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 ZIP(1L)                          Info-ZIP                           ZIP(1L)
                             16 June 2008 (v3.0)



 NAME
      zip - package and compress (archive) files

 SYNOPSIS
      zip [-aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$] [--longoption ...] [-b path]
      [-n suffixes] [-t date] [-tt date] [zipfile [file ...]] [-xi list]

      zipcloak (see separate man page)

      zipnote (see separate man page)

      zipsplit (see separate man page)

      Note:  Command line processing in zip has been changed to support long
      options and handle all options and arguments more consistently.  Some
      old command lines that depend on command line inconsistencies may no
      longer work.

 DESCRIPTION
      zip is a compression and file packaging utility for Unix, VMS, MSDOS,
      OS/2, Windows 9x/NT/XP, Minix, Atari, Macintosh, Amiga, and Acorn RISC
      OS.  It is analogous to a combination of the Unix commands tar(1) and
      compress(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil Katz's ZIP for MSDOS
      systems).  A companion program (unzip(1L)) unpacks zip archives.  The
      zip and unzip(1L) programs can work with archives produced by PKZIP
      (supporting most PKZIP features up to PKZIP version 4.6), and PKZIP
      and PKUNZIP can work with archives produced by zip (with some
      exceptions, notably streamed archives, but recent changes in the zip
      file standard may facilitate better compatibility).  zip version 3.0
      is compatible with PKZIP 2.04 and also supports the Zip64 extensions
      of PKZIP 4.5 which allow archives as well as files to exceed the
      previous 2 GB limit (4 GB in some cases).  zip also now supports bzip2
      compression if the bzip2 library is included when zip is compiled.
      Note that PKUNZIP 1.10 cannot extract files produced by PKZIP 2.04 or
      zip 3.0. You must use PKUNZIP 2.04g or unzip 5.0p1 (or later versions)
      to extract them.

      See the EXAMPLES section at the bottom of this page for examples of
      some typical uses of zip.

      Large Archives and Zip64.  zip automatically uses the Zip64 extensions
      when files larger than 4 GB are added to an archive, an archive
      containing Zip64 entries is updated (if the resulting archive still
      needs Zip64), the size of the archive will exceed 4 GB, or when the
      number of entries in the archive will exceed about 64K.  Zip64 is also
      used for archives streamed from standard input as the size of such
      archives are not known in advance, but the option -fz- can be used to
      force zip to create PKZIP 2 compatible archives (as long as Zip64
      extensions are not needed).  You must use a PKZIP 4.5 compatible
      unzip, such as unzip 6.0 or later, to extract files using the Zip64
      extensions.



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      In addition, streamed archives, entries encrypted with standard
      encryption, or split archives created with the pause option may not be
      compatible with PKZIP as data descriptors are used and PKZIP at the
      time of this writing does not support data descriptors (but recent
      changes in the PKWare published zip standard now include some support
      for the data descriptor format zip uses).


      Mac OS X.  Though previous Mac versions had their own zip port, zip
      supports Mac OS X as part of the Unix port and most Unix features
      apply.  References to "MacOS" below generally refer to MacOS versions
      older than OS X.  Support for some Mac OS features in the Unix Mac OS
      X port, such as resource forks, is expected in the next zip release.


      For a brief help on zip and unzip, run each without specifying any
      parameters on the command line.


 USE
      The program is useful for packaging a set of files for distribution;
      for archiving files; and for saving disk space by temporarily
      compressing unused files or directories.  The zip program puts one or
      more compressed files into a single zip archive, along with
      information about the files (name, path, date, time of last
      modification, protection, and check information to verify file
      integrity).  An entire directory structure can be packed into a zip
      archive with a single command.  Compression ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 are
      common for text files.  zip has one compression method (deflation) and
      can also store files without compression.  (If bzip2 support is added,
      zip can also compress using bzip2 compression, but such entries
      require a reasonably modern unzip to decompress.  When bzip2
      compression is selected, it replaces deflation as the default method.)
      zip automatically chooses the better of the two (deflation or store
      or, if bzip2 is selected, bzip2 or store) for each file to be
      compressed.  Command format.  The basic command format is

           zip options archive inpath inpath ...  where archive is a new or
           existing zip archive and inpath is a directory or file path
           optionally including wildcards.  When given the name of an
           existing zip archive, zip will replace identically named entries
           in the zip archive (matching the relative names as stored in the
           archive) or add entries for new names.  For example, if foo.zip
           exists and contains foo/file1 and foo/file2, and the directory
           foo contains the files foo/file1 and foo/file3, then:

           zip -r foo.zip foo or more concisely

           zip -r foo foo will replace foo/file1 in foo.zip and add
           foo/file3 to foo.zip.  After this, foo.zip contains foo/file1,
           foo/file2, and foo/file3, with foo/file2 unchanged from before.



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           So if before the zip command is executed foo.zip has:

            foo/file1 foo/file2 and directory foo has:

            file1 file3 then foo.zip will have:

            foo/file1 foo/file2 foo/file3 where foo/file1 is replaced and
           foo/file3 is new.  -@ file lists.  If a file list is specified as
           -@ [Not on MacOS], zip takes the list of input files from
           standard input instead of from the command line.  For example,

           zip -@ foo will store the files listed one per line on stdin in
           foo.zip.  Under Unix, this option can be used to powerful effect
           in conjunction with the find (1) command.  For example, to
           archive all the C source files in the current directory and its
           subdirectories:

           find . -name "*.[ch]" -print | zip source -@ (note that the
           pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from expanding it).
           Streaming input and output.  zip will also accept a single dash
           ("-") as the zip file name, in which case it will write the zip
           file to standard output, allowing the output to be piped to
           another program. For example:

           zip -r - . | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k would write the zip output
           directly to a tape with the specified block size for the purpose
           of backing up the current directory.  zip also accepts a single
           dash ("-") as the name of a file to be compressed, in which case
           it will read the file from standard input, allowing zip to take
           input from another program. For example:

           tar cf - . | zip backup - would compress the output of the tar
           command for the purpose of backing up the current directory. This
           generally produces better compression than the previous example
           using the -r option because zip can take advantage of redundancy
           between files. The backup can be restored using the command

           unzip -p backup | tar xf - When no zip file name is given and
           stdout is not a terminal, zip acts as a filter, compressing
           standard input to standard output.  For example,

           tar cf - . | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k is equivalent to

           tar cf - . | zip - - | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k zip archives
           created in this manner can be extracted with the program funzip
           which is provided in the unzip package, or by gunzip which is
           provided in the gzip package (but some gunzip may not support
           this if zip used the Zip64 extensions). For example:

           dd if=/dev/nrst0  ibs=16k | funzip | tar xvf - The stream can
           also be saved to a file and unzip used.  If Zip64 support for



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           large files and archives is enabled and zip is used as a filter,
           zip creates a Zip64 archive that requires a PKZIP 4.5 or later
           compatible unzip to read it.  This is to avoid amgibuities in the
           zip file structure as defined in the current zip standard (PKWARE
           AppNote) where the decision to use Zip64 needs to be made before
           data is written for the entry, but for a stream the size of the
           data is not known at that point.  If the data is known to be
           smaller than 4 GB, the option -fz- can be used to prevent use of
           Zip64, but zip will exit with an error if Zip64 was in fact
           needed.  zip 3 and unzip 6 and later can read archives with Zip64
           entries.  Also, zip removes the Zip64 extensions if not needed
           when archive entries are copied (see the -U (--copy) option).
           When directing the output to another file, note that all options
           should be before the redirection including -x.  For example:

           zip archive "*.h" "*.c" -x donotinclude.h orthis.h > tofile
           Zip files.  When changing an existing zip archive, zip will write
           a temporary file with the new contents, and only replace the old
           one when the process of creating the new version has been
           completed without error.  If the name of the zip archive does not
           contain an extension, the extension is added. If the name already
           contains an extension other than the existing extension is kept
           unchanged.  However, split archives (archives split over multiple
           files) require the .zip extension on the last split.

