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 This manual page documents version __VERSION__ of the command.  tests  each
 argument  in  an  attempt  to  classify it.  There are three sets of tests,
 performed in this order: filesystem tests, magic tests, and language tests.
 The  test  that  succeeds  causes  the  file  type to be printed.  The type
 printed will usually contain one of  the  words  (the  file  contains  only
 printing  characters  and  a  few common control characters and is probably
 safe to read on an terminal), (the file contains the result of compiling  a
 program  in  a  form  understandable to some kernel or another), or meaning
 anything else (data is usually or  non-printable).   Exceptions  are  well-
 known  file  formats  (core  files, tar archives) that are known to contain
 binary data.  When modifying magic files or the program itself,  make  sure
 to  Users depend on knowing that all the readable files in a directory have
 the word printed.  Don't do as Berkeley did and change  to  The  filesystem
 tests  are  based  on examining the return from a system call.  The program
 checks to see if the file is empty, or if it's some sort of  special  file.
 Any known file types appropriate to the system you are running on (sockets,
 symbolic links, or named pipes (FIFOs)  on  those  systems  that  implement
 them)  are intuited if they are defined in the system header file The magic
 tests are used to check for files with data in  particular  fixed  formats.
 The  canonical  example  of  this is a binary executable (compiled program)
 file, whose format is defined in  and  possibly  in  the  standard  include
 directory.   These  files  have  a  stored  in  a particular place near the
 beginning of the file that tells the operating system that the  file  is  a
 binary  executable,  and  which of several types thereof.  The concept of a
 has been applied by extension to data files.  Any file with some  invariant
 identifier  at  a small fixed offset into the file can usually be described
 in this way.  The information identifying these  files  is  read  from  the
 compiled magic file or the files in the directory if the compiled file does
 not exist.  In addition, if or exists, it will be used in preference to the
 system  magic  files.   If  a file does not match any of the entries in the
 magic file, it is examined to see if it seems to be a  text  file.   ASCII,
 ISO-8859-x, non-ISO 8-bit extended-ASCII character sets (such as those used
 on Macintosh and IBM PC  systems),  UTF-8-encoded  Unicode,  UTF-16-encoded
 Unicode,  and  EBCDIC  character sets can be distinguished by the different
 ranges and sequences of bytes that constitute printable text in  each  set.
 If a file passes any of these tests, its character set is reported.  ASCII,
 ISO-8859-x, UTF-8, and extended-ASCII files are identified as because  they
 will  be mostly readable on nearly any terminal; UTF-16 and EBCDIC are only
 because, while they contain text, it is text that will require  translation
 before  it  can  be  read.   In  addition,  will attempt to determine other
 characteristics of text-type files.  If the lines of a file are  terminated
 by  CR,  CRLF,  or  NEL,  instead  of  the  Unix-standard  LF, this will be
 reported.  Files that contain embedded  escape  sequences  or  overstriking
 will  also  be identified.  Once has determined the character set used in a
 text-type file, it will attempt to determine in what language the  file  is
 written.   The  language  tests  look for particular strings (cf.  that can
 appear anywhere in the first few  blocks  of  a  file.   For  example,  the
 keyword  indicates  that  the file is most likely a input file, just as the
 keyword indicates a C program.  These tests  are  less  reliable  than  the
 previous  two  groups,  so  they  are  performed  last.   The language test
 routines also test for some miscellany (such as archives).  Any  file  that
 cannot  be  identified  as having been written in any of the character sets
 listed above is simply said to be Causes the file  command  to  output  the
 file  type  and  creator  code  as  used  by older MacOS versions. The code
 consists of eight letters, the first describing the file type,  the  latter
 the creator.  Do not prepend filenames to output lines (brief mode).  Write
 a output file that contains a pre-parsed  version  of  the  magic  file  or
 directory.  Cause a checking printout of the parsed form of the magic file.
 This is usually used in conjunction with the flag to debug a new magic file
 before installing it.  Prints internal debugging information to stderr.  On
 filesystem errors (file not found etc), instead of handling  the  error  as
 regular output as POSIX mandates and keep going, issue an error message and
 exit.  Exclude the test named in from the list of tests made  to  determine
 the  file  type.   Valid  test  names  are: application type (only on EMX).
 Various types of text files (this test will try to guess the text encoding,
 irrespective  of  the setting of the option).  Different text encodings for
 soft magic tests.  Ignored for backwards compatibility.  Prints details  of
 Compound  Document  Files.  Checks for, and looks inside, compressed files.
 Prints ELF file details, provided soft magic tests are enabled and the  elf
 magic  is found.  Consults magic files.  Examines tar files.  A synonym for
 Print a slash-separated list of valid extensions for the file  type  found.
