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 UNZIP(1L)                        Info-ZIP                         UNZIP(1L)
                            20 April 2009 (v6.0)

      unzip - list, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive

      unzip [-Z] [-cflptTuvz[abjnoqsCDKLMUVWX$/:^]] file[.zip] [file(s) ...]
      [-x xfile(s) ...] [-d exdir]

      unzip will list, test, or extract files from a ZIP archive, commonly
      found on MS-DOS systems.  The default behavior (with no options) is to
      extract into the current directory (and subdirectories below it) all
      files from the specified ZIP archive.  A companion program, zip(1L),
      creates ZIP archives; both programs are compatible with archives
      created by PKWARE's PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS, but in many cases
      the program options or default behaviors differ.

           Path of the ZIP archive(s).  If the file specification is a
           wildcard, each matching file is processed in an order determined
           by the operating system (or file system).  Only the filename can
           be a wildcard; the path itself cannot.  Wildcard expressions are
           similar to those supported in commonly used Unix shells (sh, ksh,
           csh) and may contain:

           *    matches a sequence of 0 or more characters

           ?    matches exactly 1 character

                matches any single character found inside the brackets;
                ranges are specified by a beginning character, a hyphen, and
                an ending character.  If an exclamation point or a caret
                (`!' or `^') follows the left bracket, then the range of
                characters within the brackets is complemented (that is,
                anything except the characters inside the brackets is
                considered a match).  To specify a verbatim left bracket,
                the three-character sequence ``[[]'' has to be used.

           (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be
           interpreted or modified by the operating system, particularly
           under Unix and VMS.)  If no matches are found, the specification
           is assumed to be a literal filename; and if that also fails, the
           suffix .zip is appended.  Note that self-extracting ZIP files are
           supported, as with any other ZIP archive; just specify the .exe
           suffix (if any) explicitly.

           An optional list of archive members to be processed, separated by
           spaces.  (VMS versions compiled with VMSCLI defined must delimit
           files with commas instead.  See -v in OPTIONS below.) Regular

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           expressions (wildcards) may be used to match multiple members;
           see above.  Again, be sure to quote expressions that would
           otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system.

      [-x xfile(s)]
           An optional list of archive members to be excluded from
           processing.  Since wildcard characters normally match (`/')
           directory separators (for exceptions see the option -W), this
           option may be used to exclude any files that are in
           subdirectories.  For example, ``unzip foo *.[ch] -x */*'' would
           extract all C source files in the main directory, but none in any
           subdirectories.  Without the -x option, all C source files in all
           directories within the zipfile would be extracted.

      [-d exdir]
           An optional directory to which to extract files.  By default, all
           files and subdirectories are recreated in the current directory;
           the -d option allows extraction in an arbitrary directory (always
           assuming one has permission to write to the directory).  This
           option need not appear at the end of the command line; it is also
           accepted before the zipfile specification (with the normal
           options), immediately after the zipfile specification, or between
           the file(s) and the -x option.  The option and directory may be
           concatenated without any white space between them, but note that
           this may cause normal shell behavior to be suppressed.  In
           particular, ``-d ~'' (tilde) is expanded by Unix C shells into
           the name of the user's home directory, but ``-d~'' is treated as
           a literal subdirectory ``~'' of the current directory.

      Note that, in order to support obsolescent hardware, unzip's usage
      screen is limited to 22 or 23 lines and should therefore be considered
      only a reminder of the basic unzip syntax rather than an exhaustive
      list of all possible flags.  The exhaustive list follows:

      -Z   zipinfo(1L) mode.  If the first option on the command line is -Z,
           the remaining options are taken to be zipinfo(1L) options.  See
           the appropriate manual page for a description of these options.

      -A   [OS/2, Unix DLL] print extended help for the DLL's programming
           interface (API).

      -c   extract files to stdout/screen (``CRT'').  This option is similar
           to the -p option except that the name of each file is printed as
           it is extracted, the -a option is allowed, and ASCII-EBCDIC
           conversion is automatically performed if appropriate.  This
           option is not listed in the unzip usage screen.

      -f   freshen existing files, i.e., extract only those files that
           already exist on disk and that are newer than the disk copies.
           By default unzip queries before overwriting, but the -o option

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           may be used to suppress the queries.  Note that under many
           operating systems, the TZ (timezone) environment variable must be
           set correctly in order for -f and -u to work properly (under Unix
           the variable is usually set automatically).  The reasons for this
           are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences between
           DOS-format file times (always local time) and Unix-format times
           (always in GMT/UTC) and the necessity to compare the two.  A
           typical TZ value is ``PST8PDT'' (US Pacific time with automatic
           adjustment for Daylight Savings Time or ``summer time'').

      -l   list archive files (short format).  The names, uncompressed file
           sizes and modification dates and times of the specified files are
           printed, along with totals for all files specified.  If UnZip was
           compiled with OS2_EAS defined, the -l option also lists columns
           for the sizes of stored OS/2 extended attributes (EAs) and OS/2
           access control lists (ACLs).  In addition, the zipfile comment
           and individual file comments (if any) are displayed.  If a file
           was archived from a single-case file system (for example, the old
           MS-DOS FAT file system) and the -L option was given, the filename
           is converted to lowercase and is prefixed with a caret (^).