      Scanning and reading files.  When zip starts, it scans for files to
      process (if needed).  If this scan takes longer than about 5 seconds,
      zip will display a "Scanning files" message and start displaying
      progress dots every 2 seconds or every so many entries processed,
      whichever takes longer.  If there is more than 2 seconds between dots
      it could indicate that finding each file is taking time and could mean
      a slow network connection for example.  (Actually the initial file
      scan is a two-step process where the directory scan is followed by a
      sort and these two steps are separated with a space in the dots.  If
      updating an existing archive, a space also appears between the
      existing file scan and the new file scan.)  The scanning files dots
      are not controlled by the -ds dot size option, but the dots are turned
      off by the -q quiet option.  The -sf show files option can be used to
      scan for files and get the list of files scanned without actually
      processing them.  If zip is not able to read a file, it issues a
      warning but continues.  See the -MM option below for more on how zip
      handles patterns that are not matched and files that are not readable.
      If some files were skipped, a warning is issued at the end of the zip
      operation noting how many files were read and how many skipped.

      Command modes.  zip now supports two distinct types of command modes,
      external and internal.  The external modes (add, update, and freshen)
      read files from the file system (as well as from an existing archive)
      while the internal modes (delete and copy) operate exclusively on
      entries in an existing archive.




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      add
           Update existing entries and add new files.  If the archive does
           not exist create it.  This is the default mode.

      update (-u)
           Update existing entries if newer on the file system and add new
           files.  If the archive does not exist issue warning then create a
           new archive.

      freshen (-f)
           Update existing entries of an archive if newer on the file
           system.  Does not add new files to the archive.

      delete (-d)
           Select entries in an existing archive and delete them.

      copy (-U)
           Select entries in an existing archive and copy them to a new
           archive.  This new mode is similar to update but command line
           patterns select entries in the existing archive rather than files
           from the file system and it uses the --out option to write the
           resulting archive to a new file rather than update the existing
           archive, leaving the original archive unchanged.  The new File
           Sync option (-FS) is also considered a new mode, though it is
           similar to update.  This mode synchronizes the archive with the
           files on the OS, only replacing files in the archive if the file
           time or size of the OS file is different, adding new files, and
           deleting entries from the archive where there is no matching
           file.  As this mode can delete entries from the archive, consider
           making a backup copy of the archive.

           Also see -DF for creating difference archives.

           See each option description below for details and the EXAMPLES
           section below for examples.

      Split archives.  zip version 3.0 and later can create split archives.
      A split archive is a standard zip archive split over multiple files.
      (Note that split archives are not just archives split in to pieces, as
      the offsets of entries are now based on the start of each split.
      Concatenating the pieces together will invalidate these offsets, but
      unzip can usually deal with it.  zip will usually refuse to process
      such a spliced archive unless the -FF fix option is used to fix the
      offsets.) One use of split archives is storing a large archive on
      multiple removable media.  For a split archive with 20 split files the
      files are typically named (replace ARCHIVE with the name of your
      archive) ARCHIVE.z01, ARCHIVE.z02, ..., ARCHIVE.z19, ARCHIVE.zip.
      Note that the last file is the .zip file.  In contrast, spanned
      archives are the original multi-disk archive generally requiring
      floppy disks and using volume labels to store disk numbers.  zip
      supports split archives but not spanned archives, though a procedure



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      exists for converting split archives of the right size to spanned
      archives.  The reverse is also true, where each file of a spanned
      archive can be copied in order to files with the above names to create
      a split archive.  Use -s to set the split size and create a split
      archive.  The size is given as a number followed optionally by one of
      k (kB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB) (the default is m).  The -sp option
      can be used to pause zip between splits to allow changing removable
      media, for example, but read the descriptions and warnings for both -s
      and -sp below.  Though zip does not update split archives, zip
      provides the new option -O (--output-file or --out) to allow split
      archives to be updated and saved in a new archive.  For example,

           zip inarchive.zip foo.c bar.c --out outarchive.zip reads archive
           inarchive.zip, even if split, adds the files foo.c and bar.c, and
           writes the resulting archive to outarchive.zip.  If inarchive.zip
           is split then outarchive.zip defaults to the same split size.  Be
           aware that if outarchive.zip and any split files that are created
           with it already exist, these are always overwritten as needed
           without warning.  This may be changed in the future.

      Unicode.  Though the zip standard requires storing paths in an archive
      using a specific character set, in practice zips have stored paths in
      archives in whatever the local character set is.  This creates
      problems when an archive is created or updated on a system using one
      character set and then extracted on another system using a different
      character set.  When compiled with Unicode support enabled on
      platforms that support wide characters, zip now stores, in addition to
      the standard local path for backward compatibility, the UTF-8
      translation of the path.  This provides a common universal character
      set for storing paths that allows these paths to be fully extracted on
      other systems that support Unicode and to match as close as possible
      on systems that don't.

      On Win32 systems where paths are internally stored as Unicode but
      represented in the local character set, it's possible that some paths
      will be skipped during a local character set directory scan.  zip with
      Unicode support now can read and store these paths.  Note that Win 9x
      systems and FAT file systems don't fully support Unicode.

      Be aware that console windows on Win32 and Unix, for example,
      sometimes don't accurately show all characters due to how each
      operating system switches in character sets for display.  However,
      directory navigation tools should show the correct paths if the needed
      fonts are loaded.

      Command line format.  This version of zip has updated command line
      processing and support for long options.

      Short options take the form





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           -s[-][s[-]...][value][=value][ value] where s is a one or two
           character short option.  A short option that takes a value is
           last in an argument and anything after it is taken as the value.
           If the option can be negated and "-" immediately follows the
           option, the option is negated.  Short options can also be given
           as separate arguments

           -s[-][value][=value][ value] -s[-][value][=value][ value] ...
           Short options in general take values either as part of the same
           argument or as the following argument.  An optional = is also
           supported.  So

           -ttmmddyyyy and

           -tt=mmddyyyy and

           -tt mmddyyyy all work.  The -x and -i options accept lists of
           values and use a slightly different format described below.  See
           the -x and -i options.

      Long options take the form

           --longoption[-][=value][ value] where the option starts with --,
           has a multicharacter name, can include a trailing dash to negate
           the option (if the option supports it), and can have a value
           (option argument) specified by preceeding it with = (no spaces).
           Values can also follow the argument.  So

           --before-date=mmddyyyy and

           --before-date mmddyyyy both work.

           Long option names can be shortened to the shortest unique
           abbreviation.  See the option descriptions below for which
           support long options.  To avoid confusion, avoid abbreviating a
           negatable option with an embedded dash ("-") at the dash if you
           plan to negate it (the parser would consider a trailing dash,
           such as for the option --some-option using --some- as the option,
           as part of the name rather than a negating dash).  This may be
           changed to force the last dash in --some- to be negating in the
           future.

 OPTIONS
      -a
      --ascii
           [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format.


      -A
      --adjust-sfx
           Adjust self-extracting executable archive.  A self-extracting



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           executable archive is created by prepending the SFX stub to an
           existing archive. The -A option tells zip to adjust the entry
           offsets stored in the archive to take into account this
           "preamble" data.  Note: self-extracting archives for the Amiga
           are a special case.  At present, only the Amiga port of zip is
           capable of adjusting or updating these without corrupting them.
           -J can be used to remove the SFX stub if other updates need to be
           made.


      -AC
      --archive-clear
           [WIN32]  Once archive is created (and tested if -T is used, which
           is recommended), clear the archive bits of files processed.
           WARNING: Once the bits are cleared they are cleared.  You may
           want to use the -sf show files option to store the list of files
           processed in case the archive operation must be repeated.  Also
           consider using the -MM must match option.  Be sure to check out
           -DF as a possibly better way to do incremental backups.


      -AS
      --archive-set
           [WIN32]  Only include files that have the archive bit set.
           Directories are not stored when -AS is used, though by default
           the paths of entries, including directories, are stored as usual
           and can be used by most unzips to recreate directories.

           The archive bit is set by the operating system when a file is
           modified and, if used with -AC, -AS can provide an incremental
           backup capability.  However, other applications can modify the
           archive bit and it may not be a reliable indicator of which files
           have changed since the last archive operation.  Alternative ways
           to create incremental backups are using -t to use file dates,
           though this won't catch old files copied to directories being
           archived, and -DF to create a differential archive.


      -B
      --binary
           [VM/CMS and MVS] force file to be read binary (default is text).


