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 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005

      libmng - Multiple-image Network Graphics (MNG) Reference Library 1.0.9

      #include <libmng.h>

      The libmng library supports decoding, displaying, encoding, and
      various other manipulations of the Multiple-image Network Graphics
      (MNG) format image files. It uses the zlib(3) compression library, and
      optionally the JPEG library by the Independant JPEG Group (IJG) and/or
      lcms (little cms), a color-management library by Marti Maria Saguer.

 I. Introduction
      This file describes how to use and modify the MNG reference library
      (known as libmng) for your own use.  There are seven sections to this
      file: introduction, callbacks, housekeeping, reading, displaying,
      writing, and modification and configuration notes for various special
      platforms. We assume that libmng is already installed; see the
      INSTALL.README file for instructions on how to install libmng.

      Libmng was written to support and promote the MNG specification.

      The MNG-1.0 specification is available at

      Other information about MNG can be found at the MNG home page,
      <>.  The latest version of libmng can be
      found at its own homepage at <>.

      In most cases the library will not need to be changed.  For
      standardization purposes the library contains both a Windows DLL and a
      makefile for building a shared library (SO). The library is written in
      C, but an interface for Borland Delphi is also available.

      Libmng has been designed to handle multiple sessions at one time, to
      be easily modifiable, to be portable to the vast majority of machines
      (ANSI, K&R, 32-, and 64-bit) available, and to be easy to use.

      Libmng uses zlib for its compression and decompression of MNG files.
      Further information about zlib, and the latest version of zlib, can be
      found at the zlib home page, <>.  The zlib
      compression utility is a general purpose utility that is useful for
      more than MNG/PNG files, and can be used without libmng.  See the
      documentation delivered with zlib for more details.

      Libmng optionally uses the JPEG library by the Independant JPEG Group

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 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005

      (IJG). This library is used for the JNG sub-format, which is part of
      the MNG specification, and allows for inclusion of JPEG decoded and
      thus highly compressed (photographic) images.  Further information
      about the IJG JPEG library and the latest sources can be found at

      Libmng can also optionally use the lcms (little CMS) library by Marti
      Maria Saguer. This library provides an excellent color-management
      system (CMS), which gives libmng the ability to provide full color-
      correction for images with the proper color-information encoded.
      Further information and the latest sources can be found at

      Libmng is thread safe, provided the threads are using different
      handles as returned by the initialization call.  Each thread should
      have its own handle and thus its own image.  Libmng does not protect
      itself against two threads using the same instance of a handle.

      The libmng.h header file is the single reference needed for
      programming with libmng:

      #include <libmng.h>

 II. Callbacks
      Libmng makes extensive use of callback functions. This is meant to
      keep the library as platform-independant and flexible as possible.
      Actually, the first call you will make to the library, already
      contains three parameters you can use to provide callback entry-

      Most functions must return a mng_bool (boolean). Returning MNG_FALSE
      indicates the library the callback failed in some way and the library
      will immediately return from whatever it was doing back to the
      application. Returning MNG_TRUE indicates there were no problems and
      processing can continue.

      Let's step through each of the possible callbacks. The sections on
      reading, displaying and writing will also explain which callbacks are
      needed when and where.

      - mng_ptr mng_memalloc (mng_size_t iLen)

      A very basic function which the library uses to allocate a memory-
      block with the given size. A typical implementation would be:

          mng_ptr my_alloc (mng_size_t iLen) {
            return calloc (1, iLen);

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 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005

      Note that the library requires you to zero-out the memory-block!!!

      - void mng_memfree (mng_ptr    pPtr,
                          mng_size_t iLen)

      Counterpart of the previous function. Typically:

          void my_free (mng_ptr pPtr, mng_size_t iLen) {
            free (pPtr);

      - mng_bool mng_openstream  (mng_handle hHandle)

      - mng_bool mng_closestream (mng_handle hHandle)

      These are called by the library just before it starts to process
      (either read or write) a file and just after the processing stops.
      This is the recommended place to do I/O initialization & finalization.
      Whether you do or not, is up to you. The library does not put any
      meaning into the calls. They are simply provided for your convenience.