      -p   extract files to pipe (stdout).  Nothing but the file data is
           sent to stdout, and the files are always extracted in binary
           format, just as they are stored (no conversions).

      -t   test archive files.  This option extracts each specified file in
           memory and compares the CRC (cyclic redundancy check, an enhanced
           checksum) of the expanded file with the original file's stored
           CRC value.

      -T   [most OSes] set the timestamp on the archive(s) to that of the
           newest file in each one.  This corresponds to zip's -go option
           except that it can be used on wildcard zipfiles (e.g., ``unzip -T
           \*.zip'') and is much faster.

      -u   update existing files and create new ones if needed.  This option
           performs the same function as the -f option, extracting (with
           query) files that are newer than those with the same name on
           disk, and in addition it extracts those files that do not already
           exist on disk.  See -f above for information on setting the
           timezone properly.

      -v   list archive files (verbose format) or show diagnostic version
           info.  This option has evolved and now behaves as both an option
           and a modifier.  As an option it has two purposes:  when a
           zipfile is specified with no other options, -v lists archive
           files verbosely, adding to the basic -l info the compression
           method, compressed size, compression ratio and 32-bit CRC.  In
           contrast to most of the competing utilities, unzip removes the 12
           additional header bytes of encrypted entries from the compressed
           size numbers.  Therefore, compressed size and compression ratio

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           figures are independent of the entry's encryption status and show
           the correct compression performance.  (The complete size of the
           encrypted compressed data stream for zipfile entries is reported
           by the more verbose zipinfo(1L) reports, see the separate
           manual.) When no zipfile is specified (that is, the complete
           command is simply ``unzip -v''), a diagnostic screen is printed.
           In addition to the normal header with release date and version,
           unzip lists the home Info-ZIP ftp site and where to find a list
           of other ftp and non-ftp sites; the target operating system for
           which it was compiled, as well as (possibly) the hardware on
           which it was compiled, the compiler and version used, and the
           compilation date; any special compilation options that might
           affect the program's operation (see also DECRYPTION below); and
           any options stored in environment variables that might do the
           same (see ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS below).  As a modifier it works in
           conjunction with other options (e.g., -t) to produce more verbose
           or debugging output; this is not yet fully implemented but will
           be in future releases.

      -z   display only the archive comment.

      -a   convert text files.  Ordinarily all files are extracted exactly
           as they are stored (as ``binary'' files).  The -a option causes
           files identified by zip as text files (those with the `t' label
           in zipinfo listings, rather than `b') to be automatically
           extracted as such, converting line endings, end-of-file
           characters and the character set itself as necessary.  (For
           example, Unix files use line feeds (LFs) for end-of-line (EOL)
           and have no end-of-file (EOF) marker; Macintoshes use carriage
           returns (CRs) for EOLs; and most PC operating systems use CR+LF
           for EOLs and control-Z for EOF.  In addition, IBM mainframes and
           the Michigan Terminal System use EBCDIC rather than the more
           common ASCII character set, and NT supports Unicode.) Note that
           zip's identification of text files is by no means perfect; some
           ``text'' files may actually be binary and vice versa.  unzip
           therefore prints ``[text]'' or ``[binary]'' as a visual check for
           each file it extracts when using the -a option.  The -aa option
           forces all files to be extracted as text, regardless of the
           supposed file type.  On VMS, see also -S.

      -b   [general] treat all files as binary (no text conversions).  This
           is a shortcut for ---a.

      -b   [Tandem] force the creation files with filecode type 180 ('C')
           when extracting Zip entries marked as "text". (On Tandem, -a is
           enabled by default, see above).

      -b   [VMS] auto-convert binary files (see -a above) to fixed-length,
           512-byte record format.  Doubling the option (-bb) forces all
           files to be extracted in this format. When extracting to standard

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           output (-c or -p option in effect), the default conversion of
           text record delimiters is disabled for binary (-b) resp. all
           (-bb) files.

      -B   [when compiled with UNIXBACKUP defined] save a backup copy of
           each overwritten file. The backup file is gets the name of the
           target file with a tilde and optionally a unique sequence number
           (up to 5 digits) appended.  The sequence number is applied
           whenever another file with the original name plus tilde already
           exists.  When used together with the "overwrite all" option -o,
           numbered backup files are never created. In this case, all backup
           files are named as the original file with an appended tilde,
           existing backup files are deleted without notice.  This feature
           works similarly to the default behavior of emacs(1) in many

           Example: the old copy of ``foo'' is renamed to ``foo~''.

           Warning: Users should be aware that the -B option does not
           prevent loss of existing data under all circumstances.  For
           example, when unzip is run in overwrite-all mode, an existing
           ``foo~'' file is deleted before unzip attempts to rename ``foo''
           to ``foo~''.  When this rename attempt fails (because of a file
           locks, insufficient privileges, or ...), the extraction of
           ``foo~'' gets cancelled, but the old backup file is already lost.
           A similar scenario takes place when the sequence number range for
           numbered backup files gets exhausted (99999, or 65535 for 16-bit
           systems).  In this case, the backup file with the maximum
           sequence number is deleted and replaced by the new backup version
           without notice.