      -Bn  [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting options with n defined as
           bit  0: Don't add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
           bit  1: Use LF rather than CR/LF as delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
           bit  2: Space fill record to maximum record length (Enscribe)
           bit  3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe)
           bit  8: Force 30K (Expand) large read for unstructured files





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      -b path
      --temp-path path
           Use the specified path for the temporary zip archive. For
           example:

                zip -b /tmp stuff *

           will put the temporary zip archive in the directory /tmp, copying
           over stuff.zip to the current directory when done. This option is
           useful when updating an existing archive and the file system
           containing this old archive does not have enough space to hold
           both old and new archives at the same time.  It may also be
           useful when streaming in some cases to avoid the need for data
           descriptors.  Note that using this option may require zip take
           additional time to copy the archive file when done to the
           destination file system.


      -c
      --entry-comments
           Add one-line comments for each file.  File operations (adding,
           updating) are done first, and the user is then prompted for a
           one-line comment for each file.  Enter the comment followed by
           return, or just return for no comment.


      -C
      --preserve-case
           [VMS]  Preserve case all on VMS.  Negating this option (-C-)
           downcases.


      -C2
      --preserve-case-2
           [VMS]  Preserve case ODS2 on VMS.  Negating this option (-C2-)
           downcases.


      -C5
      --preserve-case-5
           [VMS]  Preserve case ODS5 on VMS.  Negating this option (-C5-)
           downcases.


      -d
      --delete
           Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive.  For example:

                zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\* \*.o





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           will remove the entry foo/tom/junk, all of the files that start
           with foo/harry/, and all of the files that end with .o (in any
           path).  Note that shell pathname expansion has been inhibited
           with backslashes, so that zip can see the asterisks, enabling zip
           to match on the contents of the zip archive instead of the
           contents of the current directory.  (The backslashes are not used
           on MSDOS-based platforms.) Can also use quotes to escape the
           asterisks as in

                zip -d foo foo/tom/junk "foo/harry/*" "*.o"

           Not escaping the asterisks on a system where the shell expands
           wildcards could result in the asterisks being converted to a list
           of files in the current directory and that list used to delete
           entries from the archive.

           Under MSDOS, -d is case sensitive when it matches names in the
           zip archive.  This requires that file names be entered in upper
           case if they were zipped by PKZIP on an MSDOS system.  (We
           considered making this case insensitive on systems where paths
           were case insensitive, but it is possible the archive came from a
           system where case does matter and the archive could include both
           Bar and bar as separate files in the archive.)  But see the new
           option -ic to ignore case in the archive.


      -db
      --display-bytes
           Display running byte counts showing the bytes zipped and the
           bytes to go.


      -dc
      --display-counts
           Display running count of entries zipped and entries to go.


      -dd
      --display-dots
           Display dots while each entry is zipped (except on ports that
           have their own progress indicator).  See -ds below for setting
           dot size.  The default is a dot every 10 MB of input file
           processed.  The -v option also displays dots (previously at a
           much higher rate than this but now -v also defaults to 10 MB) and
           this rate is also controlled by -ds.


      -df
      --datafork
           [MacOS] Include only data-fork of files zipped into the archive.
           Good for exporting files to foreign operating-systems.



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           Resource-forks will be ignored at all.


      -dg
      --display-globaldots
           Display progress dots for the archive instead of for each file.
           The command

                    zip -qdgds 10m

           will turn off most output except dots every 10 MB.


      -ds size
      --dot-size size
           Set amount of input file processed for each dot displayed.  See
           -dd to enable displaying dots.  Setting this option implies -dd.
           Size is in the format nm where n is a number and m is a
           multiplier.  Currently m can be k (KB), m (MB), g (GB), or t
           (TB), so if n is 100 and m is k, size would be 100k which is 100
           KB.  The default is 10 MB.

           The -v option also displays dots and now defaults to 10 MB also.
           This rate is also controlled by this option.  A size of 0 turns
           dots off.

           This option does not control the dots from the "Scanning files"
           message as zip scans for input files.  The dot size for that is
           fixed at 2 seconds or a fixed number of entries, whichever is
           longer.


      -du
      --display-usize
           Display the uncompressed size of each entry.


      -dv
      --display-volume
           Display the volume (disk) number each entry is being read from,
           if reading an existing archive, and being written to.


      -D
      --no-dir-entries
           Do not create entries in the zip archive for directories.
           Directory entries are created by default so that their attributes
           can be saved in the zip archive.  The environment variable ZIPOPT
           can be used to change the default options. For example under Unix
           with sh:




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                ZIPOPT="-D"; export ZIPOPT

           (The variable ZIPOPT can be used for any option, including -i and
           -x using a new option format detailed below, and can include
           several options.) The option -D is a shorthand for -x "*/" but
           the latter previously could not be set as default in the ZIPOPT
           environment variable as the contents of ZIPOPT gets inserted near
           the beginning of the command line and the file list had to end at
           the end of the line.

           This version of zip does allow -x and -i options in ZIPOPT if the
           form

            -x file file ... @

           is used, where the @ (an argument that is just @) terminates the
           list.


      -DF
      --difference-archive
           Create an archive that contains all new and changed files since
           the original archive was created.  For this to work, the input
           file list and current directory must be the same as during the
           original zip operation.

           For example, if the existing archive was created using

                zip -r foofull .

           from the bar directory, then the command

                zip -r foofull . -DF --out foonew

           also from the bar directory creates the archive foonew with just
           the files not in foofull and the files where the size or file
           time of the files do not match those in foofull.

           Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be set
           according to the local timezone in order for this option to work
           correctly.  A change in timezone since the original archive was
           created could result in no times matching and all files being
           included.

           A possible approach to backing up a directory might be to create
           a normal archive of the contents of the directory as a full
           backup, then use this option to create incremental backups.


      -e




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      --encrypt
           Encrypt the contents of the zip archive using a password which is
           entered on the terminal in response to a prompt (this will not be
           echoed; if standard error is not a tty, zip will exit with an
           error).  The password prompt is repeated to save the user from
           typing errors.


      -E
      --longnames
           [OS/2] Use the .LONGNAME Extended Attribute (if found) as
           filename.


      -f
      --freshen
           Replace (freshen) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it
           has been modified more recently than the version already in the
           zip archive; unlike the update option (-u) this will not add
           files that are not already in the zip archive.  For example:

                zip -f foo

           This command should be run from the same directory from which the
           original zip command was run, since paths stored in zip archives
           are always relative.

           Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be set
           according to the local timezone in order for the -f, -u and -o
           options to work correctly.

           The reasons behind this are somewhat subtle but have to do with
           the differences between the Unix-format file times (always in
           GMT) and most of the other operating systems (always local time)
           and the necessity to compare the two.  A typical TZ value is
           ``MET-1MEST'' (Middle European time with automatic adjustment for
           ``summertime'' or Daylight Savings Time).

           The format is TTThhDDD, where TTT is the time zone such as MET,
           hh is the difference between GMT and local time such as -1 above,
           and DDD is the time zone when daylight savings time is in effect.
           Leave off the DDD if there is no daylight savings time.  For the
           US Eastern time zone EST5EDT.


      -F
      --fix
      -FF
      --fixfix
           Fix the zip archive. The -F option can be used if some portions
           of the archive are missing, but requires a reasonably intact



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           central directory.  The input archive is scanned as usual, but
           zip will ignore some problems.  The resulting archive should be
           valid, but any inconsistent entries will be left out.

           When doubled as in -FF, the archive is scanned from the beginning
           and zip scans for special signatures to identify the limits
           between the archive members. The single -F is more reliable if
           the archive is not too much damaged, so try this option first.

           If the archive is too damaged or the end has been truncated, you
           must use -FF.  This is a change from zip 2.32, where the -F
           option is able to read a truncated archive.  The -F option now
           more reliably fixes archives with minor damage and the -FF option
           is needed to fix archives where -F might have been sufficient
           before.

           Neither option will recover archives that have been incorrectly
           transferred in ascii mode instead of binary. After the repair,
           the -t option of unzip may show that some files have a bad CRC.
           Such files cannot be recovered; you can remove them from the
           archive using the -d option of zip.

           Note that -FF may have trouble fixing archives that include an
           embedded zip archive that was stored (without compression) in the
           archive and, depending on the damage, it may find the entries in
           the embedded archive rather than the archive itself.  Try -F
           first as it does not have this problem.

           The format of the fix commands have changed.  For example, to fix
           the damaged archive foo.zip,

                zip -F foo --out foofix

           tries to read the entries normally, copying good entries to the
           new archive foofix.zip.  If this doesn't work, as when the
           archive is truncated, or if some entries you know are in the
           archive are missed, then try

                zip -FF foo --out foofixfix

           and compare the resulting archive to the archive created by -F.
           The -FF option may create an inconsistent archive.  Depending on
           what is damaged, you can then use the -F option to fix that
           archive.

