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 CSCOPE(1)                The Santa Cruz Operation                 CSCOPE(1)
                                January 2007



 NAME
      cscope - interactively examine a C program

 SYNOPSIS
      cscope [-bCcdehkLlqRTUuVv] [-Fsymfile] [-freffile] [-Iincdir]
      [-inamefile] [-0123456789pattern] [-pn] [-sdir] [files]

 DESCRIPTION
      cscope is an interactive, screen-oriented tool that allows the user to
      browse through C source files for specified elements of code.

      By default, cscope examines the C (.c and .h), lex (.l), and yacc (.y)
      source files in the current directory.  cscope may also be invoked for
      source files named on the command line. In either case, cscope
      searches the standard directories for #include files that it does not
      find in the current directory. cscope uses a symbol cross-reference,
      called cscope.out by default, to locate functions, function calls,
      macros, variables, and preprocessor symbols in the files.

      cscope builds the symbol cross-reference the first time it is used on
      the source files for the program being browsed. On a subsequent
      invocation, cscope rebuilds the cross-reference only if a source file
      has changed or the list of source files is different. When the cross-
      reference is rebuilt, the data for the unchanged files are copied from
      the old cross-reference, which makes rebuilding faster than the
      initial build.

 OPTIONS
      Some command line arguments can only occur as the only argument in the
      execution of cscope.  They cause the program to just print out some
      output and exit immediately:

      -h   View the long usage help display.

      -V   Print on the first line of screen the version number of cscope.

      --help
           Same as -h

      --version
           Same as -V


      The following options can appear in any combination:

      -b   Build the cross-reference only.

      -C   Ignore letter case when searching.

      -c   Use only ASCII characters in the cross-reference file, that is,
           do not compress the data.



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 CSCOPE(1)                The Santa Cruz Operation                 CSCOPE(1)
                                January 2007



      -d   Do not update the cross-reference.

      -e   Suppress the <Ctrl>-e command prompt between files.

      -Fsymfile
           Read symbol reference lines from symfile. (A symbol reference
           file is created by > and >>, and can also be read using the <
           command, described under ``Issuing Subsequent Requests'', below.)

      -freffile
           Use reffile as the cross-reference file name instead of the
           default "cscope.out".

      -Iincdir
           Look in incdir (before looking in $INCDIR, the standard place for
           header files, normally /usr/include) for any #include files whose
           names do not begin with ``/'' and that are not specified on the
           command line or in namefile below. (The #include files may be
           specified with either double quotes or angle brackets.) The
           incdir directory is searched in addition to the current directory
           (which is searched first) and the standard list (which is
           searched last). If more than one occurrence of -I appears, the
           directories are searched in the order they appear on the command
           line.

      -inamefile
           Browse through all source files whose names are listed in
           namefile (file names separated by spaces, tabs, or new-lines)
           instead of the default name list file, which is called
           cscope.files. If this option is specified, cscope ignores any
           file names appearing on the command line. The argument namefile
           can be set to ``-'' to accept a list of files from the standard
           input.  Filenames in the namefile that contain whitespace have to
           be enclosed in "double quotes".  Inside such quoted filenames,
           any double-quote and backslash characters have to be escaped by
           backslashes.

      -k   ``Kernel Mode'', turns off the use of the default include dir
           (usually /usr/include) when building the database, since kernel
           source trees generally do not use it.

      -L   Do a single search with line-oriented output when used with the
           -num pattern option.

      -l   Line-oriented interface (see ``Line-Oriented Interface'' below).

      -[0-9]pattern
           Go to input field num (counting from 0) and find pattern.

      -Ppath
           Prepend path to relative file names in a pre-built cross-



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 CSCOPE(1)                The Santa Cruz Operation                 CSCOPE(1)
                                January 2007



           reference file so you do not have to change to the directory
           where the cross-reference file was built. This option is only
           valid with the -d option.

      -pn  Display the last n file path components instead of the default
           (1). Use 0 not to display the file name at all.

      -q   Enable fast symbol lookup via an inverted index. This option
           causes cscope to create 2 more files (default names
           ``cscope.in.out'' and ``cscope.po.out'') in addition to the
           normal database. This allows a faster symbol search algorithm
           that provides noticeably faster lookup performance for large
           projects.

      -R   Recurse subdirectories during search for source files.

      -sdir
           Look in dir for additional source files. This option is ignored
           if source files are given on the command line.

      -T   Use only the first eight characters to match against C symbols.
           A regular expression containing special characters other than a
           period (.) will not match any symbol if its minimum length is
           greater than eight characters.

      -U   Check file time stamps. This option will update the time stamp on
           the database even if no files have changed.

      -u   Unconditionally build the cross-reference file (assume that all
           files have changed).

      -v   Be more verbose in line-oriented mode.  Output progress updates
           during database building and searches.

      files
           A list of file names to operate on.

