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 CERTUTIL(1)                      nss-tools                      CERTUTIL(1)
 NSS Security Tools                                       NSS Security Tools

                                19 July 2013



 NAME
      certutil - Manage keys and certificate in both NSS databases and other
      NSS tokens

 SYNOPSIS
      certutil [options] [[arguments]]

 STATUS
      This documentation is still work in progress. Please contribute to the
      initial review in m[blue]Mozilla NSS bug 836477m[][1]

 DESCRIPTION
      The Certificate Database Tool, certutil, is a command-line utility
      that can create and modify certificate and key databases. It can
      specifically list, generate, modify, or delete certificates, create or
      change the password, generate new public and private key pairs,
      display the contents of the key database, or delete key pairs within
      the key database.

      Certificate issuance, part of the key and certificate management
      process, requires that keys and certificates be created in the key
      database. This document discusses certificate and key database
      management. For information on the security module database
      management, see the modutil manpage.

 COMMAND OPTIONS AND ARGUMENTS
      Running certutil always requires one and only one command option to
      specify the type of certificate operation. Each command option may
      take zero or more arguments. The command option -H will list all the
      command options and their relevant arguments.

      Command Options

      -A
          Add an existing certificate to a certificate database. The
          certificate database should already exist; if one is not present,
          this command option will initialize one by default.

      -B
          Run a series of commands from the specified batch file. This
          requires the -i argument.

      -C
          Create a new binary certificate file from a binary certificate
          request file. Use the -i argument to specify the certificate
          request file. If this argument is not used, certutil prompts for a
          filename.

      -D



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                                19 July 2013



          Delete a certificate from the certificate database.

      -E
          Add an email certificate to the certificate database.

      -F
          Delete a private key from a key database. Specify the key to
          delete with the -n argument. Specify the database from which to
          delete the key with the -d argument. Use the -k argument to
          specify explicitly whether to delete a DSA, RSA, or ECC key. If
          you don't use the -k argument, the option looks for an RSA key
          matching the specified nickname.

          When you delete keys, be sure to also remove any certificates
          associated with those keys from the certificate database, by using
          -D. Some smart cards do not let you remove a public key you have
          generated. In such a case, only the private key is deleted from
          the key pair. You can display the public key with the command
          certutil -K -h tokenname.

      -G
          Generate a new public and private key pair within a key database.
          The key database should already exist; if one is not present, this
          command option will initialize one by default. Some smart cards
          can store only one key pair. If you create a new key pair for such
          a card, the previous pair is overwritten.

      -H
          Display a list of the command options and arguments.

      -K
          List the key ID of keys in the key database. A key ID is the
          modulus of the RSA key or the publicValue of the DSA key. IDs are
          displayed in hexadecimal ("0x" is not shown).

      -L
          List all the certificates, or display information about a named
          certificate, in a certificate database. Use the -h tokenname
          argument to specify the certificate database on a particular
          hardware or software token.

      -M
          Modify a certificate's trust attributes using the values of the -t
          argument.

      -N
          Create new certificate and key databases.

      -O



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                                19 July 2013



          Print the certificate chain.

      -R
          Create a certificate request file that can be submitted to a
          Certificate Authority (CA) for processing into a finished
          certificate. Output defaults to standard out unless you use -o
          output-file argument. Use the -a argument to specify ASCII output.

      -S
          Create an individual certificate and add it to a certificate
          database.

      -T
          Reset the key database or token.

      -U
          List all available modules or print a single named module.

      -V
          Check the validity of a certificate and its attributes.

      -W
          Change the password to a key database.

      --merge
          Merge two databases into one.

      --upgrade-merge
          Upgrade an old database and merge it into a new database. This is
          used to migrate legacy NSS databases (cert8.db and key3.db) into
          the newer SQLite databases (cert9.db and key4.db).

      Arguments

      Arguments modify a command option and are usually lower case, numbers,
      or symbols.

      -a
          Use ASCII format or allow the use of ASCII format for input or
          output. This formatting follows RFC 1113. For certificate
          requests, ASCII output defaults to standard output unless
          redirected.

      -b validity-time
          Specify a time at which a certificate is required to be valid. Use
          when checking certificate validity with the -V option. The format
          of the validity-time argument is YYMMDDHHMMSS[+HHMM|-HHMM|Z],
          which allows offsets to be set relative to the validity end time.
          Specifying seconds (SS) is optional. When specifying an explicit



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                                19 July 2013



          time, use a Z at the end of the term, YYMMDDHHMMSSZ, to close it.
          When specifying an offset time, use YYMMDDHHMMSS+HHMM or
          YYMMDDHHMMSS-HHMM for adding or subtracting time, respectively.