           A split archive with missing split files can be fixed using -F if
           you have the last split of the archive (the .zip file).  If this
           file is missing, you must use -FF to fix the archive, which will
           prompt you for the splits you have.





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           Currently the fix options can't recover entries that have a bad
           checksum or are otherwise damaged.


      -FI
      --fifo
           [Unix]  Normally zip skips reading any FIFOs (named pipes)
           encountered, as zip can hang if the FIFO is not being fed.  This
           option tells zip to read the contents of any FIFO it finds.


      -FS
      --filesync
           Synchronize the contents of an archive with the files on the OS.
           Normally when an archive is updated, new files are added and
           changed files are updated but files that no longer exist on the
           OS are not deleted from the archive.  This option enables a new
           mode that checks entries in the archive against the file system.
           If the file time and file size of the entry matches that of the
           OS file, the entry is copied from the old archive instead of
           being read from the file system and compressed.  If the OS file
           has changed, the entry is read and compressed as usual.  If the
           entry in the archive does not match a file on the OS, the entry
           is deleted.  Enabling this option should create archives that are
           the same as new archives, but since existing entries are copied
           instead of compressed, updating an existing archive with -FS can
           be much faster than creating a new archive.  Also consider using
           -u for updating an archive.

           For this option to work, the archive should be updated from the
           same directory it was created in so the relative paths match.  If
           few files are being copied from the old archive, it may be faster
           to create a new archive instead.

           Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be set
           according to the local timezone in order for this option to work
           correctly.  A change in timezone since the original archive was
           created could result in no times matching and recompression of
           all files.

           This option deletes files from the archive.  If you need to
           preserve the original archive, make a copy of the archive first
           or use the --out option to output the updated archive to a new
           file.  Even though it may be slower, creating a new archive with
           a new archive name is safer, avoids mismatches between archive
           and OS paths, and is preferred.


      -g
      --grow
           Grow (append to) the specified zip archive, instead of creating a



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           new one. If this operation fails, zip attempts to restore the
           archive to its original state. If the restoration fails, the
           archive might become corrupted. This option is ignored when
           there's no existing archive or when at least one archive member
           must be updated or deleted.


      -h
      -?
      --help
           Display the zip help information (this also appears if zip is run
           with no arguments).


      -h2
      --more-help
           Display extended help including more on command line format,
           pattern matching, and more obscure options.


      -i files
      --include files
           Include only the specified files, as in:

                zip -r foo . -i \*.c

           which will include only the files that end in .c in the current
           directory and its subdirectories. (Note for PKZIP users: the
           equivalent command is

                pkzip -rP foo *.c

           PKZIP does not allow recursion in directories other than the
           current one.) The backslash avoids the shell filename
           substitution, so that the name matching is performed by zip at
           all directory levels.  [This is for Unix and other systems where
           \  escapes the next character.  For other systems where the shell
           does not process * do not use \ and the above is

                zip -r foo . -i *.c

           Examples are for Unix unless otherwise specified.]  So to include
           dir, a directory directly under the current directory, use

                zip -r foo . -i dir/\*

           or

                zip -r foo . -i "dir/*"





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           to match paths such as dir/a and dir/b/file.c [on ports without
           wildcard expansion in the shell such as MSDOS and Windows

                zip -r foo . -i dir/*

           is used.]  Note that currently the trailing / is needed for
           directories (as in

                zip -r foo . -i dir/

           to include directory dir).

           The long option form of the first example is

                zip -r foo . --include \*.c

           and does the same thing as the short option form.

           Though the command syntax used to require -i at the end of the
           command line, this version actually allows -i (or --include)
           anywhere.  The list of files terminates at the next argument
           starting with -, the end of the command line, or the list
           terminator @ (an argument that is just @).  So the above can be
           given as

                zip -i \*.c @ -r foo .

           for example.  There must be a space between the option and the
           first file of a list.  For just one file you can use the single
           value form

                zip -i\*.c -r foo .

           (no space between option and value) or

                zip --include=\*.c -r foo .

           as additional examples.  The single value forms are not
           recommended because they can be confusing and, in particular, the
           -ifile format can cause problems if the first letter of file
           combines with i to form a two-letter option starting with i.  Use
           -sc to see how your command line will be parsed.

           Also possible:

                zip -r foo  . -i@include.lst

           which will only include the files in the current directory and
           its subdirectories that match the patterns in the file
           include.lst.




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           Files to -i and -x are patterns matching internal archive paths.
           See -R for more on patterns.


      -I
      --no-image
           [Acorn RISC OS] Don't scan through Image files.  When used, zip
           will not consider Image files (eg. DOS partitions or Spark
           archives when SparkFS is loaded) as directories but will store
           them as single files.

           For example, if you have SparkFS loaded, zipping a Spark archive
           will result in a zipfile containing a directory (and its content)
           while using the 'I' option will result in a zipfile containing a
           Spark archive. Obviously this second case will also be obtained
           (without the 'I' option) if SparkFS isn't loaded.


      -ic
      --ignore-case
           [VMS, WIN32] Ignore case when matching archive entries.  This
           option is only available on systems where the case of files is
           ignored.  On systems with case-insensitive file systems, case is
           normally ignored when matching files on the file system but is
           not ignored for -f (freshen), -d (delete), -U (copy), and similar
           modes when matching against archive entries (currently -f ignores
           case on VMS) because archive entries can be from systems where
           case does matter and names that are the same except for case can
           exist in an archive.  The -ic option makes all matching case
           insensitive.  This can result in multiple archive entries
           matching a command line pattern.


      -j
      --junk-paths
           Store just the name of a saved file (junk the path), and do not
           store directory names. By default, zip will store the full path
           (relative to the current directory).


      -jj
      --absolute-path
           [MacOS] record Fullpath (+ Volname). The complete path including
           volume will be stored. By default the relative path will be
           stored.


      -J
      --junk-sfx
           Strip any prepended data (e.g. a SFX stub) from the archive.




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      -k
      --DOS-names
           Attempt to convert the names and paths to conform to MSDOS, store
           only the MSDOS attribute (just the user write attribute from
           Unix), and mark the entry as made under MSDOS (even though it was
           not); for compatibility with PKUNZIP under MSDOS which cannot
           handle certain names such as those with two dots.

      -l
      --to-crlf
           Translate the Unix end-of-line character LF into the MSDOS
           convention CR LF. This option should not be used on binary files.
           This option can be used on Unix if the zip file is intended for
           PKUNZIP under MSDOS. If the input files already contain CR LF,
           this option adds an extra CR. This is to ensure that unzip -a on
           Unix will get back an exact copy of the original file, to undo
           the effect of zip -l.  See -ll for how binary files are handled.

      -la
      --log-append
           Append to existing logfile.  Default is to overwrite.

      -lf logfilepath
      --logfile-path logfilepath
           Open a logfile at the given path.  By default any existing file
           at that location is overwritten, but the -la option will result
           in an existing file being opened and the new log information
           appended to any existing information.  Only warnings and errors
           are written to the log unless the -li option is also given, then
           all information messages are also written to the log.

      -li
      --log-info
           Include information messages, such as file names being zipped, in
           the log.  The default is to only include the command line, any
           warnings and errors, and the final status.

      -ll
      --from-crlf
           Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF.  This option
           should not be used on binary files.  This option can be used on
           MSDOS if the zip file is intended for unzip under Unix.  If the
           file is converted and the file is later determined to be binary a
           warning is issued and the file is probably corrupted.  In this
           release if -ll detects binary in the first buffer read from a
           file, zip now issues a warning and skips line end conversion on
           the file.  This check seems to catch all binary files tested, but
           the original check remains and if a converted file is later
           determined to be binary that warning is still issued.  A new
           algorithm is now being used for binary detection that should
           allow line end conversion of text files in UTF-8 and similar



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           encodings.

      -L
      --license
           Display the zip license.

      -m
      --move
           Move the specified files into the zip archive; actually, this
           deletes the target directories/files after making the specified
           zip archive. If a directory becomes empty after removal of the
           files, the directory is also removed. No deletions are done until
           zip has created the archive without error.  This is useful for
           conserving disk space, but is potentially dangerous so it is
           recommended to use it in combination with -T to test the archive
           before removing all input files.