      The -I, -c, -k, -p, -q, and -T options can also be in the cscope.files
      file.

    Requesting the initial search
      After the cross-reference is ready, cscope will display this menu:

      Find this C symbol:
      Find this function definition:
      Find functions called by this function:
      Find functions calling this function:
      Find this text string:
      Change this text string:
      Find this egrep pattern:




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 CSCOPE(1)                The Santa Cruz Operation                 CSCOPE(1)
                                January 2007



      Find this file:
      Find files #including this file:

      Press the <Up> or <Down> keys repeatedly to move to the desired input
      field, type the text to search for, and then press the <Return> key.

    Issuing subsequent requests
      If the search is successful, any of these single-character commands
      can be used:

      0-9a-zA-Z
           Edit the file referenced by the given line number.

      <Space>
           Display next set of matching lines.

      <Tab>
           Alternate between the menu and the list of matching lines

      <Up> Move to the previous menu item (if the cursor is in the menu) or
           move to the previous matching line (if the cursor is in the
           matching line list.)

      <Down>
           Move to the next menu item (if the cursor is in the menu) or move
           to the next matching line (if the cursor is in the matching line
           list.)

      +    Display next set of matching lines.

      -    Display previous set of matching lines.

      ^e   Edit displayed files in order.

      >    Write the displayed list of lines to a file.

      >>   Append the displayed list of lines to a file.

      <    Read lines from a file that is in symbol reference format
           (created by > or >>), just like the -F option.

      ^    Filter all lines through a shell command and display the
           resulting lines, replacing the lines that were already there.

      |    Pipe all lines to a shell command and display them without
           changing them.

      At any time these single-character commands can also be used:

      <Return>
           Move to next input field.



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 CSCOPE(1)                The Santa Cruz Operation                 CSCOPE(1)
                                January 2007



      ^n   Move to next input field.

      ^p   Move to previous input field.

      ^y   Search with the last text typed.

      ^b   Move to previous input field and search pattern.

      ^f   Move to next input field and search pattern.

      ^c   Toggle ignore/use letter case when searching. (When ignoring
           letter case, search for ``FILE'' will match ``File'' and
           ``file''.)

      ^r   Rebuild the cross-reference.

      !    Start an interactive shell (type ^d to return to cscope).

      ^l   Redraw the screen.

      ?    Give help information about cscope commands.

      ^d   Exit cscope.

      NOTE: If the first character of one of the above commands, escape

      Substituting new text for old text

      After the text to be changed has been typed, cscope will prompt for
      the new text, and then it will display the lines containing the old
      text. Select the lines to be changed with these single-character
      commands:

      0-9a-zA-Z
           Mark or unmark the line to be changed.

      *    Mark or unmark all displayed lines to be changed.

      <Space>
           Display next set of lines.

      +    Display next set of lines.

      -    Display previous set of lines.

      a    Mark or unmark all lines to be changed.

      ^d   Change the marked lines and exit.

      <Esc>
           Exit without changing the marked lines.



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 CSCOPE(1)                The Santa Cruz Operation                 CSCOPE(1)
                                January 2007



      !    Start an interactive shell (type ^d to return to cscope).

      ^l   Redraw the screen.

      ?    Give help information about cscope commands.

      Special keys
           If your terminal has arrow keys that work in vi, you can use them
           to move around the input fields. The up-arrow key is useful to
           move to the previous input field instead of using the <Tab> key
           repeatedly. If you have <CLEAR>, <NEXT>, or <PREV> keys they will
           act as the ^l, +, and - commands, respectively.

    Line-Oriented interface
      The -l option lets you use cscope where a screen-oriented interface
      would not be useful, for example, from another screen-oriented
      program.

      cscope will prompt with >> when it is ready for an input line starting
      with the field number (counting from 0) immediately followed by the
      search pattern, for example, ``lmain'' finds the definition of the
      main function.

      If you just want a single search, instead of the -l option use the -L
      and -num pattern options, and you won't get the >> prompt.

      For -l, cscope outputs the number of reference lines cscope: 2 lines

      For each reference found, cscope outputs a line consisting of the file
      name, function name, line number, and line text, separated by spaces,
      for example, main.c main 161 main(argc, argv)

      Note that the editor is not called to display a single reference,
      unlike the screen-oriented interface.

      You can use the c command to toggle ignore/use letter case when
      searching. (When ignoring letter case, search for ``FILE'' will match
      ``File'' and ``file''.)

      You can use the r command to rebuild the database.

      cscope will quit when it detects end-of-file, or when the first
      character of an input line is ``^d'' or ``q''.

 ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
      CSCOPE_EDITOR
           Overrides the EDITOR and VIEWER variables. Use this if you wish
           to use a different editor with cscope than that specified by your
           EDITOR/VIEWER variables.





