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 MAN2HTML(1)                    Version 2.02                     MAN2HTML(1)
                                23 June 1998

      man2html - convert a UNIX manual page file from nroff/troff -man
      format to HTML

      man2html [ -check-html ] [ -grammar-level grammar ]
               [ -outdirectory directoryname ] [ -prettyprint ]
               [ -split-limit filesize-in-bytes ]

      man2html converts UNIX manual page files named on  the  command  line,
      from  nroff(1)/troff(1)  -man  format  to  strictly-grammar-conforming

      The output files have the same base name (or  the  base  name  with  a
      numeric  suffix,  if  output  HTML  file  splitting is requested), but
      extension .html.

      Although  some  vendors,  such  as  Sun  Microsystems,  provide  clear
      documentation  of how manual pages should be written, many manual page
      authors ignore  those  recommendations,  and  use  arbitrary  [nt]roff
      markup  to  achieve  the  traditional appearance of UNIX manual pages,
      without actually using the standard -man format commands.

      man2html works quite well  on  Sun  manual  pages,  but  may  be  less
      successful  on  manual  pages  from other sources.  In such a case, an
      alternative may be  to  use  T.  A.  Phelp's  RosettaMan(1),  commonly
      installed  as  rman(1).  That program works on the output of nroff(1),
      and attempts to guess manual page structure from  the  horizontal  and
      vertical  spacing  in  order to add HTML markup.  When vendor-provided
      manual pages are available only in preformatted form, as  on  IBM  AIX
      and  SGI IRIX systems, rman(1) may be your only choice.  However, when
      man2html can be used successfully, it can often do a better  job  than
      rman(1),  because  it  has  a  better  understanding  of  the document
      structure implied by [nt]roff manual-page markup.

      Command-line options may be abbreviated  to  any  unique  prefix,  and
      letter  case  is  significant.  Options and files are processed in the
      order found; thus, options affect only files that follow them  on  the
      command line.

      -check-html    Check the output HTML for validity with a rigorous SGML
                     parser, such as html-check(1) or html-ncheck(1).

      -grammar-level grammar
                     Specify a grammar level to select a suitable
                     <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "...">

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 MAN2HTML(1)                    Version 2.02                     MAN2HTML(1)
                                23 June 1998

                     declaration.  Acceptable values are: 0, 1, 2, 2-strict,
                     3,  3-strict,  3.2,  4,  4-loose,  Cougar,  Mosaic, and
                     Netscape [default: 2].

      -outdirectory directoryname
                     Provide an alternate directory into which  output  HTML
                     files   are   placed.    The  default  is  the  current

      -prettyprint    Prettyprint  each  output  file  with  html-pretty(1).
                     Prettyprinting   is   done   before  any  syntax  check
                     requested by the -check-html option.

      -split-limit filesize-in-bytes
                     Split the translated HTML from  input  files  that  are
                     larger  than  the  specified  size into multiple output
                     HTML files:  a  root  file,  and  section  files  named
                     basename-nn.html,  where  basename  is  the manual page
                     file name with directory path  and  extension  removed,
                     and  nn  is  a section number 01, 02, ...  [default: no
                     output splitting].

                     The root file will contain a  table  of  contents  that
                     directs  the  reader  to the section files, and each of
                     those begins and ends with a  navigation  command  area
                     that  allows  moving  one  to  three sections in either
                     direction, as well as back up to the root file.

                     This option permits large manual page files to be split
                     into smaller parts that load faster over the World-Wide
                     Web,   although   with   the    possibly    significant
                     disadvantage  that  the reader can no longer search the
                     entire document with a single command.

      The level 3 grammar has expired; some of  its  features,  particularly
      the  support  for  markup of mathematics, will appear in a future HTML
      grammar level.

      The version 3.2 grammar  is  a  stopgap,  which,  despite  its  higher
      number,  lies  approximately  between  2  and  3  in features.  It was
      released on November 5, 1996, at  in  order
      to  provide a stable grammar toward which WWW browser developers could

      The next version of HTML, code-named Cougar, is under development, and
      will  become version 4.0 when it is finally released.  The first draft
      public release was on 8 July 1997, and that was followed by a proposed
      recommended version on 7 November 1997.

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 MAN2HTML(1)                    Version 2.02                     MAN2HTML(1)
                                23 June 1998

      There are only four potential differences in the  output  of  man2html
      for these grammar levels:

           +   The output <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "...">  declaration  depends
               on the grammar level.

           +   At version 3 and above, the SGML entity &nbsp;  can  be  used
               for  non-breakable  space instead of the less obvious numeric
               entity &#160; which is required by the level 2 grammar.

           +   At versions 3 and 3.2, the SGML entity &quot;, representing a
               quotation  mark, must be replaced by a numeric entity, &#34;,
               because of an unfortunate error of omission in the grammars.

           +   At version 3.2 and higher, the output HTML will use  <CENTER>
               ...  </CENTER>  directives  to  support  centered  text.   At
               earlier grammar levels, centering requests are  ignored,  but
               the  request  is  preserved in a comment, and lines are still
               broken as they would be when centered.

               Centering is exceedingly rare in manual  page  files  (it  is
               completely  absent  from all of Sun's standard manual pages),
               so the default  level  2  grammar  should  almost  always  be

      amaya(1), arena(1), chimera(1), grail(1),  hotjava(1),  html-check(1),
      html-ncheck(1),     html-norm(1),     html-pretty(1),    html-spam(1),
      html2latex(1),   htmlchek(1),    jde(1),    latex2html(1),    lynx(1),
      netscape(1),    nsgmls(1),    panorama(1),   rman(1),   RosettaMan(1),
      rtf2html(1), sgmlnorm(1), sgmls(1), spam(1),  spent(1),  texi2html(1),

      Nelson H. F. Beebe, Ph.D.
      Center for Scientific Computing
      University of Utah
      Department of Mathematics, 322 INSCC
      155 S 1400 E RM 233
      Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090
      Tel: +1 801 581 5254
      FAX: +1 801 585 1640, +1 801 581 4148
      Email:,, (Internet)
      WWW URL:

      man2html is freely available; its master distribution can be found at


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 MAN2HTML(1)                    Version 2.02                     MAN2HTML(1)
                                23 June 1998

      in the file man2html-x.yy.tar.gz where x.yy is  the  current  version.
      Other distribution formats are usually available in the same location.
      Several  other  SGML  and  HTML  tools  are  available  in  that  same

      That site is mirrored to several other Internet archives, so  you  may
      also  be  able to find it elsewhere on the Internet; try searching for
      the string man2html at one or more of the popular  Web  search  sites,
      such as


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