      -MM
      --must-match
           All input patterns must match at least one file and all input
           files found must be readable.  Normally when an input pattern
           does not match a file the "name not matched" warning is issued
           and when an input file has been found but later is missing or not
           readable a missing or not readable warning is issued.  In either
           case zip continues creating the archive, with missing or
           unreadable new files being skipped and files already in the
           archive remaining unchanged.  After the archive is created, if
           any files were not readable zip returns the OPEN error code (18
           on most systems) instead of the normal success return (0 on most
           systems).  With -MM set, zip exits as soon as an input pattern is
           not matched (whenever the "name not matched" warning would be
           issued) or when an input file is not readable.  In either case
           zip exits with an OPEN error and no archive is created.

           This option is useful when a known list of files is to be zipped
           so any missing or unreadable files will result in an error.  It
           is less useful when used with wildcards, but zip will still exit
           with an error if any input pattern doesn't match at least one
           file and if any matched files are unreadable.  If you want to
           create the archive anyway and only need to know if files were
           skipped, don't use -MM and just check the return code.  Also -lf
           could be useful.

      -n suffixes
      --suffixes suffixes
           Do not attempt to compress files named with the given suffixes.
           Such files are simply stored (0% compression) in the output zip
           file, so that zip doesn't waste its time trying to compress them.
           The suffixes are separated by either colons or semicolons.  For
           example:




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                zip -rn .Z:.zip:.tiff:.gif:.snd  foo foo

           will copy everything from foo into foo.zip, but will store any
           files that end in .Z, .zip, .tiff, .gif, or .snd without trying
           to compress them (image and sound files often have their own
           specialized compression methods).  By default, zip does not
           compress files with extensions in the list
           .Z:.zip:.zoo:.arc:.lzh:.arj. Such files are stored directly in
           the output archive.  The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used
           to change the default options. For example under Unix with csh:

                setenv ZIPOPT "-n .gif:.zip"

           To attempt compression on all files, use:

                zip -n : foo

           The maximum compression option -9 also attempts compression on
           all files regardless of extension.

           On Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes (3
           hex digit format). By default, zip does not compress files with
           filetypes in the list DDC:D96:68E (i.e. Archives, CFS files and
           PackDir files).

      -nw
      --no-wild
           Do not perform internal wildcard processing (shell processing of
           wildcards is still done by the shell unless the arguments are
           escaped).  Useful if a list of paths is being read and no
           wildcard substitution is desired.

      -N
      --notes
           [Amiga, MacOS] Save Amiga or MacOS filenotes as zipfile comments.
           They can be restored by using the -N option of unzip. If -c is
           used also, you are prompted for comments only for those files
           that do not have filenotes.

      -o
      --latest-time
           Set the "last modified" time of the zip archive to the latest
           (oldest) "last modified" time found among the entries in the zip
           archive.  This can be used without any other operations, if
           desired.  For example:

           zip -o foo

           will change the last modified time of foo.zip to the latest time
           of the entries in foo.zip.




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      -O output-file
      --output-file output-file
           Process the archive changes as usual, but instead of updating the
           existing archive, output the new archive to output-file.  Useful
           for updating an archive without changing the existing archive and
           the input archive must be a different file than the output
           archive.

           This option can be used to create updated split archives.  It can
           also be used with -U to copy entries from an existing archive to
           a new archive.  See the EXAMPLES section below.

           Another use is converting zip files from one split size to
           another.  For instance, to convert an archive with 700 MB CD
           splits to one with 2 GB DVD splits, can use:

                zip -s 2g cd-split.zip --out dvd-split.zip

           which uses copy mode.  See -U below.  Also:

                zip -s 0 split.zip --out unsplit.zip

           will convert a split archive to a single-file archive.

           Copy mode will convert stream entries (using data descriptors and
           which should be compatible with most unzips) to normal entries
           (which should be compatible with all unzips), except if standard
           encryption was used.  For archives with encrypted entries,
           zipcloak will decrypt the entries and convert them to normal
           entries.

      -p
      --paths
           Include relative file paths as part of the names of files stored
           in the archive.  This is the default.  The -j option junks the
           paths and just stores the names of the files.

      -P password
      --password password
           Use password to encrypt zipfile entries (if any).  THIS IS
           INSECURE!  Many multi-user operating systems provide ways for any
           user to see the current command line of any other user; even on
           stand-alone systems there is always the threat of over-the-
           shoulder peeking.  Storing the plaintext password as part of a
           command line in an automated script is even worse.  Whenever
           possible, use the non-echoing, interactive prompt to enter
           passwords.  (And where security is truly important, use strong
           encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the relatively
           weak standard encryption provided by zipfile utilities.)





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      -q
      --quiet
           Quiet mode; eliminate informational messages and comment prompts.
           (Useful, for example, in shell scripts and background tasks).

      -Qn
      --Q-flag n
           [QDOS] store information about the file in the file header with n
           defined as
           bit  0: Don't add headers for any file
           bit  1: Add headers for all files
           bit  2: Don't wait for interactive key press on exit

      -r
      --recurse-paths
           Travel the directory structure recursively; for example:

                zip -r foo.zip foo

           or more concisely

                zip -r foo foo

           In this case, all the files and directories in foo are saved in a
           zip archive named foo.zip, including files with names starting
           with ".", since the recursion does not use the shell's file-name
           substitution mechanism.  If you wish to include only a specific
           subset of the files in directory foo and its subdirectories, use
           the -i option to specify the pattern of files to be included.
           You should not use -r with the name ".*", since that matches ".."
           which will attempt to zip up the parent directory (probably not
           what was intended).

           Multiple source directories are allowed as in

                zip -r foo foo1 foo2

           which first zips up foo1 and then foo2, going down each
           directory.

           Note that while wildcards to -r are typically resolved while
           recursing down directories in the file system, any -R, -x, and -i
           wildcards are applied to internal archive pathnames once the
           directories are scanned.  To have wildcards apply to files in
           subdirectories when recursing on Unix and similar systems where
           the shell does wildcard substitution, either escape all wildcards
           or put all arguments with wildcards in quotes.  This lets zip see
           the wildcards and match files in subdirectories using them as it
           recurses.





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      -R
      --recurse-patterns
           Travel the directory structure recursively starting at the
           current directory; for example:

                zip -R foo "*.c"

           In this case, all the files matching *.c in the tree starting at
           the current directory are stored into a zip archive named
           foo.zip.  Note that *.c will match file.c, a/file.c and a/b/.c.
           More than one pattern can be listed as separate arguments.  Note
           for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is

                pkzip -rP foo *.c

           Patterns are relative file paths as they appear in the archive,
           or will after zipping, and can have optional wildcards in them.
           For example, given the current directory is foo and under it are
           directories foo1 and foo2 and in foo1 is the file bar.c,

                zip -R foo/*

           will zip up foo, foo/foo1, foo/foo1/bar.c, and foo/foo2.

                zip -R */bar.c

           will zip up foo/foo1/bar.c.  See the note for -r on escaping
           wildcards.


      -RE
      --regex
           [WIN32]  Before zip 3.0, regular expression list matching was
           enabled by default on Windows platforms.  Because of confusion
           resulting from the need to escape "[" and "]" in names, it is now
           off by default for Windows so "[" and "]" are just normal
           characters in names.  This option enables [] matching again.


      -s splitsize
      --split-size splitsize
           Enable creating a split archive and set the split size.  A split
           archive is an archive that could be split over many files.  As
           the archive is created, if the size of the archive reaches the
           specified split size, that split is closed and the next split
           opened.  In general all splits but the last will be the split
           size and the last will be whatever is left.  If the entire
           archive is smaller than the split size a single-file archive is
           created.

           Split archives are stored in numbered files.  For example, if the



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           output archive is named archive and three splits are required,
           the resulting archive will be in the three files archive.z01,
           archive.z02, and archive.zip.  Do not change the numbering of
           these files or the archive will not be readable as these are used
           to determine the order the splits are read.

           Split size is a number optionally followed by a multiplier.
           Currently the number must be an integer.  The multiplier can
           currently be one of k (kilobytes), m (megabytes), g (gigabytes),
           or t (terabytes).  As 64k is the minimum split size, numbers
           without multipliers default to megabytes.  For example, to create
           a split archive called foo with the contents of the bar directory
           with splits of 670 MB that might be useful for burning on CDs,
           the command:

                zip -s 670m -r foo bar

           could be used.