          If this option is not used, the validity check defaults to the
          current system time.

      -c issuer
          Identify the certificate of the CA from which a new certificate
          will derive its authenticity. Use the exact nickname or alias of
          the CA certificate, or use the CA's email address. Bracket the
          issuer string with quotation marks if it contains spaces.

      -d [prefix]directory
          Specify the database directory containing the certificate and key
          database files.

          certutil supports two types of databases: the legacy security
          databases (cert8.db, key3.db, and secmod.db) and new SQLite
          databases (cert9.db, key4.db, and pkcs11.txt).

          NSS recognizes the following prefixes:

          +   sql: requests the newer database

          +   dbm: requests the legacy database

          If no prefix is specified the default type is retrieved from
          NSS_DEFAULT_DB_TYPE. If NSS_DEFAULT_DB_TYPE is not set then dbm:
          is the default.

      -e
          Check a certificate's signature during the process of validating a
          certificate.

      -f password-file
          Specify a file that will automatically supply the password to
          include in a certificate or to access a certificate database. This
          is a plain-text file containing one password. Be sure to prevent
          unauthorized access to this file.

      -g keysize
          Set a key size to use when generating new public and private key
          pairs. The minimum is 512 bits and the maximum is 8192 bits. The
          default is 1024 bits. Any size between the minimum and maximum is
          allowed.

      -h tokenname
          Specify the name of a token to use or act on. If not specified the



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          default token is the internal database slot.

      -i input_file
          Pass an input file to the command. Depending on the command
          option, an input file can be a specific certificate, a certificate
          request file, or a batch file of commands.

      -k key-type-or-id
          Specify the type or specific ID of a key.

          The valid key type options are rsa, dsa, ec, or all. The default
          value is rsa. Specifying the type of key can avoid mistakes caused
          by duplicate nicknames. Giving a key type generates a new key
          pair; giving the ID of an existing key reuses that key pair (which
          is required to renew certificates).

      -l
          Display detailed information when validating a certificate with
          the -V option.

      -m serial-number
          Assign a unique serial number to a certificate being created. This
          operation should be performed by a CA. If no serial number is
          provided a default serial number is made from the current time.
          Serial numbers are limited to integers

      -n nickname
          Specify the nickname of a certificate or key to list, create, add
          to a database, modify, or validate. Bracket the nickname string
          with quotation marks if it contains spaces.

      -o output-file
          Specify the output file name for new certificates or binary
          certificate requests. Bracket the output-file string with
          quotation marks if it contains spaces. If this argument is not
          used the output destination defaults to standard output.

      -P dbPrefix
          Specify the prefix used on the certificate and key database file.
          This argument is provided to support legacy servers. Most
          applications do not use a database prefix.

      -p phone
          Specify a contact telephone number to include in new certificates
          or certificate requests. Bracket this string with quotation marks
          if it contains spaces.

      -q pqgfile or curve-name
          Read an alternate PQG value from the specified file when



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          generating DSA key pairs. If this argument is not used, certutil
          generates its own PQG value. PQG files are created with a separate
          DSA utility.

          Elliptic curve name is one of the ones from SUITE B: nistp256,
          nistp384, nistp521

          If NSS has been compiled with support curves outside of SUITE B:
          sect163k1, nistk163, sect163r1, sect163r2, nistb163, sect193r1,
          sect193r2, sect233k1, nistk233, sect233r1, nistb233, sect239k1,
          sect283k1, nistk283, sect283r1, nistb283, sect409k1, nistk409,
          sect409r1, nistb409, sect571k1, nistk571, sect571r1, nistb571,
          secp160k1, secp160r1, secp160r2, secp192k1, secp192r1, nistp192,
          secp224k1, secp224r1, nistp224, secp256k1, secp256r1, secp384r1,
          secp521r1, prime192v1, prime192v2, prime192v3, prime239v1,
          prime239v2, prime239v3, c2pnb163v1, c2pnb163v2, c2pnb163v3,
          c2pnb176v1, c2tnb191v1, c2tnb191v2, c2tnb191v3, c2pnb208w1,
          c2tnb239v1, c2tnb239v2, c2tnb239v3, c2pnb272w1, c2pnb304w1,
          c2tnb359w1, c2pnb368w1, c2tnb431r1, secp112r1, secp112r2,
          secp128r1, secp128r2, sect113r1, sect113r2 sect131r1, sect131r2

      -r
          Display a certificate's binary DER encoding when listing
          information about that certificate with the -L option.