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 CSCOPE(1)                The Santa Cruz Operation                 CSCOPE(1)
                                January 2007



      CSCOPE_LINEFLAG
           Format of the line number flag for your editor. By default,
           cscope invokes your editor via the equivalent of ``editor +N
           file'', where ``N'' is the line number that the editor should
           jump to. This format is used by both emacs and vi. If your editor
           needs something different, specify it in this variable, with
           ``%s'' as a placeholder for the line number.  Ex: if your editor
           needs to be invoked as ``editor -#103 file'' to go to line 103,
           set this variable to ``-#%s''.

      CSCOPE_LINEFLAG_AFTER_FILE
           Set this variable to ``yes'' if your editor needs to be invoked
           with the line number option after the filename to be edited. To
           continue the example from CSCOPE_LINEFLAG, above: if your editor
           needs to see ``editor file -#number'', set this environment
           variable. Users of most standard editors (vi, emacs) do not need
           to set this variable.

      EDITOR
           Preferred editor, which defaults to vi.

      HOME Home directory, which is automatically set at login.

      INCLUDEDIRS
           Colon-separated list of directories to search for #include files.

      SHELL
           Preferred shell, which defaults to sh.

      SOURCEDIRS
           Colon-separated list of directories to search for additional
           source files.

      TERM Terminal type, which must be a screen terminal.

      TERMINFO
           Terminal information directory full path name. If your terminal
           is not in the standard terminfo directory, see curses and
           terminfo for how to make your own terminal description.

      TMPDIR
           Temporary file directory, which defaults to /var/tmp.

      VIEWER
           Preferred file display program (such as less), which overrides
           EDITOR (see above).

      VPATH
           A colon-separated list of directories, each of which has the same
           directory structure below it. If VPATH is set, cscope searches
           for source files in the directories specified; if it is not set,



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 CSCOPE(1)                The Santa Cruz Operation                 CSCOPE(1)
                                January 2007



           cscope searches only in the current directory.

 FILES
      cscope.files
           Default files containing -I, -p, -q, and -T options and the list
           of source files (overridden by the -i option).

      cscope.out
           Symbol cross-reference file (overridden by the -f option), which
           is put in the home directory if it cannot be created in the
           current directory.

      cscope.in.out
      cscope.po.out
           Default files containing the inverted index used for quick symbol
           searching (-q option). If you use the -f option to rename the
           cross-reference file (so it's not cscope.out), the names for
           these inverted index files will be created by adding
            .in and .po to the name you supply with -f. For example, if you
           indicated -f xyz, then these files would be named xyz.in and
           xyz.po.

      INCDIR
           Standard directory for #include files (usually /usr/include).

 Notices
      cscope recognizes function definitions of the form:
      fname blank ( args ) white arg_decs white {

      where:
           fname is the function name

      blank
           is zero or more spaces, tabs, vtabs, form feeds or carriage
           returns, not including newlines

      args is any string that does not contain a ``"'' or a newline

      white
           is zero or more spaces, tabs, vtabs, form feeds, carriage returns
           or newlines

      arg_decs
           are zero or more argument declarations (arg_decs may include
           comments and white space)

      It is not necessary for a function declaration to start at the
      beginning of a line. The return type may precede the function name;
      cscope will still recognize the declaration. Function definitions that
      deviate from this form will not be recognized by cscope.




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 CSCOPE(1)                The Santa Cruz Operation                 CSCOPE(1)
                                January 2007



      The ``Function'' column of the search output for the menu option Find
      functions called by this function: input field will only display the
      first function called in the line, that is, for this function

       e()
       {
               return (f() + g());
       }

      the display would be

         Functions called by this function: e
         File Function Line
         a.c f 3 return(f() + g());

      Occasionally, a function definition or call may not be recognized
      because of braces inside #if statements. Similarly, the use of a
      variable may be incorrectly recognized as a definition.

      A typedef name preceding a preprocessor statement will be incorrectly
      recognized as a global definition, for example,

       LDFILE  *
       #if AR16WR

      Preprocessor statements can also prevent the recognition of a global
      definition, for example,

       char flag
       #ifdef ALLOCATE_STORAGE
            = -1
       #endif
       ;

      A function declaration inside a function is incorrectly recognized as
      a function call, for example,

       f()
       {
               void g();
       }

      is incorrectly recognized as a call to g.

      cscope recognizes C++ classes by looking for the class keyword, but
      doesn't recognize that a struct is also a class, so it doesn't
      recognize inline member function definitions in a structure. It also
      doesn't expect the class keyword in a typedef , so it incorrectly
      recognizes X as a definition in





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 CSCOPE(1)                The Santa Cruz Operation                 CSCOPE(1)
                                January 2007



       typedef class X  *  Y;

      It also doesn't recognize operator function definitions

       Bool Feature::operator==(const Feature & other)
       {
         ...
       }

      Nor does it recognize function definitions with a function pointer
      argument

       ParseTable::Recognize(int startState, char *pattern,
         int finishState, void (*FinalAction)(char *))
       {
         ...
       }





































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