           Currently the old splits of a split archive are not excluded from
           a new archive, but they can be specifically excluded.  If
           possible, keep the input and output archives out of the path
           being zipped when creating split archives.

           Using -s without -sp as above creates all the splits where foo is
           being written, in this case the current directory.  This split
           mode updates the splits as the archive is being created,
           requiring all splits to remain writable, but creates split
           archives that are readable by any unzip that supports split
           archives.  See -sp below for enabling split pause mode which
           allows splits to be written directly to removable media.

           The option -sv can be used to enable verbose splitting and
           provide details of how the splitting is being done.  The -sb
           option can be used to ring the bell when zip pauses for the next
           split destination.

           Split archives cannot be updated, but see the -O (--out) option
           for how a split archive can be updated as it is copied to a new
           archive.  A split archive can also be converted into a single-
           file archive using a split size of 0 or negating the -s option:

                zip -s 0 split.zip --out single.zip

           Also see -U (--copy) for more on using copy mode.

      -sb
      --split-bell
           If splitting and using split pause mode, ring the bell when zip
           pauses for each split destination.




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      -sc
      --show-command
           Show the command line starting zip as processed and exit.  The
           new command parser permutes the arguments, putting all options
           and any values associated with them before any non-option
           arguments.  This allows an option to appear anywhere in the
           command line as long as any values that go with the option go
           with it.  This option displays the command line as zip sees it,
           including any arguments from the environment such as from the
           ZIPOPT variable.  Where allowed, options later in the command
           line can override options earlier in the command line.

      -sf
      --show-files
           Show the files that would be operated on, then exit.  For
           instance, if creating a new archive, this will list the files
           that would be added.  If the option is negated, -sf-, output only
           to an open log file.  Screen display is not recommended for large
           lists.

      -so
      --show-options
           Show all available options supported by zip as compiled on the
           current system.  As this command reads the option table, it
           should include all options.  Each line includes the short option
           (if defined), the long option (if defined), the format of any
           value that goes with the option, if the option can be negated,
           and a small description.  The value format can be no value,
           required value, optional value, single character value, number
           value, or a list of values.  The output of this option is not
           intended to show how to use any option but only show what options
           are available.

      -sp
      --split-pause
           If splitting is enabled with -s, enable split pause mode.  This
           creates split archives as -s does, but stream writing is used so
           each split can be closed as soon as it is written and zip will
           pause between each split to allow changing split destination or
           media.

           Though this split mode allows writing splits directly to
           removable media, it uses stream archive format that may not be
           readable by some unzips.  Before relying on splits created with
           -sp, test a split archive with the unzip you will be using.

           To convert a stream split archive (created with -sp) to a
           standard archive see the --out option.

      -su




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                             16 June 2008 (v3.0)



      --show-unicode
           As -sf, but also show Unicode version of the path if exists.

      -sU
      --show-just-unicode
           As -sf, but only show Unicode version of the path if exists,
           otherwise show the standard version of the path.

      -sv
      --split-verbose
           Enable various verbose messages while splitting, showing how the
           splitting is being done.

      -S
      --system-hidden
           [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden files.
           [MacOS] Includes finder invisible files, which are ignored
           otherwise.

      -t mmddyyyy
      --from-date mmddyyyy
           Do not operate on files modified prior to the specified date,
           where mm is the month (00-12), dd is the day of the month (01-
           31), and yyyy is the year.  The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd
           is also accepted.  For example:

                zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo

                zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo

           will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were
           last modified on or after 7 December 1991, to the zip archive
           infamy.zip.

      -tt mmddyyyy
      --before-date mmddyyyy
           Do not operate on files modified after or at the specified date,
           where mm is the month (00-12), dd is the day of the month (01-
           31), and yyyy is the year.  The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd
           is also accepted.  For example:

                zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo

                zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo

           will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were
           last modified before 30 November 1995, to the zip archive
           infamy.zip.

      -T




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      --test
           Test the integrity of the new zip file. If the check fails, the
           old zip file is unchanged and (with the -m option) no input files
           are removed.

      -TT cmd
      --unzip-command cmd
           Use command cmd instead of 'unzip -tqq' to test an archive when
           the -T option is used.  On Unix, to use a copy of unzip in the
           current directory instead of the standard system unzip, could
           use:

            zip archive file1 file2 -T -TT "./unzip -tqq"

           In cmd, {} is replaced by the name of the temporary archive,
           otherwise the name of the archive is appended to the end of the
           command.  The return code is checked for success (0 on Unix).

      -u
      --update
           Replace (update) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it
           has been modified more recently than the version already in the
           zip archive.  For example:

                zip -u stuff *

           will add any new files in the current directory, and update any
           files which have been modified since the zip archive stuff.zip
           was last created/modified (note that zip will not try to pack
           stuff.zip into itself when you do this).

           Note that the -u option with no input file arguments acts like
           the -f (freshen) option.

      -U
      --copy-entries
           Copy entries from one archive to another.  Requires the --out
           option to specify a different output file than the input archive.
           Copy mode is the reverse of -d delete.  When delete is being used
           with --out, the selected entries are deleted from the archive and
           all other entries are copied to the new archive, while copy mode
           selects the files to include in the new archive.  Unlike -u
           update, input patterns on the command line are matched against
           archive entries only and not the file system files.  For
           instance,

                zip inarchive "*.c" --copy --out outarchive

           copies entries with names ending in .c from inarchive to
           outarchive.  The wildcard must be escaped on some systems to
           prevent the shell from substituting names of files from the file



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           system which may have no relevance to the entries in the archive.

           If no input files appear on the command line and --out is used,
           copy mode is assumed:

                zip inarchive --out outarchive

           This is useful for changing split size for instance.  Encrypting
           and decrypting entries is not yet supported using copy mode.  Use
           zipcloak for that.

      -UN v
      --unicode v
           Determine what zip should do with Unicode file names.  zip 3.0,
           in addition to the standard file path, now includes the UTF-8
           translation of the path if the entry path is not entirely 7-bit
           ASCII.  When an entry is missing the Unicode path, zip reverts
           back to the standard file path.  The problem with using the
           standard path is this path is in the local character set of the
           zip that created the entry, which may contain characters that are
           not valid in the character set being used by the unzip.  When zip
           is reading an archive, if an entry also has a Unicode path, zip
           now defaults to using the Unicode path to recreate the standard
           path using the current local character set.

           This option can be used to determine what zip should do with this
           path if there is a mismatch between the stored standard path and
           the stored UTF-8 path (which can happen if the standard path was
           updated).  In all cases, if there is a mismatch it is assumed
           that the standard path is more current and zip uses that.  Values
           for v are

                q - quit if paths do not match

                w - warn, continue with standard path

                i - ignore, continue with standard path

                n - no Unicode, do not use Unicode paths

           The default is to warn and continue.

           Characters that are not valid in the current character set are
           escaped as #Uxxxx and #Lxxxxxx, where x is an ASCII character for
           a hex digit.  The first is used if a 16-bit character number is
           sufficient to represent the Unicode character and the second if
           the character needs more than 16 bits to represent it's Unicode
           character code.  Setting -UN to

                e - escape




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           as in

                zip archive -sU -UN=e

           forces zip to escape all characters that are not printable 7-bit
           ASCII.

           Normally zip stores UTF-8 directly in the standard path field on
           systems where UTF-8 is the current character set and stores the
           UTF-8 in the new extra fields otherwise.  The option

                u - UTF-8

           as in

                zip archive dir -r -UN=UTF8

           forces zip to store UTF-8 as native in the archive.  Note that
           storing UTF-8 directly is the default on Unix systems that
           support it.  This option could be useful on Windows systems where
           the escaped path is too large to be a valid path and the UTF-8
           version of the path is smaller, but native UTF-8 is not backward
           compatible on Windows systems.


      -v
      --verbose
           Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info.

           Normally, when applied to real operations, this option enables
           the display of a progress indicator during compression (see -dd
           for more on dots) and requests verbose diagnostic info about
           zipfile structure oddities.