 Use the specified string as the separator between the filename and the file
 result returned.  Defaults to Read the names of the files  to  be  examined
 from  (one  per  line)  before  the  argument list.  Either or at least one
 filename argument must be present; to test the standard  input,  use  as  a
 filename  argument.   Please  note  that  is  unwrapped  and  the  enclosed
 filenames are processed when this option  is  encountered  and  before  any
 further  options  processing  is done.  This allows one to process multiple
 lists  of  files  with  different  command  line  arguments  on  the   same
 invocation.   Thus  if  you  want  to  set the delimiter, you need to do it
 before you specify the list of  files,  like:  instead  of:  option  causes
 symlinks not to be followed (on systems that support symbolic links).  This
 is the default if the environment variable is not defined.  Causes the file
 command  to output mime type strings rather than the more traditional human
 readable ones.  Thus it may  say  rather  than  Like  but  print  only  the
 specified   element(s).   Don't  stop  at  the  first  match,  keep  going.
 Subsequent matches will be have the  string  prepended.   (If  you  want  a
 newline,  see the option.) The magic pattern with the highest strength (see
 the option) comes first.  Shows a  list  of  patterns  and  their  strength
 sorted  descending by strength which is used for the matching (see also the
 option).  option causes symlinks to be followed, as the  like-named  option
 in  (on  systems  that support symbolic links).  This is the default if the
 environment variable is defined.  Specify an alternate list  of  files  and
 directories  containing  magic.   This  can  be  a single item, or a colon-
 separated list.  If a compiled magic file is  found  alongside  a  file  or
 directory, it will be used instead.  Don't pad filenames so that they align
 in the output.  Force stdout to be flushed after checking each file.   This
 is  only  useful if checking a list of files.  It is intended to be used by
 programs that want filetype output from a pipe.  On systems that support or
 attempt  to  preserve  the  access  time of files analyzed, to pretend that
 never  read  them.   Set  various  parameter   limits.    Don't   translate
 unprintable characters to \ooo.  Normally translates unprintable characters
 to their  octal  representation.   Normally,  only  attempts  to  read  and
 determine  the  type  of  argument  files which reports are ordinary files.
 This prevents problems, because reading special  files  may  have  peculiar
 consequences.   Specifying  the  option  causes to also read argument files
 which are block or character special files.  This is useful for determining
 the  filesystem  types  of the data in raw disk partitions, which are block
 special files.  This option also causes  to  disregard  the  file  size  as
 reported  by  since  on  some  systems  it reports a zero size for raw disk
 partitions.  Print the version of the program and exit.  Try to look inside
 compressed  files.   Try  to  look  inside  compressed  files,  but  report
 information about the contents only not the  compression.   Output  a  null
 character  after  the  end of the filename.  Nice to the output.  This does
 not affect the separator, which  is  still  printed.   If  this  option  is
 repeated  more  than  once, then prints just the filename followed by a NUL
 followed by the description (or ERROR: text) followed by a second  NUL  for
 each  entry.   Print  a  help  message  and exit.  Default compiled list of
 magic.  Directory containing default magic files.  The environment variable
 can  be  used to set the default magic file name.  If that variable is set,
 then will not attempt to open  adds  to  the  value  of  this  variable  as
 appropriate.   However,  has  to  exist in order for to be considered.  The
 environment variable controls (on systems  that  support  symbolic  links),
 whether  will  attempt  to  follow  symlinks  or not.  If set, then follows
 symlink, otherwise it does  not.   This  is  also  controlled  by  the  and
 options.   This  program  is  believed  to  exceed  the  System V Interface
 Definition of FILE(CMD), as near  as  one  can  determine  from  the  vague
 language  contained  therein.   Its  behavior is mostly compatible with the
 System V program of the same name.  This version knows more magic, however,
 so  it  will produce different (albeit more accurate) output in many cases.
 The one significant difference between this version and System  V  is  that
 this  version  treats  any  white  space  as a delimiter, so that spaces in
 pattern strings must be  escaped.   For  example,  Gt]10   string  language
 impress        (imPRESS  data)  in  an existing magic file would have to be
 changed  to  Gt]10   string  language\  impress       (imPRESS   data)   In
 addition,  in  this  version,  if a pattern string contains a backslash, it
 must            be            escaped.              For             example
 0       string          \begindata      Andrew   Toolkit   document  in  an
 existing    magic    file    would    have     to     be     changed     to
 0       string          \\begindata     Andrew   Toolkit   document   SunOS
 releases 3.2 and later from Sun Microsystems include a command derived from
 the  System  V  one,  but  with some extensions.  This version differs from
 Sun's only in minor ways.  It includes the extension of the operator,  used
 as,    for   example,   Gt]16   longAm]0x7fffffff       Gt]0            not
 stripped The magic file entries have been collected from  various  sources,
 mainly  USENET,  and  contributed  by  various  authors.   Christos  Zoulas
 (address below) will collect additional or corrected magic file entries.  A
 consolidation  of magic file entries will be distributed periodically.  The
 order of entries in the magic  file  is  significant.   Depending  on  what
 system  you  are  using,  the  order  that  they  are  put  together may be
 incorrect.  If your old command uses a magic file, keep the old magic  file
 around   for   comparison  purposes  (rename  it  to  $  file  file.c  file
 /dev/{wd0a,hda}  file.c:    C  program  text  file:      ELF   32-bit   LSB
 executable, Intel 80386, version 1 (SYSV),
           dynamically linked (uses shared libs), stripped /dev/wd0a:  block
 special (0/0) /dev/hda: block special (3/0)

 $ file -s /dev/wd0{b,d} /dev/wd0b: data /dev/wd0d: x86 boot sector

 $ file  -s  /dev/hda{,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10}  /dev/hda:    x86  boot  sector
 /dev/hda1:    Linux/i386   ext2  filesystem  /dev/hda2:   x86  boot  sector
 /dev/hda3:   x86  boot  sector,   extended   partition   table   /dev/hda4:
 Linux/i386  ext2  filesystem  /dev/hda5:   Linux/i386  swap file /dev/hda6:
 Linux/i386  swap  file  /dev/hda7:    Linux/i386   swap   file   /dev/hda8:
 Linux/i386 swap file /dev/hda9:  empty /dev/hda10: empty

 $  file  -i  file.c  file  /dev/{wd0a,hda}  file.c:        text/x-c   file:
 application/x-executable     /dev/hda:       application/x-not-regular-file
 /dev/wd0a:   application/x-not-regular-file

 There has been a command in every (man page  dated  November,  1973).   The
 System V version introduced one significant major change: the external list
 of magic types.  This slowed the program down slightly but made  it  a  lot
 more flexible.  This program, based on the System V version, was written by
 Ian Darwin without looking at anybody else's  source  code.   John  Gilmore
 revised  the  code  extensively,  making  it better than the first version.