      -s subject
          Identify a particular certificate owner for new certificates or
          certificate requests. Bracket this string with quotation marks if
          it contains spaces. The subject identification format follows RFC
          #1485.

      -t trustargs
          Specify the trust attributes to modify in an existing certificate
          or to apply to a certificate when creating it or adding it to a
          database. There are three available trust categories for each
          certificate, expressed in the order SSL, email, object signing for
          each trust setting. In each category position, use none, any, or
          all of the attribute codes:

          +   p - Valid peer

          +   P - Trusted peer (implies p)

          +   c - Valid CA

          +   T - Trusted CA (implies c)

          +   C - trusted CA for client authentication (ssl server only)




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                                19 July 2013



          +   u - user

          The attribute codes for the categories are separated by commas,
          and the entire set of attributes enclosed by quotation marks. For
          example:

          -t "TCu,Cu,Tuw"

          Use the -L option to see a list of the current certificates and
          trust attributes in a certificate database.

      -u certusage
          Specify a usage context to apply when validating a certificate
          with the -V option.

          The contexts are the following:

          +   C (as an SSL client)

          +   V (as an SSL server)

          +   S (as an email signer)

          +   R (as an email recipient)

          +   O (as an OCSP status responder)

          +   J (as an object signer)

      -v valid-months
          Set the number of months a new certificate will be valid. The
          validity period begins at the current system time unless an offset
          is added or subtracted with the -w option. If this argument is not
          used, the default validity period is three months.

      -w offset-months
          Set an offset from the current system time, in months, for the
          beginning of a certificate's validity period. Use when creating
          the certificate or adding it to a database. Express the offset in
          integers, using a minus sign (-) to indicate a negative offset. If
          this argument is not used, the validity period begins at the
          current system time. The length of the validity period is set with
          the -v argument.

      -X
          Force the key and certificate database to open in read-write mode.
          This is used with the -U and -L command options.

      -x



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                                19 July 2013



          Use certutil to generate the signature for a certificate being
          created or added to a database, rather than obtaining a signature
          from a separate CA.

      -y exp
          Set an alternate exponent value to use in generating a new RSA
          public key for the database, instead of the default value of
          65537. The available alternate values are 3 and 17.

      -z noise-file
          Read a seed value from the specified file to generate a new
          private and public key pair. This argument makes it possible to
          use hardware-generated seed values or manually create a value from
          the keyboard. The minimum file size is 20 bytes.

      -0 SSO_password
          Set a site security officer password on a token.

      -1 | --keyUsage keyword,keyword
          Set a Netscape Certificate Type Extension in the certificate.
          There are several available keywords:

          +   digital signature

          +   nonRepudiation

          +   keyEncipherment

          +   dataEncipherment

          +   keyAgreement

          +   certSigning

          +   crlSigning

          +   critical

      -2
          Add a basic constraint extension to a certificate that is being
          created or added to a database. This extension supports the
          certificate chain verification process.  certutil prompts for the
          certificate constraint extension to select.

          X.509 certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

      -3
          Add an authority key ID extension to a certificate that is being
          created or added to a database. This extension supports the



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 CERTUTIL(1)                      nss-tools                      CERTUTIL(1)
 NSS Security Tools                                       NSS Security Tools

                                19 July 2013



          identification of a particular certificate, from among multiple
          certificates associated with one subject name, as the correct
          issuer of a certificate. The Certificate Database Tool will prompt
          you to select the authority key ID extension.

          X.509 certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

      -4
          Add a CRL distribution point extension to a certificate that is
          being created or added to a database. This extension identifies
          the URL of a certificate's associated certificate revocation list
          (CRL).  certutil prompts for the URL.