           However, when -v is the only command line argument a diagnostic
           screen is printed instead.  This should now work even if stdout
           is redirected to a file, allowing easy saving of the information
           for sending with bug reports to Info-ZIP.  The version screen
           provides the help screen header with program name, version, and
           release date, some pointers to the Info-ZIP home and distribution
           sites, and shows information about the target environment
           (compiler type and version, OS version, compilation date and the
           enabled optional features used to create the zip executable).

      -V
      --VMS-portable
           [VMS] Save VMS file attributes.  (Files are  truncated at EOF.)
           When a -V archive is unpacked on a non-VMS system,  some file
           types (notably Stream_LF text files  and  pure binary files  like
           fixed-512) should be extracted intact.  Indexed files and file
           types with embedded record sizes (notably variable-length record



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                             16 June 2008 (v3.0)



           types) will probably be seen as corrupt elsewhere.

      -VV
      --VMS-specific
           [VMS] Save VMS file attributes, and  all allocated blocks in a
           file,  including  any  data beyond EOF.  Useful for moving ill-
           formed files  among  VMS systems.   When a -VV archive is
           unpacked on a non-VMS system, almost all files will appear
           corrupt.

      -w
      --VMS-versions
           [VMS] Append the version number of the files to the name,
           including multiple versions of files.  Default is to use only the
           most recent version of a specified file.

      -ww
      --VMS-dot-versions
           [VMS] Append the version number of the files to the name,
           including multiple versions of files, using the .nnn format.
           Default is to use only the most recent version of a specified
           file.

      -ws
      --wild-stop-dirs
           Wildcards match only at a directory level.  Normally zip handles
           paths as strings and given the paths

                /foo/bar/dir/file1.c

                /foo/bar/file2.c

           an input pattern such as

                /foo/bar/*

           normally would match both paths, the * matching dir/file1.c and
           file2.c.  Note that in the first case a directory boundary (/)
           was crossed in the match.  With -ws no directory bounds will be
           included in the match, making wildcards local to a specific
           directory level.  So, with -ws enabled, only the second path
           would be matched.

           When using -ws, use ** to match across directory boundaries as *
           does normally.

      -x files
      --exclude files
           Explicitly exclude the specified files, as in:





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                zip -r foo foo -x \*.o

           which will include the contents of foo in foo.zip while excluding
           all the files that end in The backslash avoids the shell filename
           substitution, so that the name matching is performed by zip at
           all directory levels.

           Also possible:

                zip -r foo foo -x@exclude.lst

           which will include the contents of foo in foo.zip while excluding
           all the files that match the patterns in the file exclude.lst.

           The long option forms of the above are

                zip -r foo foo --exclude \*.o

           and

                zip -r foo foo --exclude @exclude.lst

           Multiple patterns can be specified, as in:

                zip -r foo foo -x \*.o \*.c

           If there is no space between -x and the pattern, just one value
           is assumed (no list):

                zip -r foo foo -x\*.o



           See -i for more on include and exclude.

      -X
      --no-extra
           Do not save extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on OS/2,
           uid/gid and file times on Unix).  The zip format uses extra
           fields to include additional information for each entry.  Some
           extra fields are specific to particular systems while others are
           applicable to all systems.  Normally when zip reads entries from
           an existing archive, it reads the extra fields it knows, strips
           the rest, and adds the extra fields applicable to that system.
           With -X, zip strips all old fields and only includes the Unicode
           and Zip64 extra fields (currently these two extra fields cannot
           be disabled).

           Negating this option, -X-, includes all the default extra fields,
           but also copies over any unrecognized extra fields.




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      -y
      --symlinks
           For UNIX and VMS (V8.3 and later), store symbolic links as such
           in the zip archive, instead of compressing and storing the file
           referred to by the link.  This can avoid multiple copies of files
           being included in the archive as zip recurses the directory trees
           and accesses files directly and by links.

      -z
      --archive-comment
           Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive.  The
           comment is ended by a line containing just a period, or an end of
           file condition (^D on Unix, ^Z on MSDOS, OS/2, and VMS).  The
           comment can be taken from a file:

                zip -z foo < foowhat

      -Z cm
      --compression-method cm
           Set the default compression method.  Currently the main methods
           supported by zip are store and deflate.  Compression method can
           be set to:

           store - Setting the compression method to store forces zip to
           store entries with no compression.  This is generally faster than
           compressing entries, but results in no space savings.  This is
           the same as using -0 (compression level zero).

           deflate - This is the default method for zip.  If zip determines
           that storing is better than deflation, the entry will be stored
           instead.

           bzip2 - If bzip2 support is compiled in, this compression method
           also becomes available.  Only some modern unzips currently
           support the bzip2 compression method, so test the unzip you will
           be using before relying on archives using this method
           (compression method 12).

           For example, to add bar.c to archive foo using bzip2 compression:

                zip -Z bzip2 foo bar.c

           The compression method can be abbreviated:

                zip -Zb foo bar.c



      -#
      (-0, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5,
           Regulate the speed of compression using the specified digit #,



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           where -0 indicates no compression (store all files), -1 indicates
           the fastest compression speed (less compression) and -9 indicates
           the slowest compression speed (optimal compression, ignores the
           suffix list). The default compression level is -6.

           Though still being worked, the intention is this setting will
           control compression speed for all compression methods.  Currently
           only deflation is controlled.

      -!
      --use-privileges
           [WIN32] Use priviliges (if granted) to obtain all aspects of
           WinNT security.

      -@
      --names-stdin
           Take the list of input files from standard input. Only one
           filename per line.

      -$
      --volume-label
           [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32] Include the volume label for the drive
           holding the first file to be compressed.  If you want to include
           only the volume label or to force a specific drive, use the drive
           name as first file name, as in:

                zip -$ foo a: c:bar



 EXAMPLES
      The simplest example:

           zip stuff * creates the archive stuff.zip (assuming it does not
           exist) and puts all the files in the current directory in it, in
           compressed form (the .zip suffix is added automatically, unless
           the archive name contains a dot already; this allows the explicit
           specification of other suffixes).  Because of the way the shell
           on Unix does filename substitution, files starting with "." are
           not included; to include these as well:

           zip stuff .* * Even this will not include any subdirectories from
           the current directory.  To zip up an entire directory, the
           command:

           zip -r foo foo creates the archive foo.zip, containing all the
           files and directories in the directory foo that is contained
           within the current directory.  You may want to make a zip archive
           that contains the files in foo, without recording the directory
           name, foo.  You can use the -j option to leave off the paths, as
           in:



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                             16 June 2008 (v3.0)



           zip -j foo foo/* If you are short on disk space, you might not
           have enough room to hold both the original directory and the
           corresponding compressed zip archive.  In this case, you can
           create the archive in steps using the -m option.  If foo contains
           the subdirectories tom, dick, and harry, you can:

           zip -rm foo foo/tom
           zip -rm foo foo/dick
           zip -rm foo foo/harry where the first command creates foo.zip,
           and the next two add to it.  At the completion of each zip
           command, the last created archive is deleted, making room for the
           next zip command to function.



           Use -s to set the split size and create a split archive.  The
           size is given as a number followed optionally by one of k (kB), m
           (MB), g (GB), or t (TB).  The command

           zip -s 2g -r split.zip foo creates a split archive of the
           directory foo with splits no bigger than 2 GB each.  If foo
           contained 5 GB of contents and the contents were stored in the
           split archive without compression (to make this example simple),
           this would create three splits, split.z01 at 2 GB, split.z02 at
           2 GB, and split.zip at a little over 1 GB.  The -sp option can be
           used to pause zip between splits to allow changing removable
           media, for example, but read the descriptions and warnings for
           both -s and -sp below.  Though zip does not update split
           archives, zip provides the new option -O (--output-file) to allow
           split archives to be updated and saved in a new archive.  For
           example,

           zip inarchive.zip foo.c bar.c --out outarchive.zip reads archive
           inarchive.zip, even if split, adds the files foo.c and bar.c, and
           writes the resulting archive to outarchive.zip.  If inarchive.zip
           is split then outarchive.zip defaults to the same split size.  Be
           aware that outarchive.zip and any split files that are created
           with it are always overwritten without warning.  This may be
           changed in the future.