      -C   use case-insensitive matching for the selection of archive
           entries from the command-line list of extract selection patterns.
           unzip's philosophy is ``you get what you ask for'' (this is also
           responsible for the -L/-U change; see the relevant options
           below).  Because some file systems are fully case-sensitive
           (notably those under the Unix operating system) and because both
           ZIP archives and unzip itself are portable across platforms,
           unzip's default behavior is to match both wildcard and literal
           filenames case-sensitively.  That is, specifying ``makefile'' on
           the command line will only match ``makefile'' in the archive, not
           ``Makefile'' or ``MAKEFILE'' (and similarly for wildcard
           specifications).  Since this does not correspond to the behavior
           of many other operating/file systems (for example, OS/2 HPFS,
           which preserves mixed case but is not sensitive to it), the -C
           option may be used to force all filename matches to be case-
           insensitive.  In the example above, all three files would then
           match ``makefile'' (or ``make*'', or similar).  The -C option
           affects file specs in both the normal file list and the
           excluded-file list (xlist).

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           Please note that the -C option does neither affect the search for
           the zipfile(s) nor the matching of archive entries to existing
           files on the extraction path.  On a case-sensitive file system,
           unzip will never try to overwrite a file ``FOO'' when extracting
           an entry ``foo''!

      -D   skip restoration of timestamps for extracted items.  Normally,
           unzip tries to restore all meta-information for extracted items
           that are supplied in the Zip archive (and do not require
           privileges or impose a security risk).  By specifying -D, unzip
           is told to suppress restoration of timestamps for directories
           explicitly created from Zip archive entries.  This option only
           applies to ports that support setting timestamps for directories
           (currently ATheOS, BeOS, MacOS, OS/2, Unix, VMS, Win32, for other
           unzip ports, -D has no effect).  The duplicated option -DD forces
           suppression of timestamp restoration for all extracted entries
           (files and directories).  This option results in setting the
           timestamps for all extracted entries to the current time.

           On VMS, the default setting for this option is -D for consistency
           with the behaviour of BACKUP: file timestamps are restored,
           timestamps of extracted directories are left at the current time.
           To enable restoration of directory timestamps, the negated option
           --D should be specified.  On VMS, the option -D disables
           timestamp restoration for all extracted Zip archive items.
           (Here, a single -D on the command line combines with the default
           -D to do what an explicit -DD does on other systems.)

      -E   [MacOS only] display contents of MacOS extra field during restore

      -F   [Acorn only] suppress removal of NFS filetype extension from
           stored filenames.

      -F   [non-Acorn systems supporting long filenames with embedded
           commas, and only if compiled with ACORN_FTYPE_NFS defined]
           translate filetype information from ACORN RISC OS extra field
           blocks into a NFS filetype extension and append it to the names
           of the extracted files.  (When the stored filename appears to
           already have an appended NFS filetype extension, it is replaced
           by the info from the extra field.)

      -i   [MacOS only] ignore filenames stored in MacOS extra fields.
           Instead, the most compatible filename stored in the generic part
           of the entry's header is used.

      -j   junk paths.  The archive's directory structure is not recreated;
           all files are deposited in the extraction directory (by default,
           the current one).

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      -J   [BeOS only] junk file attributes.  The file's BeOS file
           attributes are not restored, just the file's data.

      -J   [MacOS only] ignore MacOS extra fields.  All Macintosh specific
           info is skipped. Data-fork and resource-fork are restored as
           separate files.

      -K   [AtheOS, BeOS, Unix only] retain SUID/SGID/Tacky file attributes.
           Without this flag, these attribute bits are cleared for security

      -L   convert to lowercase any filename originating on an uppercase-
           only operating system or file system.  (This was unzip's default
           behavior in releases prior to 5.11; the new default behavior is
           identical to the old behavior with the -U option, which is now
           obsolete and will be removed in a future release.)  Depending on
           the archiver, files archived under single-case file systems (VMS,
           old MS-DOS FAT, etc.) may be stored as all-uppercase names; this
           can be ugly or inconvenient when extracting to a case-preserving
           file system such as OS/2 HPFS or a case-sensitive one such as
           under Unix.  By default unzip lists and extracts such filenames
           exactly as they're stored (excepting truncation, conversion of
           unsupported characters, etc.); this option causes the names of
           all files from certain systems to be converted to lowercase.  The
           -LL option forces conversion of every filename to lowercase,
           regardless of the originating file system.

      -M   pipe all output through an internal pager similar to the Unix
           more(1) command.  At the end of a screenful of output, unzip
           pauses with a ``--More--'' prompt; the next screenful may be
           viewed by pressing the Enter (Return) key or the space bar.
           unzip can be terminated by pressing the ``q'' key and, on some
           systems, the Enter/Return key.  Unlike Unix more(1), there is no
           forward-searching or editing capability.  Also, unzip doesn't
           notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen, effectively
           resulting in the printing of two or more lines and the likelihood
           that some text will scroll off the top of the screen before being
           viewed.  On some systems the number of available lines on the
           screen is not detected, in which case unzip assumes the height is
           24 lines.

      -n   never overwrite existing files.  If a file already exists, skip
           the extraction of that file without prompting.  By default unzip
           queries before extracting any file that already exists; the user
           may choose to overwrite only the current file, overwrite all
           files, skip extraction of the current file, skip extraction of
           all existing files, or rename the current file.