          X.509 certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

      -5 | --nsCertType keyword,keyword
          Add a Netscape certificate type extension to a certificate that is
          being created or added to the database. There are several
          available keywords:

          +   sslClient

          +   sslServer

          +   smime

          +   objectSigning

          +   sslCA

          +   smimeCA

          +   objectSigningCA

          +   critical

          X.509 certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

      -6 | --extKeyUsage keyword,keyword
          Add an extended key usage extension to a certificate that is being
          created or added to the database. Several keywords are available:

          +   serverAuth

          +   clientAuth

          +   codeSigning

          +   emailProtection



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          +   timeStamp

          +   ocspResponder

          +   stepUp

          +   msTrustListSign

          +   critical

          X.509 certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

      -7 emailAddrs
          Add a comma-separated list of email addresses to the subject
          alternative name extension of a certificate or certificate request
          that is being created or added to the database. Subject
          alternative name extensions are described in Section 4.2.1.7 of
          RFC 3280.

      -8 dns-names
          Add a comma-separated list of DNS names to the subject alternative
          name extension of a certificate or certificate request that is
          being created or added to the database. Subject alternative name
          extensions are described in Section 4.2.1.7 of RFC 3280.

      --extAIA
          Add the Authority Information Access extension to the certificate.
          X.509 certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

      --extSIA
          Add the Subject Information Access extension to the certificate.
          X.509 certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

      --extCP
          Add the Certificate Policies extension to the certificate. X.509
          certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

      --extPM
          Add the Policy Mappings extension to the certificate. X.509
          certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

      --extPC
          Add the Policy Constraints extension to the certificate. X.509
          certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

      --extIA
          Add the Inhibit Any Policy Access extension to the certificate.
          X.509 certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.




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                                19 July 2013



      --extSKID
          Add the Subject Key ID extension to the certificate. X.509
          certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

      --extNC
          Add a Name Constraint extension to the certificate. X.509
          certificate extensions are described in RFC 5280.

      --keyAttrFlags attrflags
          PKCS #11 key Attributes. Comma separated list of key attribute
          flags, selected from the following list of choices: {token |
          session} {public | private} {sensitive | insensitive} {modifiable
          | unmodifiable} {extractable | unextractable}

      --keyFlagsOn opflags, --keyFlagsOff opflags
          PKCS #11 key Operation Flags. Comma separated list of one or more
          of the following: {token | session} {public | private} {sensitive
          | insensitive} {modifiable | unmodifiable} {extractable |
          unextractable}

      --source-dir certdir
          Identify the certificate database directory to upgrade.

      --source-prefix certdir
          Give the prefix of the certificate and key databases to upgrade.

      --upgrade-id uniqueID
          Give the unique ID of the database to upgrade.

      --upgrade-token-name name
          Set the name of the token to use while it is being upgraded.

      -@ pwfile
          Give the name of a password file to use for the database being
          upgraded.

 USAGE AND EXAMPLES
      Most of the command options in the examples listed here have more
      arguments available. The arguments included in these examples are the
      most common ones or are used to illustrate a specific scenario. Use
      the -H option to show the complete list of arguments for each command
      option.

      Creating New Security Databases

      Certificates, keys, and security modules related to managing
      certificates are stored in three related databases:

      +   cert8.db or cert9.db



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                                19 July 2013



      +   key3.db or key4.db

      +   secmod.db or pkcs11.txt

      These databases must be created before certificates or keys can be
      generated.

          certutil -N -d [sql:]directory

      Creating a Certificate Request

      A certificate request contains most or all of the information that is
      used to generate the final certificate. This request is submitted
      separately to a certificate authority and is then approved by some
      mechanism (automatically or by human review). Once the request is
      approved, then the certificate is generated.

          $ certutil -R -k key-type-or-id [-q pqgfile|curve-name] -g key-size -s subject [-h tokenname] -d [sql:]directory [-p phone] [-o output-file] [-a]

      The -R command options requires four arguments:

      +   -k to specify either the key type to generate or, when renewing a
          certificate, the existing key pair to use

      +   -g to set the keysize of the key to generate

      +   -s to set the subject name of the certificate

      +   -d to give the security database directory

      The new certificate request can be output in ASCII format (-a) or can
      be written to a specified file (-o).

      For example:

          $ certutil -R -k rsa -g 1024 -s "CN=John Smith,O=Example Corp,L=Mountain View,ST=California,C=US" -d sql:$HOME/nssdb -p 650-555-0123 -a -o cert.cer

          Generating key.  This may take a few moments...


      Creating a Certificate

      A valid certificate must be issued by a trusted CA. This can be done
      by specifying a CA certificate (-c) that is stored in the certificate
      database. If a CA key pair is not available, you can create a
      self-signed certificate using the -x argument with the -S command
      option.