 PATTERN MATCHING
      This section applies only to Unix.  Watch this space for details on
      MSDOS and VMS operation.  However, the special wildcard characters *
      and [] below apply to at least MSDOS also.  The Unix shells (sh, csh,
      bash, and others) normally do filename substitution (also called
      "globbing") on command arguments.  Generally the special characters
      are:



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      ?    match any single character

      *    match any number of characters (including none)

      []   match any character in the range indicated within the brackets
           (example: [a-f], [0-9]).  This form of wildcard matching allows a
           user to specify a list of characters between square brackets and
           if any of the characters match the expression matches.  For
           example:

                zip archive "*.[hc]"

           would archive all files in the current directory that end in

           Ranges of characters are supported:

                zip archive "[a-f]*"

           would add to the archive all files starting with "a" through "f".

           Negation is also supported, where any character in that position
           not in the list matches.  Negation is supported by adding ! or ^
           to the beginning of the list:

                zip archive "*.[!o]"

           matches files that don't end in ".o".

           On WIN32, [] matching needs to be turned on with the -RE option
           to avoid the confusion that names with [ or ] have caused.

           When these characters are encountered (without being escaped with
           a backslash or quotes), the shell will look for files relative to
           the current path that match the pattern, and replace the argument
           with a list of the names that matched.  The zip program can do
           the same matching on names that are in the zip archive being
           modified or, in the case of the -x (exclude) or -i (include)
           options, on the list of files to be operated on, by using
           backslashes or quotes to tell the shell not to do the name
           expansion.  In general, when zip encounters a name in the list of
           files to do, it first looks for the name in the file system.  If
           it finds it, it then adds it to the list of files to do.  If it
           does not find it, it looks for the name in the zip archive being
           modified (if it exists), using the pattern matching characters
           described above, if present.  For each match, it will add that
           name to the list of files to be processed, unless this name
           matches one given with the -x option, or does not match any name
           given with the -i option.  The pattern matching includes the
           path, and so patterns like \*.o match names that end in ".o", no
           matter what the path prefix is.  Note that the backslash must
           precede every special character (i.e. ?*[]), or the entire



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           argument must be enclosed in double quotes ("").  In general, use
           backslashes or double quotes for paths that have wildcards to
           make zip do the pattern matching for file paths, and always for
           paths and strings that have spaces or wildcards for -i, -x, -R,
           -d, and -U and anywhere zip needs to process the wildcards.

 ENVIRONMENT
      The following environment variables are read and used by zip as
      described.

      ZIPOPT
           contains default options that will be used when running zip.  The
           contents of this environment variable will get added to the
           command line just after the zip command.

      ZIP
           [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT

      Zip$Options
           [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT

      Zip$Exts
           [RISC OS] contains extensions separated by a : that will cause
           native filenames with one of the specified extensions to be added
           to the zip file with basename and extension swapped.

      ZIP_OPTS
           [VMS] see ZIPOPT

 SEE ALSO
      compress(1), shar(1L), tar(1), unzip(1L), gzip(1L)

 DIAGNOSTICS
      The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined
      by PKWARE and takes on the following values, except under VMS:

           0    normal; no errors or warnings detected.

           2    unexpected end of zip file.

           3    a generic error in the zipfile format was detected.
                Processing may have completed successfully anyway; some
                broken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple
                work-arounds.

           4    zip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers
                during program initialization.

           5    a severe error in the zipfile format was detected.
                Processing probably failed immediately.




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                             16 June 2008 (v3.0)



           6    entry too large to be processed (such as input files larger
                than 2 GB when not using Zip64 or trying to read an existing
                archive that is too large) or entry too large to be split
                with zipsplit

           7    invalid comment format

           8    zip -T failed or out of memory

           9    the user aborted zip prematurely with control-C (or similar)

           10   zip encountered an error while using a temp file

           11   read or seek error

           12   zip has nothing to do

           13   missing or empty zip file

           14   error writing to a file

           15   zip was unable to create a file to write to

           16   bad command line parameters

           18   zip could not open a specified file to read

           19   zip was compiled with options not supported on this system

      VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other, scarier-
      looking things, so zip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes.
      In general, zip sets VMS Facility = 1955 (0x07A3), Code = 2*
      Unix_status, and an appropriate Severity (as specified in ziperr.h).
      More details are included in the VMS-specific documentation.  See
      [.vms]NOTES.TXT and [.vms]vms_msg_gen.c.

 BUGS
      zip 3.0 is not compatible with PKUNZIP 1.10. Use zip 1.1 to produce
      zip files which can be extracted by PKUNZIP 1.10.

      zip files produced by zip 3.0 must not be updated by zip 1.1 or PKZIP
      1.10, if they contain encrypted members or if they have been produced
      in a pipe or on a non-seekable device. The old versions of zip or
      PKZIP would create an archive with an incorrect format.  The old
      versions can list the contents of the zip file but cannot extract it
      anyway (because of the new compression algorithm).  If you do not use
      encryption and use regular disk files, you do not have to care about
      this problem.  Under VMS, not all of the odd file formats are treated
      properly.  Only stream-LF format zip files are expected to work with
      zip.  Others can be converted using Rahul Dhesi's BILF program.  This
      version of zip handles some of the conversion internally.  When using



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      Kermit to transfer zip files from VMS to MSDOS, type "set file type
      block" on VMS.  When transfering from MSDOS to VMS, type "set file
      type fixed" on VMS.  In both cases, type "set file type binary" on
      MSDOS.  Under some older VMS versions, zip may hang for file
      specifications that use DECnet syntax foo::*.*. On OS/2, zip cannot
      match some names, such as those including an exclamation mark or a
      hash sign.  This is a bug in OS/2 itself: the 32-bit DosFindFirst/Next
      don't find such names.  Other programs such as GNU tar are also
      affected by this bug.  Under OS/2, the amount of Extended Attributes
      displayed by DIR is (for compatibility) the amount returned by the
      16-bit version of DosQueryPathInfo(). Otherwise OS/2 1.3 and 2.0 would
      report different EA sizes when DIRing a file.  However, the structure
      layout returned by the 32-bit DosQueryPathInfo() is a bit different,
      it uses extra padding bytes and link pointers (it's a linked list) to
      have all fields on 4-byte boundaries for portability to future RISC
      OS/2 versions. Therefore the value reported by zip (which uses this
      32-bit-mode size) differs from that reported by DIR.  zip stores the
      32-bit format for portability, even the 16-bit MS-C-compiled version
      running on OS/2 1.3, so even this one shows the 32-bit-mode size.

 AUTHORS
      Copyright (C) 1997-2008 Info-ZIP.  Currently distributed under the
      Info-ZIP license.  Copyright (C) 1990-1997 Mark Adler, Richard B.
      Wales, Jean-loup Gailly, Onno van der Linden, Kai Uwe Rommel, Igor
      Mandrichenko, John Bush and Paul Kienitz.  Original copyright:
      Permission is granted to any individual or institution to use, copy,
      or redistribute this software so long as all of the original files are
      included, that it is not sold for profit, and that this copyright
      notice is retained.  LIKE ANYTHING ELSE THAT'S FREE, ZIP AND ITS
      ASSOCIATED UTILITIES ARE PROVIDED AS IS AND COME WITH NO WARRANTY OF
      ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. IN NO EVENT WILL THE COPYRIGHT
      HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THIS
      SOFTWARE.  Please send bug reports and comments using the web page at:
      www.info-zip.org.  For bug reports, please include the version of zip
      (see zip -h), the make options used to compile it (see zip -v), the
      machine and operating system in use, and as much additional
      information as possible.

 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
      Thanks to R. P. Byrne for his Shrink.Pas program, which inspired this
      project, and from which the shrink algorithm was stolen; to Phil Katz
      for placing in the public domain the zip file format, compression
      format, and .ZIP filename extension, and for accepting minor changes
      to the file format; to Steve Burg for clarifications on the deflate
      format; to Haruhiko Okumura and Leonid Broukhis for providing some
      useful ideas for the compression algorithm; to Keith Petersen, Rich
      Wales, Hunter Goatley and Mark Adler for providing a mailing list and
      ftp site for the Info-ZIP group to use; and most importantly, to the
      Info-ZIP group itself (listed in the file infozip.who) without whose
      tireless testing and bug-fixing efforts a portable zip would not have
      been possible.  Finally we should thank (blame) the first Info-ZIP



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 ZIP(1L)                          Info-ZIP                           ZIP(1L)
                             16 June 2008 (v3.0)



      moderator, David Kirschbaum, for getting us into this mess in the
      first place.  The manual page was rewritten for Unix by R. P. C.
      Rodgers and updated by E. Gordon for zip 3.0.



















































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