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    Copyright (C) 1989-2006, 2008, 2009, 2012-2013
      Free Software Foundation, Inc.

    Copying and distribution of this file, with or without modification,
    are permitted in any medium without royalty provided the copyright
    notice and this notice are preserved.

This is the GNU `groff' document formatting system.  The version
number is given in the file VERSION.

Included in this release are implementations of `troff', `pic', `eqn',
`tbl', `grn', `refer', `-man', `-mdoc', `-mom', and `-ms' macros, and
drivers for `PostScript', `PDF', `TeX DVI' format, `HP LaserJet 4'
printers, `Canon CAPSL' printers, `HTML' and `XHTML' formats (beta
status), and typewriter-like devices.  Also included is a modified
version of the Berkeley `-me' macros, the enhanced version `gxditview'
of the X11 `xditview' previewer, and an implementation of the `-mm'
macros contributed by Joergen Haegg (

See the file `INSTALL' for installation instructions.  You require
a C++ compiler.

The file `NEWS' describes recent user-visible changes to `groff'.

`groff' is free software.  See the file `COPYING' for copying

The file `PROBLEMS' describes various problems that have been
encountered in compiling, installing, and running `groff'.

The file `MORE.STUFF' contains information about add-on packages
useful for groff.

The most recent released version of `groff' is always available by
anonymous ftp from `' in the directory `gnu/groff'.

The current development version of `groff' is available from a `CVS'
repository.  You can access it by first selecting a parent directory
in which to create a working copy (call it, say, `~/cvswork'), and
then executing the commands

  cd ~/cvswork
  cvs -z5 co groff

This creates a subdirectory, `~/cvswork/groff', with a `checked out'
copy of the `CVS' repository.  An update of this working copy may be
achieved, at any later time by invoking the commands

  cd ~/cvswork/groff
  cvs -z5 update -dP

Please read the `CVS' info pages for further details.

Finally, it is possible to access the `CVS' with a web browser by
pointing it to

Alternatively, you can download snapshots (which are updated twice a
day).  The complete `groff' source as a single file is available at

A diff file relative to `groff-<version>', the latest official `groff'
release, is available at<version>-current.diff.gz

Assuming that `groff-<version>.tar.gz' and
`groff-<version>-current.diff.gz' are in the same directory, do the
following to apply the diff file:

  tar xzvf groff-<version>.tar.gz
  cd groff-<version>
  gunzip -c ../groff-<version>-current.diff.gz | patch -p1

Depending on your requirements, you may need at least some of the
following tools to build `groff' directly from its source:

  the psutils package
  the netpbm package
  texinfo 4.8
  bison >= 1.875b or byacc

Note that `texinfo' and `bison' or `byacc' are required only for
building from `CVS' sources (either a checked out working copy, or a
daily snapshot).  They are not required for building from a stable
release tarball.  Also note that the version numbers stated are the
minimum supported.  No version of `texinfo' < 4.8 works, and the
original release of `bison' 1.875 is known not to work; you *may* find
that `bison' releases < 1.875 work, but in case of difficulty, please
update to a later version *before* posting a bug report.

For *all* sources, you need ghostscript for creation of either `PDF' or
`HTML' output; the `netpbm' and `psutils' packages are required only
for `HTML' output (and for compilation from the CVS).  If you don't
intend to produce output in either of these formats, then these
packages are unnecessary.

Additionally, producing `PDF' output directly with the `gropdf' device
needs a working installation of Perl.  The same is true for the `chem'

In Linux Debian, the installation of `texinfo' is dangerous.  For it
creates a file `install-info' that blocks the system installation.  So
the created `/usr/local/bin/install-info' must be renamed.

The `groff' configure script searches for the X11 headers and
libraries `Xaw' and `Xmu'.  So the corresponding developer packages of
your system must be installed, otherwise `groff' does not install
`gxditview' and the `-TX*' devices.  In Debian, the developer packages
are `libxaw7-dev' and `libxmu-dev'.

Please report bugs using the form in the file `BUG-REPORT'; the idea
of this is to make sure that FSF has all the information it needs to
fix the bug.  At the very least, read the `BUG-REPORT' form and make
sure that you supply all the information that it asks for.  Even if
you are not sure that something is a bug, report it using
`BUG-REPORT': this enables us to determine whether it really is a bug
or not.

Three mailing lists are available:          for reporting bugs              for general discussion of groff       a read-only list showing commitments
                             to the CVS repository

To subscribe, send a mail to <list>-request@<domain> (example: for the `groff' list) with the word `subscribe'
in either the subject or body of the email (don't include the quotes).
Alternatively, you may subscribe by visiting the web pages at

Each of these web pages also provides a link to a browseable archive of
postings to the corresponding mailing list.

GNU `groff' was written by James Clark <>.  It is now
maintained by Ted Harding <> and Werner
Lemberg <>.