          $ certutil -S -k rsa|dsa|ec -n certname -s subject [-c issuer |-x] -t trustargs -d [sql:]directory [-m serial-number] [-v valid-months] [-w offset-months] [-p phone] [-1] [-2] [-3] [-4] [-5 keyword] [-6 keyword] [-7 emailAddress] [-8 dns-names] [--extAIA] [--extSIA] [--extCP] [--extPM] [--extPC] [--extIA] [--extSKID]



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      The series of numbers and --ext* options set certificate extensions
      that can be added to the certificate when it is generated by the CA.
      Interactive prompts will result.

      For example, this creates a self-signed certificate:

          $ certutil -S -s "CN=Example CA" -n my-ca-cert -x -t "C,C,C" -1 -2 -5 -m 3650

      The interative prompts for key usage and whether any extensions are
      critical and responses have been ommitted for brevity.

      From there, new certificates can reference the self-signed
      certificate:

          $ certutil -S -s "CN=My Server Cert" -n my-server-cert -c "my-ca-cert" -t "u,u,u" -1 -5 -6 -8 -m 730

      Generating a Certificate from a Certificate Request

      When a certificate request is created, a certificate can be generated
      by using the request and then referencing a certificate authority
      signing certificate (the issuer specified in the -c argument). The
      issuing certificate must be in the certificate database in the
      specified directory.

          certutil -C -c issuer -i cert-request-file -o output-file [-m serial-number] [-v valid-months] [-w offset-months] -d [sql:]directory [-1] [-2] [-3] [-4] [-5 keyword] [-6 keyword] [-7 emailAddress] [-8 dns-names]

      For example:

          $ certutil -C -c "my-ca-cert" -i /home/certs/cert.req -o cert.cer -m 010 -v 12 -w 1 -d sql:$HOME/nssdb -1 nonRepudiation,dataEncipherment -5 sslClient -6 clientAuth -7 jsmith@example.com

      Listing Certificates

      The -L command option lists all of the certificates listed in the
      certificate database. The path to the directory (-d) is required.

          $ certutil -L -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb

          Certificate Nickname                                         Trust Attributes
                                                                       SSL,S/MIME,JAR/XPI

          CA Administrator of Instance pki-ca1's Example Domain ID     u,u,u
          TPS Administrator's Example Domain ID                        u,u,u
          Google Internet Authority                                    ,,
          Certificate Authority - Example Domain                       CT,C,C

      Using additional arguments with -L can return and print the
      information for a single, specific certificate. For example, the -n
      argument passes the certificate name, while the -a argument prints the
      certificate in ASCII format:



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          $ certutil -L -d sql:$HOME/nssdb -a -n my-ca-cert
          -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
          MIIB1DCCAT2gAwIBAgICDkIwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEFBQAwFTETMBEGA1UEAxMKRXhh
          bXBsZSBDQTAeFw0xMzAzMTMxOTEwMjlaFw0xMzA2MTMxOTEwMjlaMBUxEzARBgNV
          BAMTCkV4YW1wbGUgQ0EwgZ8wDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQADgY0AMIGJAoGBAJ4Kzqvz
          JyBVgFqDXRYSyTBNw1DrxUU/3GvWA/ngjAwHEv0Cul/6sO/gsCvnABHiH6unns6x
          XRzPORlC2WY3gkk7vmlsLvYpyecNazAi/NAwVnU/66HOsaoVFWE+gBQo99UrN2yk
          0BiK/GMFlLm5dXQROgA9ZKKyFdI0LIXtf6SbAgMBAAGjMzAxMBEGCWCGSAGG+EIB
          AQQEAwIHADAMBgNVHRMEBTADAQH/MA4GA1UdDwEB/wQEAwICBDANBgkqhkiG9w0B
          AQUFAAOBgQA6chkzkACN281d1jKMrc+RHG2UMaQyxiteaLVZO+Ro1nnRUvseDf09
          XKYFwPMJjWCihVku6bw/ihZfuMHhxK22Nue6inNQ6eDu7WmrqL8z3iUrQwxs+WiF
          ob2rb8XRVVJkzXdXxlk4uo3UtNvw8sAz7sWD71qxKaIHU5q49zijfg==
          -----END CERTIFICATE-----