      -N   [Amiga] extract file comments as Amiga filenotes.  File comments
           are created with the -c option of zip(1L), or with the -N option
           of the Amiga port of zip(1L), which stores filenotes as comments.

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      -o   overwrite existing files without prompting.  This is a dangerous
           option, so use it with care.  (It is often used with -f, however,
           and is the only way to overwrite directory EAs under OS/2.)

      -P password
           use password to decrypt encrypted zipfile entries (if any).  THIS
           IS INSECURE!  Many multi-user operating systems provide ways for
           any user to see the current command line of any other user; even
           on stand-alone systems there is always the threat of over-the-
           shoulder peeking.  Storing the plaintext password as part of a
           command line in an automated script is even worse.  Whenever
           possible, use the non-echoing, interactive prompt to enter
           passwords.  (And where security is truly important, use strong
           encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the relatively
           weak encryption provided by standard zipfile utilities.)

      -q   perform operations quietly (-qq = even quieter).  Ordinarily
           unzip prints the names of the files it's extracting or testing,
           the extraction methods, any file or zipfile comments that may be
           stored in the archive, and possibly a summary when finished with
           each archive.  The -q[q] options suppress the printing of some or
           all of these messages.

      -s   [OS/2, NT, MS-DOS] convert spaces in filenames to underscores.
           Since all PC operating systems allow spaces in filenames, unzip
           by default extracts filenames with spaces intact (e.g.,
           ``EA DATA. SF'').  This can be awkward, however, since MS-DOS in
           particular does not gracefully support spaces in filenames.
           Conversion of spaces to underscores can eliminate the awkwardness
           in some cases.

      -S   [VMS] convert text files (-a, -aa) into Stream_LF record format,
           instead of the text-file default, variable-length record format.
           (Stream_LF is the default record format of VMS unzip. It is
           applied unless conversion (-a, -aa and/or -b, -bb) is requested
           or a VMS-specific entry is processed.)

      -U   [UNICODE_SUPPORT only] modify or disable UTF-8 handling.  When
           UNICODE_SUPPORT is available, the option -U forces unzip to
           escape all non-ASCII characters from UTF-8 coded filenames as
           ``#Uxxxx'' (for UCS-2 characters, or ``#Lxxxxxx'' for unicode
           codepoints needing 3 octets).  This option is mainly provided for
           debugging purpose when the fairly new UTF-8 support is suspected
           to mangle up extracted filenames.

           The option -UU allows to entirely disable the recognition of
           UTF-8 encoded filenames.  The handling of filename codings within
           unzip falls back to the behaviour of previous versions.

           [old, obsolete usage] leave filenames uppercase if created under
           MS-DOS, VMS, etc.  See -L above.

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      -V   retain (VMS) file version numbers.  VMS files can be stored with
           a version number, in the format file.ext;##.  By default the
           ``;##'' version numbers are stripped, but this option allows them
           to be retained.  (On file systems that limit filenames to
           particularly short lengths, the version numbers may be truncated
           or stripped regardless of this option.)

      -W   [only when WILD_STOP_AT_DIR compile-time option enabled] modifies
           the pattern matching routine so that both `?' (single-char
           wildcard) and `*' (multi-char wildcard) do not match the
           directory separator character `/'.  (The two-character sequence
           ``**'' acts as a multi-char wildcard that includes the directory
           separator in its matched characters.)  Examples:

              "*.c" matches "foo.c" but not "mydir/foo.c"
              "**.c" matches both "foo.c" and "mydir/foo.c"
              "*/*.c" matches "bar/foo.c" but not "baz/bar/foo.c"
              "??*/*" matches "ab/foo" and "abc/foo"
                      but not "a/foo" or "a/b/foo"

           This modified behaviour is equivalent to the pattern matching
           style used by the shells of some of UnZip's supported target OSs
           (one example is Acorn RISC OS).  This option may not be available
           on systems where the Zip archive's internal directory separator
           character `/' is allowed as regular character in native operating
           system filenames.  (Currently, UnZip uses the same pattern
           matching rules for both wildcard zipfile specifications and zip
           entry selection patterns in most ports.  For systems allowing `/'
           as regular filename character, the -W option would not work as
           expected on a wildcard zipfile specification.)

      -X   [VMS, Unix, OS/2, NT, Tandem] restore owner/protection info (UICs
           and ACL entries) under VMS, or user and group info (UID/GID)
           under Unix, or access control lists (ACLs) under certain
           network-enabled versions of OS/2 (Warp Server with IBM LAN
           Server/Requester 3.0 to 5.0; Warp Connect with IBM Peer 1.0), or
           security ACLs under Windows NT.  In most cases this will require
           special system privileges, and doubling the option (-XX) under NT
           instructs unzip to use privileges for extraction; but under Unix,
           for example, a user who belongs to several groups can restore
           files owned by any of those groups, as long as the user IDs match
           his or her own.  Note that ordinary file attributes are always
           restored--this option applies only to optional, extra ownership
           info available on some operating systems.  [NT's access control
           lists do not appear to be especially compatible with OS/2's, so
           no attempt is made at cross-platform portability of access
           privileges.  It is not clear under what conditions this would
           ever be useful anyway.]

