with \r and a tab space with \t.

           NOTE: The %-symbol is a special symbol in the win32-environment,
           where all occurrences of % must be doubled when using this
           option.

           The variables available are:

           content_type   The Content-Type of the requested document, if
                          there was any.

           filename_effective
                          The ultimate filename that curl writes out to.
                          This is only meaningful if curl is told to write
                          to a file with the --remote-name or --output
                          option. It's most useful in combination with the
                          --remote-header-name option. (Added in 7.25.1)

           ftp_entry_path The initial path curl ended up in when logging on
                          to the remote FTP server. (Added in 7.15.4)




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           http_code      The numerical response code that was found in the
                          last retrieved HTTP(S) or FTP(s) transfer. In
                          7.18.2 the alias response_code was added to show
                          the same info.

           http_connect   The numerical code that was found in the last
                          response (from a proxy) to a curl CONNECT request.
                          (Added in 7.12.4)

           local_ip       The IP address of the local end of the most
                          recently done connection - can be either IPv4 or
                          IPv6 (Added in 7.29.0)

           local_port     The local port number of the most recently done
                          connection (Added in 7.29.0)

           num_connects   Number of new connects made in the recent
                          transfer. (Added in 7.12.3)

           num_redirects  Number of redirects that were followed in the
                          request. (Added in 7.12.3)

           redirect_url   When an HTTP request was made without -L to follow
                          redirects, this variable will show the actual URL
                          a redirect would take you to. (Added in 7.18.2)

           remote_ip      The remote IP address of the most recently done
                          connection - can be either IPv4 or IPv6 (Added in
                          7.29.0)

           remote_port    The remote port number of the most recently done
                          connection (Added in 7.29.0)

           size_download  The total amount of bytes that were downloaded.

           size_header    The total amount of bytes of the downloaded
                          headers.

           size_request   The total amount of bytes that were sent in the
                          HTTP request.

           size_upload    The total amount of bytes that were uploaded.

           speed_download The average download speed that curl measured for
                          the complete download. Bytes per second.

           speed_upload   The average upload speed that curl measured for
                          the complete upload. Bytes per second.




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           ssl_verify_result
                          The result of the SSL peer certificate
                          verification that was requested. 0 means the
                          verification was successful. (Added in 7.19.0)

           time_appconnect
                          The time, in seconds, it took from the start until
                          the SSL/SSH/etc connect/handshake to the remote
                          host was completed. (Added in 7.19.0)

           time_connect   The time, in seconds, it took from the start until
                          the TCP connect to the remote host (or proxy) was
                          completed.

           time_namelookup
                          The time, in seconds, it took from the start until
                          the name resolving was completed.

           time_pretransfer
                          The time, in seconds, it took from the start until
                          the file transfer was just about to begin. This
                          includes all pre-transfer commands and
                          negotiations that are specific to the particular
                          protocol(s) involved.

           time_redirect  The time, in seconds, it took for all redirection
                          steps include name lookup, connect, pretransfer
                          and transfer before the final transaction was
                          started. time_redirect shows the complete
                          execution time for multiple redirections. (Added
                          in 7.12.3)

           time_starttransfer
                          The time, in seconds, it took from the start until
                          the first byte was just about to be transferred.
                          This includes time_pretransfer and also the time
                          the server needed to calculate the result.

           time_total     The total time, in seconds, that the full
                          operation lasted. The time will be displayed with
                          millisecond resolution.

           url_effective  The URL that was fetched last. This is most
                          meaningful if you've told curl to follow location:
                          headers.

      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      -x, --proxy <[protocol://][user:password@]proxyhost[:port]>



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           Use the specified proxy.

           The proxy string can be specified with a protocol:// prefix to
           specify alternative proxy protocols. Use socks4://, socks4a://,
           socks5:// or socks5h:// to request the specific SOCKS version to
           be used. No protocol specified, http:// and all others will be
           treated as HTTP proxies. (The protocol support was added in curl
           7.21.7)

           If the port number is not specified in the proxy string, it is
           assumed to be 1080.