      For a human-readable display

          $ certutil -L -d sql:$HOME/nssdb -n my-ca-cert
          Certificate:
              Data:
                  Version: 3 (0x2)
                  Serial Number: 3650 (0xe42)
                  Signature Algorithm: PKCS #1 SHA-1 With RSA Encryption
                  Issuer: "CN=Example CA"
                  Validity:
                      Not Before: Wed Mar 13 19:10:29 2013
                      Not After : Thu Jun 13 19:10:29 2013
                  Subject: "CN=Example CA"
                  Subject Public Key Info:
                      Public Key Algorithm: PKCS #1 RSA Encryption
                      RSA Public Key:
                          Modulus:
                              9e:0a:ce:ab:f3:27:20:55:80:5a:83:5d:16:12:c9:30:
                              4d:c3:50:eb:c5:45:3f:dc:6b:d6:03:f9:e0:8c:0c:07:
                              12:fd:02:ba:5f:fa:b0:ef:e0:b0:2b:e7:00:11:e2:1f:
                              ab:a7:9e:ce:b1:5d:1c:cf:39:19:42:d9:66:37:82:49:
                              3b:be:69:6c:2e:f6:29:c9:e7:0d:6b:30:22:fc:d0:30:
                              56:75:3f:eb:a1:ce:b1:aa:15:15:61:3e:80:14:28:f7:
                              d5:2b:37:6c:a4:d0:18:8a:fc:63:05:94:b9:b9:75:74:
                              11:3a:00:3d:64:a2:b2:15:d2:34:2c:85:ed:7f:a4:9b
                          Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)
                  Signed Extensions:
                      Name: Certificate Type
                      Data: none

                      Name: Certificate Basic Constraints
                      Data: Is a CA with no maximum path length.

                      Name: Certificate Key Usage
                      Critical: True



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                      Usages: Certificate Signing

              Signature Algorithm: PKCS #1 SHA-1 With RSA Encryption
              Signature:
                  3a:72:19:33:90:00:8d:db:cd:5d:d6:32:8c:ad:cf:91:
                  1c:6d:94:31:a4:32:c6:2b:5e:68:b5:59:3b:e4:68:d6:
                  79:d1:52:fb:1e:0d:fd:3d:5c:a6:05:c0:f3:09:8d:60:
                  a2:85:59:2e:e9:bc:3f:8a:16:5f:b8:c1:e1:c4:ad:b6:
                  36:e7:ba:8a:73:50:e9:e0:ee:ed:69:ab:a8:bf:33:de:
                  25:2b:43:0c:6c:f9:68:85:a1:bd:ab:6f:c5:d1:55:52:
                  64:cd:77:57:c6:59:38:ba:8d:d4:b4:db:f0:f2:c0:33:
                  ee:c5:83:ef:5a:b1:29:a2:07:53:9a:b8:f7:38:a3:7e
              Fingerprint (MD5):
                  86:D8:A5:8B:8A:26:BE:9E:17:A8:7B:66:10:6B:27:80
              Fingerprint (SHA1):
                  48:78:09:EF:C5:D4:0C:BD:D2:64:45:59:EB:03:13:15:F7:A9:D6:F7

              Certificate Trust Flags:
                  SSL Flags:
                      Valid CA
                      Trusted CA
                      User
                  Email Flags:
                      Valid CA
                      Trusted CA
                      User
                  Object Signing Flags:
                      Valid CA
                      Trusted CA
                      User


      Listing Keys

      Keys are the original material used to encrypt certificate data. The
      keys generated for certificates are stored separately, in the key
      database.

      To list all keys in the database, use the -K command option and the
      (required) -d argument to give the path to the directory.

          $ certutil -K -d sql:$HOME/nssdb
          certutil: Checking token "NSS Certificate DB" in slot "NSS User Private Key and Certificate Services                  "
          < 0> rsa      455a6673bde9375c2887ec8bf8016b3f9f35861d   Thawte Freemail Member's Thawte Consulting (Pty) Ltd. ID
          < 1> rsa      40defeeb522ade11090eacebaaf1196a172127df   Example Domain Administrator Cert
          < 2> rsa      1d0b06f44f6c03842f7d4f4a1dc78b3bcd1b85a5   John Smith user cert

      There are ways to narrow the keys listed in the search results:




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      +   To return a specific key, use the -nname argument with the name of
          the key.

      +   If there are multiple security devices loaded, then the
          -htokenname argument can search a specific token or all tokens.