      -Y   [VMS] treat archived file name endings of ``.nnn'' (where ``nnn''
           is a decimal  number) as if they were VMS version numbers

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           (``;nnn'').  (The default is to treat them as file types.)
                    "a.b.3" -> "a.b;3".

      -$   [MS-DOS, OS/2, NT] restore the volume label if the extraction
           medium is removable (e.g., a diskette).  Doubling the option
           (-$$) allows fixed media (hard disks) to be labelled as well.  By
           default, volume labels are ignored.

      -/ extensions
           [Acorn only] overrides the extension list supplied by Unzip$Ext
           environment variable. During extraction, filename extensions that
           match one of the items in this extension list are swapped in
           front of the base name of the extracted file.

      -:   [all but Acorn, VM/CMS, MVS, Tandem] allows to extract archive
           members into locations outside of the current `` extraction root
           folder''. For security reasons, unzip normally removes ``parent
           dir'' path components (``../'') from the names of extracted file.
           This safety feature (new for version 5.50) prevents unzip from
           accidentally writing files to ``sensitive'' areas outside the
           active extraction folder tree head.  The -: option lets unzip
           switch back to its previous, more liberal behaviour, to allow
           exact extraction of (older) archives that used ``../'' components
           to create multiple directory trees at the level of the current
           extraction folder.  This option does not enable writing
           explicitly to the root directory (``/'').  To achieve this, it is
           necessary to set the extraction target folder to root (e.g. -d /
           ).  However, when the -: option is specified, it is still
           possible to implicitly write to the root directory by specifying
           enough ``../'' path components within the zip archive.  Use this
           option with extreme caution.

      -^   [Unix only] allow control characters in names of extracted ZIP
           archive entries.  On Unix, a file name may contain any (8-bit)
           character code with the two exception '/' (directory delimiter)
           and NUL (0x00, the C string termination indicator), unless the
           specific file system has more restrictive conventions.
           Generally, this allows to embed ASCII control characters (or even
           sophisticated control sequences) in file names, at least on
           'native' Unix file systems.  However, it may be highly suspicious
           to make use of this Unix "feature".  Embedded control characters
           in file names might have nasty side effects when displayed on
           screen by some listing code without sufficient filtering.  And,
           for ordinary users, it may be difficult to handle such file names
           (e.g. when trying to specify it for open, copy, move, or delete
           operations).  Therefore, unzip applies a filter by default that
           removes potentially dangerous control characters from the
           extracted file names. The -^ option allows to override this
           filter in the rare case that embedded filename control characters
           are to be intentionally restored.

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      -2   [VMS] force unconditionally conversion of file names to ODS2-
           compatible names.  The default is to exploit the destination file
           system, preserving case and extended file name characters on an
           ODS5 destination file system; and applying the ODS2-compatibility
           file name filtering on an ODS2 destination file system.

      unzip's default behavior may be modified via options placed in an
      environment variable.  This can be done with any option, but it is
      probably most useful with the -a, -L, -C, -q, -o, or -n modifiers:
      make unzip auto-convert text files by default, make it convert
      filenames from uppercase systems to lowercase, make it match names
      case-insensitively, make it quieter, or make it always overwrite or
      never overwrite files as it extracts them.  For example, to make unzip
      act as quietly as possible, only reporting errors, one would use one
      of the following commands:

        Unix Bourne shell:
           UNZIP=-qq; export UNZIP

        Unix C shell:
           setenv UNZIP -qq

        OS/2 or MS-DOS:
           set UNZIP=-qq

        VMS (quotes for lowercase):
           define UNZIP_OPTS "-qq"

      Environment options are, in effect, considered to be just like any
      other command-line options, except that they are effectively the first
      options on the command line.  To override an environment option, one
      may use the ``minus operator'' to remove it.  For instance, to
      override one of the quiet-flags in the example above, use the command

          unzip --q[other options] zipfile

      The first hyphen is the normal switch character, and the second is a
      minus sign, acting on the q option.  Thus the effect here is to cancel
      one quantum of quietness.  To cancel both quiet flags, two (or more)
      minuses may be used:

          unzip -t--q zipfile
          unzip ---qt zipfile

      (the two are equivalent).  This may seem awkward or confusing, but it
      is reasonably intuitive:  just ignore the first hyphen and go from
      there.  It is also consistent with the behavior of Unix nice(1).

      As suggested by the examples above, the default variable names are
      UNZIP_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install unzip as a

                                   - 11 -         Formatted:  April 21, 2021

 UNZIP(1L)                        Info-ZIP                         UNZIP(1L)
                            20 April 2009 (v6.0)

      foreign command would otherwise be confused with the environment
      variable), and UNZIP for all other operating systems.  For
      compatibility with zip(1L), UNZIPOPT is also accepted (don't ask).  If
      both UNZIP and UNZIPOPT are defined, however, UNZIP takes precedence.
      unzip's diagnostic option (-v with no zipfile name) can be used to
      check the values of all four possible unzip and zipinfo environment

      The timezone variable (TZ) should be set according to the local
      timezone in order for the -f and -u to operate correctly.  See the
      description of -f above for details.  This variable may also be
      necessary to get timestamps of extracted files to be set correctly.
      The WIN32 (Win9x/ME/NT4/2K/XP/2K3) port of unzip gets the timezone
      configuration from the registry, assuming it is correctly set in the
      Control Panel.  The TZ variable is ignored for this port.

