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 This manual page documents version __VERSION__ of the command.  tests  each
 argument  in  an  attempt  to  classify it.  There are three sets of tests,
 performed in this order: filesystem tests, magic tests, and language tests.
 The  test  that  succeeds  causes  the  file  type to be printed.  The type
 printed will usually contain one of  the  words  (the  file  contains  only
 printing  characters  and  a  few common control characters and is probably
 safe to read on an terminal), (the file contains the result of compiling  a
 program  in  a  form  understandable to some kernel or another), or meaning
 anything else (data is usually or  non-printable).   Exceptions  are  well-
 known  file  formats  (core  files, tar archives) that are known to contain
 binary data.  When modifying magic files or the program itself,  make  sure
 to  Users depend on knowing that all the readable files in a directory have
 the word printed.  Don't do as Berkeley did and change  to  The  filesystem
 tests  are  based  on examining the return from a system call.  The program
 checks to see if the file is empty, or if it's some sort of  special  file.
 Any known file types appropriate to the system you are running on (sockets,
 symbolic links, or named pipes (FIFOs)  on  those  systems  that  implement
 them)  are intuited if they are defined in the system header file The magic
 tests are used to check for files with data in  particular  fixed  formats.
 The  canonical  example  of  this is a binary executable (compiled program)
 file, whose format is defined in  and  possibly  in  the  standard  include
 directory.   These  files  have  a  stored  in  a particular place near the
 beginning of the file that tells the operating system that the  file  is  a
 binary  executable,  and  which of several types thereof.  The concept of a
 has been applied by extension to data files.  Any file with some  invariant
 identifier  at  a small fixed offset into the file can usually be described
 in this way.  The information identifying these  files  is  read  from  the
 compiled magic file or the files in the directory if the compiled file does
 not exist.  In addition, if or exists, it will be used in preference to the
 system  magic  files.   If  a file does not match any of the entries in the
 magic file, it is examined to see if it seems to be a  text  file.   ASCII,
 ISO-8859-x, non-ISO 8-bit extended-ASCII character sets (such as those used
 on Macintosh and IBM PC  systems),  UTF-8-encoded  Unicode,  UTF-16-encoded
 Unicode,  and  EBCDIC  character sets can be distinguished by the different
 ranges and sequences of bytes that constitute printable text in  each  set.
 If a file passes any of these tests, its character set is reported.  ASCII,
 ISO-8859-x, UTF-8, and extended-ASCII files are identified as because  they
 will  be mostly readable on nearly any terminal; UTF-16 and EBCDIC are only
 because, while they contain text, it is text that will require  translation
 before  it  can  be  read.   In  addition,  will attempt to determine other
 characteristics of text-type files.  If the lines of a file are  terminated
 by  CR,  CRLF,  or  NEL,  instead  of  the  Unix-standard  LF, this will be
 reported.  Files that contain embedded  escape  sequences  or  overstriking
 will  also  be identified.  Once has determined the character set used in a
 text-type file, it will attempt to determine in what language the  file  is
 written.   The  language  tests  look for particular strings (cf.  that can
 appear anywhere in the first few  blocks  of  a  file.   For  example,  the
 keyword  indicates  that  the file is most likely a input file, just as the
 keyword indicates a C program.  These tests  are  less  reliable  than  the
 previous  two  groups,  so  they  are  performed  last.   The language test
 routines also test for some miscellany (such as archives).  Any  file  that
 cannot  be  identified  as having been written in any of the character sets
 listed above is simply said to be Do not prepend filenames to output  lines
 (brief  mode).   Write  a output file that contains a pre-parsed version of
 the magic file or directory.  Cause a checking printout of the parsed  form
 of  the  magic  file.  This is usually used in conjunction with the flag to
 debug a new magic file before installing it.  Exclude  the  test  named  in
 from  the  list of tests made to determine the file type.  Valid test names
 are: application type (only on EMX).  Various types  of  text  files  (this
 test  will  try  to guess the text encoding, irrespective of the setting of
 the option).  Different text encodings for soft magic tests.   Ignored  for
 backwards  compatibility.   Prints  details  of  Compound  Document  Files.
 Checks for, and looks inside, compressed files.  Prints ELF  file  details.