      +   If there are multiple key types available, then the -kkey-type
          argument can search a specific type of key, like RSA, DSA, or ECC.

      Listing Security Modules

      The devices that can be used to store certificates -- both internal
      databases and external devices like smart cards -- are recognized and
      used by loading security modules. The -U command option lists all of
      the security modules listed in the secmod.db database. The path to the
      directory (-d) is required.

          $ certutil -U -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb

              slot: NSS User Private Key and Certificate Services
             token: NSS Certificate DB

              slot: NSS Internal Cryptographic Services
             token: NSS Generic Crypto Services

      Adding Certificates to the Database

      Existing certificates or certificate requests can be added manually to
      the certificate database, even if they were generated elsewhere. This
      uses the -A command option.

          certutil -A -n certname -t trustargs -d [sql:]directory [-a] [-i input-file]

      For example:

          $ certutil -A -n "CN=My SSL Certificate" -t "u,u,u" -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb -i /home/example-certs/cert.cer

      A related command option, -E, is used specifically to add email
      certificates to the certificate database. The -E command has the same
      arguments as the -A command. The trust arguments for certificates have
      the format SSL,S/MIME,Code-signing, so the middle trust settings
      relate most to email certificates (though the others can be set). For
      example:

          $ certutil -E -n "CN=John Smith Email Cert" -t ",Pu," -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb -i /home/example-certs/email.cer

      Deleting Certificates to the Database

      Certificates can be deleted from a database using the -D option. The



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      only required options are to give the security database directory and
      to identify the certificate nickname.

          certutil -D -d [sql:]directory -n "nickname"

      For example:

          $ certutil -D -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb -n "my-ssl-cert"

      Validating Certificates

      A certificate contains an expiration date in itself, and expired
      certificates are easily rejected. However, certificates can also be
      revoked before they hit their expiration date. Checking whether a
      certificate has been revoked requires validating the certificate.
      Validation can also be used to ensure that the certificate is only
      used for the purposes it was initially issued for. Validation is
      carried out by the -V command option.

          certutil -V -n certificate-name [-b time] [-e] [-u cert-usage] -d [sql:]directory

      For example, to validate an email certificate:

          $ certutil -V -n "John Smith's Email Cert" -e -u S,R -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb

      Modifying Certificate Trust Settings

      The trust settings (which relate to the operations that a certificate
      is allowed to be used for) can be changed after a certificate is
      created or added to the database. This is especially useful for CA
      certificates, but it can be performed for any type of certificate.

          certutil -M -n certificate-name -t trust-args -d [sql:]directory

      For example:

          $ certutil -M -n "My CA Certificate" -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb -t "CTu,CTu,CTu"

      Printing the Certificate Chain

      Certificates can be issued in chains because every certificate
      authority itself has a certificate; when a CA issues a certificate, it
      essentially stamps that certificate with its own fingerprint. The -O
      prints the full chain of a certificate, going from the initial CA (the
      root CA) through ever intermediary CA to the actual certificate. For
      example, for an email certificate with two CAs in the chain:

          $ certutil -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb -O -n "jsmith@example.com"
          "Builtin Object Token:Thawte Personal Freemail CA" [E=personal-freemail@thawte.com,CN=Thawte Personal Freemail CA,OU=Certification Services Division,O=Thawte Consulting,L=Cape Town,ST=Western Cape,C=ZA]



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            "Thawte Personal Freemail Issuing CA - Thawte Consulting" [CN=Thawte Personal Freemail Issuing CA,O=Thawte Consulting (Pty) Ltd.,C=ZA]

              "(null)" [E=jsmith@example.com,CN=Thawte Freemail Member]

      Resetting a Token

      The device which stores certificates -- both external hardware devices
      and internal software databases -- can be blanked and reused. This
      operation is performed on the device which stores the data, not
      directly on the security databases, so the location must be referenced
      through the token name (-h) as well as any directory path. If there is
      no external token used, the default value is internal.

          certutil -T -d [sql:]directory -h token-name -0 security-officer-password

      Many networks have dedicated personnel who handle changes to security
      tokens (the security officer). This person must supply the password to
      access the specified token. For example:

          $ certutil -T -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb -h nethsm -0 secret

      Upgrading or Merging the Security Databases

      Many networks or applications may be using older BerkeleyDB versions
      of the certificate database (cert8.db). Databases can be upgraded to
      the new SQLite version of the database (cert9.db) using the
      --upgrade-merge command option or existing databases can be merged
      with the new cert9.db databases using the ---merge command.