      Encrypted archives are fully supported by Info-ZIP software, but due
      to United States export restrictions, de-/encryption support might be
      disabled in your compiled binary.  However, since spring 2000, US
      export restrictions have been liberated, and our source archives do
      now include full crypt code.  In case you need binary distributions
      with crypt support enabled, see the file ``WHERE'' in any Info-ZIP
      source or binary distribution for locations both inside and outside
      the US.

      Some compiled versions of unzip may not support decryption.  To check
      a version for crypt support, either attempt to test or extract an
      encrypted archive, or else check unzip's diagnostic screen (see the -v
      option above) for ``[decryption]'' as one of the special compilation

      As noted above, the -P option may be used to supply a password on the
      command line, but at a cost in security.  The preferred decryption
      method is simply to extract normally; if a zipfile member is
      encrypted, unzip will prompt for the password without echoing what is
      typed.  unzip continues to use the same password as long as it appears
      to be valid, by testing a 12-byte header on each file.  The correct
      password will always check out against the header, but there is a 1-
      in-256 chance that an incorrect password will as well.  (This is a
      security feature of the PKWARE zipfile format; it helps prevent
      brute-force attacks that might otherwise gain a large speed advantage
      by testing only the header.)  In the case that an incorrect password
      is given but it passes the header test anyway, either an incorrect CRC
      will be generated for the extracted data or else unzip will fail
      during the extraction because the ``decrypted'' bytes do not
      constitute a valid compressed data stream.

      If the first password fails the header check on some file, unzip will
      prompt for another password, and so on until all files are extracted.
      If a password is not known, entering a null password (that is, just a

                                   - 12 -         Formatted:  April 21, 2021

 UNZIP(1L)                        Info-ZIP                         UNZIP(1L)
                            20 April 2009 (v6.0)

      carriage return or ``Enter'') is taken as a signal to skip all further
      prompting.  Only unencrypted files in the archive(s) will thereafter
      be extracted.  (In fact, that's not quite true; older versions of
      zip(1L) and zipcloak(1L) allowed null passwords, so unzip checks each
      encrypted file to see if the null password works.  This may result in
      ``false positives'' and extraction errors, as noted above.)

      Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (for example, passwords with
      accented European characters) may not be portable across systems
      and/or other archivers.  This problem stems from the use of multiple
      encoding methods for such characters, including Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1)
      and OEM code page 850.  DOS PKZIP 2.04g uses the OEM code page;
      Windows PKZIP 2.50 uses Latin-1 (and is therefore incompatible with
      DOS PKZIP); Info-ZIP uses the OEM code page on DOS, OS/2 and Win3.x
      ports but ISO coding (Latin-1 etc.) everywhere else; and Nico Mak's
      WinZip 6.x does not allow 8-bit passwords at all.  UnZip 5.3 (or
      newer) attempts to use the default character set first (e.g., Latin-
      1), followed by the alternate one (e.g., OEM code page) to test
      passwords.  On EBCDIC systems, if both of these fail, EBCDIC encoding
      will be tested as a last resort.  (EBCDIC is not tested on non-EBCDIC
      systems, because there are no known archivers that encrypt using
      EBCDIC encoding.)  ISO character encodings other than Latin-1 are not
      supported.  The new addition of (partially) Unicode (resp.  UTF-8)
      support in UnZip 6.0 has not yet been adapted to the encryption
      password handling in unzip.  On systems that use UTF-8 as native
      character encoding, unzip simply tries decryption with the native
      UTF-8 encoded password; the built-in attempts to check the password in
      translated encoding have not yet been adapted for UTF-8 support and
      will consequently fail.

      To use unzip to extract all members of the archive into
      the current directory and subdirectories below it, creating any
      subdirectories as necessary:

          unzip letters

      To extract all members of into the current directory only:

          unzip -j letters

      To test, printing only a summary message indicating
      whether the archive is OK or not:

          unzip -tq letters

      To test all zipfiles in the current directory, printing only the

          unzip -tq \*.zip

                                   - 13 -         Formatted:  April 21, 2021

 UNZIP(1L)                        Info-ZIP                         UNZIP(1L)
                            20 April 2009 (v6.0)

      (The backslash before the asterisk is only required if the shell
      expands wildcards, as in Unix; double quotes could have been used
      instead, as in the source examples below.)  To extract to standard
      output all members of whose names end in .tex, auto-
      converting to the local end-of-line convention and piping the output
      into more(1):

          unzip -ca letters \*.tex | more

      To extract the binary file paper1.dvi to standard output and pipe it
      to a printing program:

          unzip -p articles paper1.dvi | dvips

      To extract all FORTRAN and C source files--*.f, *.c, *.h, and
      Makefile--into the /tmp directory:

          unzip "*.[fch]" Makefile -d /tmp

      (the double quotes are necessary only in Unix and only if globbing is
      turned on).  To extract all FORTRAN and C source files, regardless of
      case (e.g., both *.c and *.C, and any makefile, Makefile, MAKEFILE or

          unzip -C "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

      To extract any such files but convert any uppercase MS-DOS or VMS
      names to lowercase and convert the line-endings of all of the files to
      the local standard (without respect to any files that might be marked

          unzip -aaCL "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

      To extract only newer versions of the files already in the current
      directory, without querying (NOTE:  be careful of unzipping in one
      timezone a zipfile created in another--ZIP archives other than those
      created by Zip 2.1 or later contain no timezone information, and a
      ``newer'' file from an eastern timezone may, in fact, be older):

          unzip -fo sources

      To extract newer versions of the files already in the current
      directory and to create any files not already there (same caveat as
      previous example):

          unzip -uo sources

      To display a diagnostic screen showing which unzip and zipinfo options
      are stored in environment variables, whether decryption support was
      compiled in, the compiler with which unzip was compiled, etc.:

                                   - 14 -         Formatted:  April 21, 2021

 UNZIP(1L)                        Info-ZIP                         UNZIP(1L)
                            20 April 2009 (v6.0)

          unzip -v

      In the last five examples, assume that UNZIP or UNZIP_OPTS is set to
      -q.  To do a singly quiet listing:

          unzip -l

      To do a doubly quiet listing:

          unzip -ql

      (Note that the ``.zip'' is generally not necessary.)  To do a standard

          unzip --ql
          unzip -l-q
          unzip -l--q
      (Extra minuses in options don't hurt.)

      The current maintainer, being a lazy sort, finds it very useful to
      define a pair of aliases:  tt for ``unzip -tq'' and ii for ``unzip
      -Z'' (or ``zipinfo'').  One may then simply type ``tt zipfile'' to
      test an archive, something that is worth making a habit of doing.
      With luck unzip will report ``No errors detected in compressed data of,'' after which one may breathe a sigh of relief.

      The maintainer also finds it useful to set the UNZIP environment
      variable to ``-aL'' and is tempted to add ``-C'' as well.  His ZIPINFO
      variable is set to ``-z''.

      The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined
      by PKWARE and takes on the following values, except under VMS:

           0    normal; no errors or warnings detected.

           1    one or more warning errors were encountered, but processing
                completed successfully anyway.  This includes zipfiles where
                one or more files was skipped due to unsupported compression
                method or encryption with an unknown password.

           2    a generic error in the zipfile format was detected.
                Processing may have completed successfully anyway; some
                broken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple

           3    a severe error in the zipfile format was detected.
                Processing probably failed immediately.

                                   - 15 -         Formatted:  April 21, 2021

 UNZIP(1L)                        Info-ZIP                         UNZIP(1L)
                            20 April 2009 (v6.0)

           4    unzip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers
                during program initialization.

           5    unzip was unable to allocate memory or unable to obtain a
                tty to read the decryption password(s).

           6    unzip was unable to allocate memory during decompression to

           7    unzip was unable to allocate memory during in-memory

           8    [currently not used]

           9    the specified zipfiles were not found.

           10   invalid options were specified on the command line.

           11   no matching files were found.

           50   the disk is (or was) full during extraction.

           51   the end of the ZIP archive was encountered prematurely.

           80   the user aborted unzip prematurely with control-C (or

           81   testing or extraction of one or more files failed due to
                unsupported compression methods or unsupported decryption.

           82   no files were found due to bad decryption password(s).  (If
                even one file is successfully processed, however, the exit
                status is 1.)

      VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other, scarier-
      looking things, so unzip instead maps them into VMS-style status
      codes.  The current mapping is as follows:   1 (success) for normal
      exit, 0x7fff0001 for warning errors, and (0x7fff000? +
      16*normal_unzip_exit_status) for all other errors, where the `?' is 2
      (error) for unzip values 2, 9-11 and 80-82, and 4 (fatal error) for
      the remaining ones (3-8, 50, 51).  In addition, there is a compilation
      option to expand upon this behavior:  defining RETURN_CODES results in
      a human-readable explanation of what the error status means.

      Multi-part archives are not yet supported, except in conjunction with
      zip.  (All parts must be concatenated together in order, and then
      ``zip -F'' (for zip 2.x) or ``zip -FF'' (for zip 3.x) must be
      performed on the concatenated archive in order to ``fix'' it.  Also,
      zip 3.0 and later can combine multi-part (split) archives into a
      combined single-file archive using ``zip -s- inarchive -O

                                   - 16 -         Formatted:  April 21, 2021

 UNZIP(1L)                        Info-ZIP                         UNZIP(1L)
                            20 April 2009 (v6.0)

      outarchive''.  See the zip 3 manual page for more information.) This
      will definitely be corrected in the next major release.

      Archives read from standard input are not yet supported, except with
      funzip (and then only the first member of the archive can be

      Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (e.g., passwords with accented
      European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or other
      archivers.  See the discussion in DECRYPTION above.

      unzip's -M (``more'') option tries to take into account automatic
      wrapping of long lines. However, the code may fail to detect the
      correct wrapping locations. First, TAB characters (and similar control
      sequences) are not taken into account, they are handled as ordinary
      printable characters.  Second, depending on the actual system / OS
      port, unzip may not detect the true screen geometry but rather rely on
      "commonly used" default dimensions.  The correct handling of tabs
      would require the implementation of a query for the actual tabulator
      setup on the output console.