 Geoff Collyer found several  inadequacies  and  provided  some  magic  file
 entries.   Contributions of the operator by Rob McMahon, 1989.  Guy Harris,
 made many changes from  1993  to  the  present.   Primary  development  and
 maintenance  from  1990  to the present by Christos Zoulas Altered by Chris
 Lowth 2000: handle the  option  to  output  mime  type  strings,  using  an
 alternative  magic  file and internal logic.  Altered by Eric Fischer July,
 2000, to identify character codes and attempt to identify the languages  of
 non-ASCII  files.   Altered  by  Reuben  Thomas  2007-2011, to improve MIME
 support, merge MIME and non-MIME magic,  support  directories  as  well  as
 files  of  magic,  apply  many  bug  fixes,  update and fix a lot of magic,
 improve the build system, improve the documentation, and rewrite the Python
 bindings  in pure Python.  The list of contributors to the directory (magic
 files) is too long to include here.  You know who you are; thank you.  Many
 contributors  are listed in the source files.  Copyright (c) Ian F. Darwin,
 Toronto, Canada, 1986-1999.  Covered  by  the  standard  Berkeley  Software
 Distribution  copyright;  see  the file COPYING in the source distribution.
 The files and were written by John Gilmore from his public-domain  program,
 and  are  not covered by the above license.  returns 0 on success, and non-
 zero on error.  Please report bugs and send patches to the bug  tracker  at
 or  the  mailing  list  at  (visit first to subscribe).  Fix output so that
 tests for MIME and APPLE flags are not  needed  all  over  the  place,  and
 actual output is only done in one place.  This needs a design.  Suggestion:
 push possible outputs on  to  a  list,  then  pick  the  last-pushed  (most
 specific,  one  hopes)  value  at  the end, or use a default if the list is
 empty.  This should not slow down evaluation.  The handling of and printing
 \012-  between  entries is clumsy and complicated; refactor and centralize.
 Some of the encoding logic is hard-coded in encoding.c and can be moved  to
 the  magic  files  if  we had a !:charset annotation Continue to squash all
 magic bugs.  See Debian BTS for a  good  source.   Store  arbitrarily  long
 strings,  for  example  for  %s  patterns, so that they can be printed out.
 Fixes Debian bug #271672.  This can be done  by  allocating  strings  in  a
 string  pool,  storing  the  string  pool  at the end of the magic file and
 converting all the string pointers to  relative  offsets  from  the  string
 pool.   Add  syntax  for  relative  offsets after current level (Debian bug
 #466037).  Make file -ki work, i.e. give multiple MIME types.   Add  a  zip
 library  so  we  can peek inside Office2007 documents to print more details
 about their contents.  Add an option to print URLs for the sources  of  the
 file descriptions.  Combine script searches and add a way to map executable
 names to MIME types (e.g. have a magic value for !:mime  which  causes  the
 resulting  string to be looked up in a table).  This would avoid adding the
 same magic repeatedly for each new  hash-bang  interpreter.   When  a  file
 descriptor  is  available, we can skip and adjust the buffer instead of the
 hacky buffer management we do now.  Fix and to  check  for  consistency  at
 compile  time (duplicate pointing to undefined ).  Make / more efficient by
 keeping a sorted list of names.  Special-case ^ to flip endianness  in  the
 parser  so  that  it  does not have to be escaped, and document it.  If the
 offsets specified internally in the file exceed the buffer size (  variable
 in file.h), then we don't seek to that offset, but we give up.  It would be
 better if buffer managements was done when the file descriptor is available
 so  move  around  the  file.   One  must be careful though because this has
 performance  (and  thus  security  considerations).   You  can  obtain  the
 original author's latest version by anonymous FTP on in the directory