      The --upgrade-merge command must give information about the original
      database and then use the standard arguments (like -d) to give the
      information about the new databases. The command also requires
      information that the tool uses for the process to upgrade and write
      over the original database.

          certutil --upgrade-merge -d [sql:]directory [-P dbprefix] --source-dir directory --source-prefix dbprefix --upgrade-id id --upgrade-token-name name [-@ password-file]

      For example:

          $ certutil --upgrade-merge -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb --source-dir /opt/my-app/alias/ --source-prefix serverapp- --upgrade-id 1 --upgrade-token-name internal

      The --merge command only requires information about the location of
      the original database; since it doesn't change the format of the
      database, it can write over information without performing interim
      step.

          certutil --merge -d [sql:]directory [-P dbprefix] --source-dir directory --source-prefix dbprefix [-@ password-file]

      For example:



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          $ certutil --merge -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb --source-dir /opt/my-app/alias/ --source-prefix serverapp-

      Running certutil Commands from a Batch File

      A series of commands can be run sequentially from a text file with the
      -B command option. The only argument for this specifies the input
      file.

          $ certutil -B -i /path/to/batch-file

 NSS DATABASE TYPES
      NSS originally used BerkeleyDB databases to store security
      information. The last versions of these legacy databases are:

      +   cert8.db for certificates

      +   key3.db for keys

      +   secmod.db for PKCS #11 module information

      BerkeleyDB has performance limitations, though, which prevent it from
      being easily used by multiple applications simultaneously. NSS has
      some flexibility that allows applications to use their own,
      independent database engine while keeping a shared database and
      working around the access issues. Still, NSS requires more flexibility
      to provide a truly shared security database.

      In 2009, NSS introduced a new set of databases that are SQLite
      databases rather than BerkeleyDB. These new databases provide more
      accessibility and performance:

      +   cert9.db for certificates

      +   key4.db for keys

      +   pkcs11.txt, a listing of all of the PKCS #11 modules, contained in
          a new subdirectory in the security databases directory

      Because the SQLite databases are designed to be shared, these are the
      shared database type. The shared database type is preferred; the
      legacy format is included for backward compatibility.

      By default, the tools (certutil, pk12util, modutil) assume that the
      given security databases follow the more common legacy type. Using the
      SQLite databases must be manually specified by using the sql: prefix
      with the given security directory. For example:

          $ certutil -L -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb




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      To set the shared database type as the default type for the tools, set
      the NSS_DEFAULT_DB_TYPE environment variable to sql:

          export NSS_DEFAULT_DB_TYPE="sql"

      This line can be set added to the ~/.bashrc file to make the change
      permanent.

      Most applications do not use the shared database by default, but they
      can be configured to use them. For example, this how-to article covers
      how to configure Firefox and Thunderbird to use the new shared NSS
      databases:

      +   https://wiki.mozilla.org/NSS_Shared_DB_Howto

      For an engineering draft on the changes in the shared NSS databases,
      see the NSS project wiki:

      +   https://wiki.mozilla.org/NSS_Shared_DB

 SEE ALSO
      pk12util (1)

      modutil (1)

      certutil has arguments or operations that use features defined in
      several IETF RFCs.

      +   http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5280

      +   http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1113

      +   http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1485

      The NSS wiki has information on the new database design and how to
      configure applications to use it.

      +   https://wiki.mozilla.org/NSS_Shared_DB_Howto

      +   https://wiki.mozilla.org/NSS_Shared_DB

 ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
      For information about NSS and other tools related to NSS (like JSS),
      check out the NSS project wiki at
      m[blue]http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/m[]. The NSS
      site relates directly to NSS code changes and releases.

      Mailing lists: https://lists.mozilla.org/listinfo/dev-tech-crypto




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      IRC: Freenode at #dogtag-pki

 AUTHORS
      The NSS tools were written and maintained by developers with Netscape,
      Red Hat, Sun, Oracle, Mozilla, and Google.

      Authors: Elio Maldonado <emaldona@redhat.com>, Deon Lackey
      <dlackey@redhat.com>.

 LICENSE
      Licensed under the Mozilla Public License, v. 2.0. If a copy of the
      MPL was not distributed with this file, You can obtain one at
      http://mozilla.org/MPL/2.0/.

 NOTES
       1. Mozilla NSS bug 836477
          https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=836477



































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