           This option overrides existing environment variables that set the
           proxy to use. If there's an environment variable setting a proxy,
           you can set proxy to "" to override it.

           All operations that are performed over an HTTP proxy will
           transparently be converted to HTTP. It means that certain
           protocol specific operations might not be available. This is not
           the case if you can tunnel through the proxy, as one with the -p,
           --proxytunnel option.

           User and password that might be provided in the proxy string are
           URL decoded by curl. This allows you to pass in special
           characters such as @ by using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

           The proxy host can be specified the exact same way as the proxy
           environment variables, including the protocol prefix (http://)
           and the embedded user + password.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      -X, --request <command>
           (HTTP) Specifies a custom request method to use when
           communicating with the HTTP server.  The specified request will
           be used instead of the method otherwise used (which defaults to
           GET). Read the HTTP 1.1 specification for details and
           explanations. Common additional HTTP requests include PUT and
           DELETE, but related technologies like WebDAV offers PROPFIND,
           COPY, MOVE and more.

           Normally you don't need this option. All sorts of GET, HEAD, POST
           and PUT requests are rather invoked by using dedicated command
           line options.

           This option only changes the actual word used in the HTTP
           request, it does not alter the way curl behaves. So for example
           if you want to make a proper HEAD request, using -X HEAD will not
           suffice. You need to use the -I, --head option.



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                                27 July 2012



           (FTP) Specifies a custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when
           doing file lists with FTP.

           (POP3) Specifies a custom POP3 command to use instead of LIST or
           RETR. (Added in 7.26.0)

           (IMAP) Specifies a custom IMAP command to use insead of LIST.
           (Added in 7.30.0)

           (SMTP) Specifies a custom SMTP command to use instead of HELP or
           VRFY. (Added in 7.34.0)

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      --xattr
           When saving output to a file, this option tells curl to store
           certain file metadata in extended file attributes. Currently, the
           URL is stored in the xdg.origin.url attribute and, for HTTP, the
           content type is stored in the mime_type attribute. If the file
           system does not support extended attributes, a warning is issued.


      -y, --speed-time <time>
           If a download is slower than speed-limit bytes per second during
           a speed-time period, the download gets aborted. If speed-time is
           used, the default speed-limit will be 1 unless set with -Y.

           This option controls transfers and thus will not affect slow
           connects etc. If this is a concern for you, try the --connect-
           timeout option.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      -Y, --speed-limit <speed>
           If a download is slower than this given speed (in bytes per
           second) for speed-time seconds it gets aborted. speed-time is set
           with -y and is 30 if not set.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      -z, --time-cond <date expression>|<file>
           (HTTP/FTP) Request a file that has been modified later than the
           given time and date, or one that has been modified before that
           time. The <date expression> can be all sorts of date strings or
           if it doesn't match any internal ones, it is taken as a filename
           and tries to get the modification date (mtime) from <file>
           instead. See the curl_getdate(3) man pages for date expression
           details.




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 curl(1)                         Curl 7.27.0                         curl(1)
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                                27 July 2012



           Start the date expression with a dash (-) to make it request for
           a document that is older than the given date/time, default is a
           document that is newer than the specified date/time.

           If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

      -h, --help
           Usage help.

      -M, --manual
           Manual. Display the huge help text.

      -V, --version
           Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

           The first line includes the full version of curl, libcurl and
           other 3rd party libraries linked with the executable.

           The second line (starts with "Protocols:") shows all protocols
           that libcurl reports to support.

           The third line (starts with "Features:") shows specific features
           libcurl reports to offer. Available features include:

           IPv6 You can use IPv6 with this.

           krb4 Krb4 for FTP is supported.

           SSL  HTTPS and FTPS are supported.

           libz Automatic decompression of compressed files over HTTP is
                supported.

           NTLM NTLM authentication is supported.

           GSS-Negotiate
                Negotiate authentication and krb5 for FTP is supported.

           Debug
                This curl uses a libcurl built with Debug. This enables more
                error-tracking and memory debugging etc. For curl-developers
                only!