      Dates, times and permissions of stored directories are not restored
      except under Unix. (On Windows NT and successors, timestamps are now

      [MS-DOS] When extracting or testing files from an archive on a
      defective floppy diskette, if the ``Fail'' option is chosen from DOS's
      ``Abort, Retry, Fail?'' message, older versions of unzip may hang the
      system, requiring a reboot.  This problem appears to be fixed, but
      control-C (or control-Break) can still be used to terminate unzip.

      Under DEC Ultrix, unzip would sometimes fail on long zipfiles (bad
      CRC, not always reproducible).  This was apparently due either to a
      hardware bug (cache memory) or an operating system bug (improper
      handling of page faults?).  Since Ultrix has been abandoned in favor
      of Digital Unix (OSF/1), this may not be an issue anymore.

      [Unix] Unix special files such as FIFO buffers (named pipes), block
      devices and character devices are not restored even if they are
      somehow represented in the zipfile, nor are hard-linked files
      relinked.  Basically the only file types restored by unzip are regular
      files, directories and symbolic (soft) links.

      [OS/2] Extended attributes for existing directories are only updated
      if the -o (``overwrite all'') option is given.  This is a limitation
      of the operating system; because directories only have a creation time
      associated with them, unzip has no way to determine whether the stored
      attributes are newer or older than those on disk.  In practice this
      may mean a two-pass approach is required:  first unpack the archive
      normally (with or without freshening/updating existing files), then
      overwrite just the directory entries (e.g., ``unzip -o foo */'').

                                   - 17 -         Formatted:  April 21, 2021

 UNZIP(1L)                        Info-ZIP                         UNZIP(1L)
                            20 April 2009 (v6.0)

      [VMS] When extracting to another directory, only the [.foo] syntax is
      accepted for the -d option; the simple Unix foo syntax is silently
      ignored (as is the less common VMS foo.dir syntax).

      [VMS] When the file being extracted already exists, unzip's query only
      allows skipping, overwriting or renaming; there should additionally be
      a choice for creating a new version of the file.  In fact, the
      ``overwrite'' choice does create a new version; the old version is not
      overwritten or deleted.

      funzip(1L), zip(1L), zipcloak(1L), zipgrep(1L), zipinfo(1L),
      zipnote(1L), zipsplit(1L)

      The Info-ZIP home page is currently at


      The primary Info-ZIP authors (current semi-active members of the Zip-
      Bugs workgroup) are:  Ed Gordon (Zip, general maintenance, shared
      code, Zip64, Win32, Unix, Unicode); Christian Spieler (UnZip
      maintenance coordination, VMS, MS-DOS, Win32, shared code, general Zip
      and UnZip integration and optimization); Onno van der Linden (Zip);
      Mike White (Win32, Windows GUI, Windows DLLs); Kai Uwe Rommel (OS/2,
      Win32); Steven M. Schweda (VMS, Unix, support of new features); Paul
      Kienitz (Amiga, Win32, Unicode); Chris Herborth (BeOS, QNX, Atari);
      Jonathan Hudson (SMS/QDOS); Sergio Monesi (Acorn RISC OS); Harald
      Denker (Atari, MVS); John Bush (Solaris, Amiga); Hunter Goatley (VMS,
      Info-ZIP Site maintenance); Steve Salisbury (Win32); Steve Miller
      (Windows CE GUI), Johnny Lee (MS-DOS, Win32, Zip64); and Dave Smith
      (Tandem NSK).

      The following people were former members of the Info-ZIP development
      group and provided major contributions to key parts of the current
      code: Greg ``Cave Newt'' Roelofs (UnZip, unshrink decompression);
      Jean-loup Gailly (deflate compression); Mark Adler (inflate
      decompression, fUnZip).

      The author of the original unzip code upon which Info-ZIP's was based
      is Samuel H. Smith; Carl Mascott did the first Unix port; and David P.
      Kirschbaum organized and led Info-ZIP in its early days with Keith
      Petersen hosting the original mailing list at WSMR-SimTel20.  The full
      list of contributors to UnZip has grown quite large; please refer to
      the CONTRIBS file in the UnZip source distribution for a relatively
      complete version.


                                   - 18 -         Formatted:  April 21, 2021

 UNZIP(1L)                        Info-ZIP                         UNZIP(1L)
                            20 April 2009 (v6.0)

      v1.2   15 Mar 89   Samuel H. Smith
      v2.0    9 Sep 89   Samuel H. Smith
      v2.x   fall 1989   many Usenet contributors
      v3.0    1 May 90   Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
      v3.1   15 Aug 90   Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
      v4.0    1 Dec 90   Info-ZIP (GRR, maintainer)
      v4.1   12 May 91   Info-ZIP
      v4.2   20 Mar 92   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
      v5.0   21 Aug 92   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
      v5.01  15 Jan 93   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
      v5.1    7 Feb 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
      v5.11   2 Aug 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
      v5.12  28 Aug 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
      v5.2   30 Apr 96   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
      v5.3   22 Apr 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
      v5.31  31 May 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
      v5.32   3 Nov 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
      v5.4   28 Nov 98   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
      v5.41  16 Apr 00   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
      v5.42  14 Jan 01   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
      v5.5   17 Feb 02   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
      v5.51  22 May 04   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
      v5.52  28 Feb 05   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
      v6.0   20 Apr 09   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)

                                   - 19 -         Formatted:  April 21, 2021