 Consults magic files.  Examines tar files.  Use the specified string as the
 separator between the filename and the file result returned.   Defaults  to
 Read  the  names of the files to be examined from (one per line) before the
 argument list.  Either or at least one filename argument must  be  present;
 to  test  the standard input, use as a filename argument.  Please note that
 is unwrapped and the enclosed filenames are processed when this  option  is
 encountered and before any further options processing is done.  This allows
 one to  process  multiple  lists  of  files  with  different  command  line
 arguments  on  the same invocation.  Thus if you want to set the delimiter,
 you need to do it before you specify the list of files, like:  instead  of:
 option causes symlinks not to be followed (on systems that support symbolic
 links).  This is the default if the environment variable  is  not  defined.
 Causes  the  file  command to output mime type strings rather than the more
 traditional human readable ones.  Thus it may  say  rather  than  Like  but
 print  only  the specified element(s).  Don't stop at the first match, keep
 going.  Subsequent matches will be have the string prepended.  (If you want
 a  newline,  see  the  option.) The magic pattern with the highest strength
 (see the option) comes first.  Shows a list of patterns and their  strength
 sorted  descending by strength which is used for the matching (see also the
 option).  option causes symlinks to be followed, as the  like-named  option
 in  (on  systems  that support symbolic links).  This is the default if the
 environment variable is defined.  Specify an alternate list  of  files  and
 directories  containing  magic.   This  can  be  a single item, or a colon-
 separated list.  If a compiled magic file is  found  alongside  a  file  or
 directory, it will be used instead.  Don't pad filenames so that they align
 in the output.  Force stdout to be flushed after checking each file.   This
 is  only  useful if checking a list of files.  It is intended to be used by
 programs that want filetype output from a pipe.  On systems that support or
 attempt  to  preserve  the  access  time of files analyzed, to pretend that
 never read them.  Don't translate unprintable characters to \ooo.  Normally
 translates unprintable characters to their octal representation.  Normally,
 only attempts to read and  determine  the  type  of  argument  files  which
 reports  are  ordinary  files.   This  prevents  problems,  because reading
 special files may have peculiar consequences.  Specifying the option causes
 to  also  read  argument  files which are block or character special files.
 This is useful for determining the filesystem types of the data in raw disk
 partitions,  which  are  block  special  files.  This option also causes to
 disregard the file size as reported by since on some systems it  reports  a
 zero  size  for  raw disk partitions.  Print the version of the program and
 exit.  Try to look inside compressed files.  Output a null character  after
 the  end  of  the  filename.  Nice to the output.  This does not affect the
 separator, which is still printed.  Print a help message and exit.  Default
 compiled  list  of  magic.   Directory containing default magic files.  The
 environment variable can be used to set the default magic  file  name.   If
 that  variable  is  set, then will not attempt to open adds to the value of
 this variable as appropriate.  However, has to exist in  order  for  to  be
 considered.   The  environment  variable  controls (on systems that support
 symbolic links), whether will attempt to follow symlinks or not.   If  set,
 then  follows  symlink,  otherwise it does not.  This is also controlled by
 the and options.  This program is believed to exceed the System V Interface
 Definition  of  FILE(CMD),  as  near  as  one  can determine from the vague
 language contained therein.  Its behavior is  mostly  compatible  with  the
 System V program of the same name.  This version knows more magic, however,
 so it will produce different (albeit more accurate) output in  many  cases.
 The  one  significant  difference between this version and System V is that
 this version treats any white space as  a  delimiter,  so  that  spaces  in
 pattern  strings  must  be  escaped.  For example, Gt]10   string  language
 impress        (imPRESS data) in an existing magic file would  have  to  be
 changed   to   Gt]10   string  language\  impress       (imPRESS  data)  In
 addition, in this version, if a pattern string  contains  a  backslash,  it
 must             be             escaped.             For            example
 0       string          \begindata      Andrew  Toolkit  document   in   an
 existing     magic     file     would     have    to    be    changed    to
 0       string          \\begindata     Andrew   Toolkit   document   SunOS
 releases 3.2 and later from Sun Microsystems include a command derived from
 the System V one, but with some  extensions.   This  version  differs  from
 Sun's  only in minor ways.  It includes the extension of the operator, used