           AsynchDNS
                This curl uses asynchronous name resolves.

           SPNEGO
                SPNEGO Negotiate authentication is supported.




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 Curl Manual                                                     Curl Manual

                                27 July 2012



           Largefile
                This curl supports transfers of large files, files larger
                than 2GB.

           IDN  This curl supports IDN - international domain names.

           SSPI SSPI is supported. If you use NTLM and set a blank user
                name, curl will authenticate with your current user and
                password.

           TLS-SRP
                SRP (Secure Remote Password) authentication is supported for
                TLS.

           Metalink
                This curl supports Metalink (both version 3 and 4 (RFC
                5854)), which describes mirrors and hashes.  curl will use
                mirrors for failover if there are errors (such as the file
                or server not being available).

 FILES
      ~/.curlrc
           Default config file, see -K, --config for details.

 ENVIRONMENT
      The environment variables can be specified in lower case or upper
      case. The lower case version has precedence. http_proxy is an
      exception as it is only available in lower case.

      Using an environment variable to set the proxy has the same effect as
      using the --proxy option.


      http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
           Sets the proxy server to use for HTTP.

      HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
           Sets the proxy server to use for HTTPS.

      [url-protocol]_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
           Sets the proxy server to use for [url-protocol], where the
           protocol is a protocol that curl supports and as specified in a
           URL. FTP, FTPS, POP3, IMAP, SMTP, LDAP etc.

      ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
           Sets the proxy server to use if no protocol-specific proxy is
           set.

      NO_PROXY <comma-separated list of hosts>



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 Curl Manual                                                     Curl Manual

                                27 July 2012



           list of host names that shouldn't go through any proxy. If set to
           a asterisk '*' only, it matches all hosts.

 PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES
      Since curl version 7.21.7, the proxy string may be specified with a
      protocol:// prefix to specify alternative proxy protocols.

      If no protocol is specified in the proxy string or if the string
      doesn't match a supported one, the proxy will be treated as an HTTP
      proxy.

      The supported proxy protocol prefixes are as follows:

      socks4://
           Makes it the equivalent of --socks4

      socks4a://
           Makes it the equivalent of --socks4a

      socks5://
           Makes it the equivalent of --socks5

      socks5h://
           Makes it the equivalent of --socks5-hostname

 EXIT CODES
      There are a bunch of different error codes and their corresponding
      error messages that may appear during bad conditions. At the time of
      this writing, the exit codes are:

      1    Unsupported protocol. This build of curl has no support for this
           protocol.

      2    Failed to initialize.

      3    URL malformed. The syntax was not correct.

      4    A feature or option that was needed to perform the desired
           request was not enabled or was explicitly disabled at build-time.
           To make curl able to do this, you probably need another build of
           libcurl!

      5    Couldn't resolve proxy. The given proxy host could not be
           resolved.

      6    Couldn't resolve host. The given remote host was not resolved.

      7    Failed to connect to host.




                                   - 46 -      Formatted:  December 12, 2019






 curl(1)                         Curl 7.27.0                         curl(1)
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                                27 July 2012



      8    FTP weird server reply. The server sent data curl couldn't parse.

      9    FTP access denied. The server denied login or denied access to
           the particular resource or directory you wanted to reach. Most
           often you tried to change to a directory that doesn't exist on
           the server.

      11   FTP weird PASS reply. Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to the
           PASS request.

      13   FTP weird PASV reply, Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to the
           PASV request.

      14   FTP weird 227 format. Curl couldn't parse the 227-line the server
           sent.

      15   FTP can't get host. Couldn't resolve the host IP we got in the
           227-line.

      17   FTP couldn't set binary. Couldn't change transfer method to
           binary.

      18   Partial file. Only a part of the file was transferred.

      19   FTP couldn't download/access the given file, the RETR (or
           similar) command failed.

      21   FTP quote error. A quote command returned error from the server.

      22   HTTP page not retrieved. The requested url was not found or
           returned another error with the HTTP error code being 400 or
           above. This return code only appears if -f, --fail is used.

      23   Write error. Curl couldn't write data to a local filesystem or
           similar.

      25   FTP couldn't STOR file. The server denied the STOR operation,
           used for FTP uploading.

      26   Read error. Various reading problems.

      27   Out of memory. A memory allocation request failed.

      28   Operation timeout. The specified time-out period was reached
           according to the conditions.

      30   FTP PORT failed. The PORT command failed. Not all FTP servers
           support the PORT command, try doing a transfer using PASV
           instead!



                                   - 47 -      Formatted:  December 12, 2019






 curl(1)                         Curl 7.27.0                         curl(1)
 Curl Manual                                                     Curl Manual

                                27 July 2012



      31   FTP couldn't use REST. The REST command failed. This command is
           used for resumed FTP transfers.

      33   HTTP range error. The range "command" didn't work.

      34   HTTP post error. Internal post-request generation error.

      35   SSL connect error. The SSL handshaking failed.

      36   FTP bad download resume. Couldn't continue an earlier aborted
           download.

      37   FILE couldn't read file. Failed to open the file. Permissions?

      38   LDAP cannot bind. LDAP bind operation failed.

      39   LDAP search failed.

      41   Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

      42   Aborted by callback. An application told curl to abort the
           operation.

      43   Internal error. A function was called with a bad parameter.

      45   Interface error. A specified outgoing interface could not be
           used.

      47   Too many redirects. When following redirects, curl hit the
           maximum amount.

      48   Unknown option specified to libcurl. This indicates that you
           passed a weird option to curl that was passed on to libcurl and
           rejected. Read up in the manual!

      49   Malformed telnet option.

      51   The peer's SSL certificate or SSH MD5 fingerprint was not OK.

      52   The server didn't reply anything, which here is considered an
           error.

      53   SSL crypto engine not found.

      54   Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default.

      55   Failed sending network data.

      56   Failure in receiving network data.



                                   - 48 -      Formatted:  December 12, 2019






 curl(1)                         Curl 7.27.0                         curl(1)
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                                27 July 2012



      58   Problem with the local certificate.

      59   Couldn't use specified SSL cipher.

      60   Peer certificate cannot be authenticated with known CA
           certificates.

      61   Unrecognized transfer encoding.

      62   Invalid LDAP URL.

      63   Maximum file size exceeded.

      64   Requested FTP SSL level failed.

      65   Sending the data requires a rewind that failed.

      66   Failed to initialise SSL Engine.

      67   The user name, password, or similar was not accepted and curl
           failed to log in.

      68   File not found on TFTP server.

      69   Permission problem on TFTP server.

      70   Out of disk space on TFTP server.

      71   Illegal TFTP operation.

      72   Unknown TFTP transfer ID.

      73   File already exists (TFTP).

      74   No such user (TFTP).

      75   Character conversion failed.

      76   Character conversion functions required.

      77   Problem with reading the SSL CA cert (path? access rights?).

      78   The resource referenced in the URL does not exist.

      79   An unspecified error occurred during the SSH session.

      80   Failed to shut down the SSL connection.

      82   Could not load CRL file, missing or wrong format (added in



                                   - 49 -      Formatted:  December 12, 2019






 curl(1)                         Curl 7.27.0                         curl(1)
 Curl Manual                                                     Curl Manual

                                27 July 2012



           7.19.0).

      83   Issuer check failed (added in 7.19.0).

      84   The FTP PRET command failed

      85   RTSP: mismatch of CSeq numbers

      86   RTSP: mismatch of Session Identifiers

      87   unable to parse FTP file list

      88   FTP chunk callback reported error

      89   No connection available, the session will be queued

      XX   More error codes will appear here in future releases. The
           existing ones are meant to never change.

 AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS
      Daniel Stenberg is the main author, but the whole list of contributors
      is found in the separate THANKS file.

 WWW
      http://curl.haxx.se

 FTP
      ftp://ftp.sunet.se/pub/www/utilities/curl/

 SEE ALSO
      ftp(1), wget(1)





















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