 as,   for   example,    Gt]16   longAm]0x7fffffff       Gt]0            not
 stripped  The  magic file entries have been collected from various sources,
 mainly  USENET,  and  contributed  by  various  authors.   Christos  Zoulas
 (address below) will collect additional or corrected magic file entries.  A
 consolidation of magic file entries will be distributed periodically.   The
 order  of  entries  in  the  magic  file is significant.  Depending on what
 system you are  using,  the  order  that  they  are  put  together  may  be
 incorrect.   If your old command uses a magic file, keep the old magic file
 around  for  comparison  purposes  (rename  it  to  $  file   file.c   file
 /dev/{wd0a,hda}   file.c:     C  program  text  file:      ELF  32-bit  LSB
 executable, Intel 80386, version 1 (SYSV),
           dynamically linked (uses shared libs), stripped /dev/wd0a:  block
 special (0/0) /dev/hda: block special (3/0)

 $ file -s /dev/wd0{b,d} /dev/wd0b: data /dev/wd0d: x86 boot sector

 $ file  -s  /dev/hda{,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10}  /dev/hda:    x86  boot  sector
 /dev/hda1:    Linux/i386   ext2  filesystem  /dev/hda2:   x86  boot  sector
 /dev/hda3:   x86  boot  sector,   extended   partition   table   /dev/hda4:
 Linux/i386  ext2  filesystem  /dev/hda5:   Linux/i386  swap file /dev/hda6:
 Linux/i386  swap  file  /dev/hda7:    Linux/i386   swap   file   /dev/hda8:
 Linux/i386 swap file /dev/hda9:  empty /dev/hda10: empty

 $  file  -i  file.c  file  /dev/{wd0a,hda}  file.c:        text/x-c   file:
 application/x-executable     /dev/hda:       application/x-not-regular-file
 /dev/wd0a:   application/x-not-regular-file

 There has been a command in every (man page  dated  November,  1973).   The
 System V version introduced one significant major change: the external list
 of magic types.  This slowed the program down slightly but made  it  a  lot
 more flexible.  This program, based on the System V version, was written by
 Ian Darwin without looking at anybody else's  source  code.   John  Gilmore
 revised  the  code  extensively,  making  it better than the first version.
 Geoff Collyer found several  inadequacies  and  provided  some  magic  file
 entries.   Contributions by the operator by Rob McMahon, 1989.  Guy Harris,
 made many changes from 1993 to the present.  1989.  Primary development and
 maintenance  from  1990  to the present by Christos Zoulas Altered by Chris
 Lowth 2000: handle the  option  to  output  mime  type  strings,  using  an
 alternative  magic  file and internal logic.  Altered by Eric Fischer July,
 2000, to identify character codes and attempt to identify the languages  of
 non-ASCII  files.   Altered  by  Reuben  Thomas  2007-2011, to improve MIME
 support, merge MIME and non-MIME magic,  support  directories  as  well  as
 files  of  magic,  apply  many  bug  fixes,  update and fix a lot of magic,
 improve the build system, improve the documentation, and rewrite the Python
 bindings  in pure Python.  The list of contributors to the directory (magic
 files) is too long to include here.  You know who you are; thank you.  Many
 contributors  are listed in the source files.  Copyright (c) Ian F. Darwin,
 Toronto, Canada, 1986-1999.  Covered  by  the  standard  Berkeley  Software
 Distribution  copyright;  see  the file COPYING in the source distribution.
 The files and were written by John Gilmore from his public-domain  program,
 and  are  not covered by the above license.  returns 0 on success, and non-
 zero on error.  Please report bugs and send patches to the bug  tracker  at
 or  the  mailing  list at Fix output so that tests for MIME and APPLE flags
 are not needed all over the place, and actual output is only  done  in  one
 place.   This  needs  a  design.  Suggestion: push possible outputs on to a
 list, then pick the last-pushed (most specific, one  hopes)  value  at  the
 end,  or  use  a  default  if the list is empty.  This should not slow down
 evaluation.  Continue to squash all magic bugs.  See Debian BTS for a  good
 source.   Store  arbitrarily  long strings, for example for %s patterns, so
 that they can be printed out.  Fixes Debian  bug  #271672.   Would  require
 more  complex  store/load  code  in  apprentice.   Add  syntax for relative
 offsets after current level (Debian bug #466037).  Make file -ki work, i.e.
 give  multiple  MIME  types.   Add  a  zip  library  so  we can peek inside
 Office2007 documents to figure out what they are.  Add an option  to  print
 URLs for the sources of the file descriptions.  Combine script searches and
 add a way to map executable names to MIME types (e.g. have  a  magic  value
 for  !:mime  which causes the resulting string to be looked up in a table).
 This would avoid adding the same magic repeatedly for  each  new  hash-bang
 interpreter.   Fix  and to check for consistency at compile time (duplicate
 pointing to undefined ).  Make / more efficient by keeping a sorted list of
 names.  Special-case ^ to flip endianness in the parser so that it does not
 have to be escaped, and document it.  You can obtain the original  author's
 latest version by anonymous FTP on in the directory