      - mng_bool mng_readdata (mng_handle  hHandle,
                               mng_ptr     pBuf,
                               mng_uint32  iBuflen,
                               mng_uint32p pRead)

      This function is called when the library needs some more input while
      reading an image. The reading process supports two modes: Suspension-
      mode (SMOD) and non-suspension-mode (NSMOD).  See
      mng_set_suspensionmode() for a more detailed description.

      In NSMOD, the library requires you to return exactly the amount of
      bytes requested (= iBuflen). Any lesser amount indicates the input
      file is exhausted and the library will return a MNG_UNEXPECTEDEOF

      In SMOD, you may return a smaller amount of bytes than requested.
      This tells the library it should temporarily wait for more input to
      arrive. The lib will return with MNG_NEEDMOREDATA, and will expect a
      call to mng_read_resume() or mng_display_resume() next, as soon as
      more input-data has arrived.

      For NSMOD this function could be as simple as:

          mng_bool my_read (mng_handle  hHandle,
                            mng_ptr     pBuf,
                            mng_uint32  iBuflen,
                            mng_uint32p pRead) {
            *pRead = fread (pBuf, 1, iBuflen, myfile);
            return MNG_TRUE;

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 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005

      - mng_bool mng_writedata (mng_handle  hHandle,
                                mng_ptr     pBuf,
                                mng_uint32  iBuflen,
                                mng_uint32p pWritten)

      This function is called during the mng_write() function to actually
      output data to the file. There is no suspension-mode during write, so
      the application must return the exact number of bytes the library
      requests to be written.

      A typical implementation could be:

          mng_bool my_write (mng_handle  hHandle,
                             mng_ptr     pBuf,
                             mng_uint32  iBuflen,
                             mng_uint32p pWritten) {
            *pWritten = fwrite (pBuf, 1, iBuflen, myfile);
            return MNG_TRUE;

      - mng_bool mng_errorproc (mng_handle  hHandle,
                                mng_int32   iErrorcode,
                                mng_int8    iSeverity,
                                mng_chunkid iChunkname,
                                mng_uint32  iChunkseq,
                                mng_int32   iExtra1,
                                mng_int32   iExtra2,
                                mng_pchar   zErrortext)

      This function is called whenever an error is detected inside the
      library. This may be caused by invalid input, callbacks indicating
      failure, or wrongfully calling functions out of place.

      If you do not provide this callback the library will still return an
      errorcode from the called function, and the mng_getlasterror()
      function can be used to retrieve the other parameters.

      This function is currently only provided for convenience, but may at
      some point be used to indicate certain errors may be acceptable, and
      processing should continue.

      - mng_bool mng_traceproc (mng_handle hHandle,
                                mng_int32  iFuncnr,
                                mng_int32  iFuncseq,
                                mng_pchar  zFuncname)

      This function is provided to allow a functional analysis of the
      library. This may be useful if you encounter certain errors and cannot
      determine what the problem is.

      Almost all functions inside the library will activate this callback

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 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005

      with an appropriate function-name at the start and end of the
      function. Please note that large images may generate an enormous
      amount of calls.

      - mng_bool mng_processheader (mng_handle hHandle,
                                    mng_uint32 iWidth,
                                    mng_uint32 iHeight)

      This function is called once the header information of an input- image
      has been processed. At this point the image dimensions are available
      and also some other properties depending on the type of the image. Eg.
      for a MNG the frame-/layercount, playtime & simplicity fields are

      The primary purpose of this callback is to inform the application of
      the size of the image, and for the application to initialize the
      drawing canvas to be used by the library. This is also a good point to
      set the canvas-style. Eg. mng_set_canvasstyle().

      - mng_bool mng_processtext (mng_handle hHandle,
                                  mng_uint8  iType,
                                  mng_pchar  zKeyword,
                                  mng_pchar  zText,
                                  mng_pchar  zLanguage,
                                  mng_pchar  zTranslation)

      This callback is activated for each textual chunk in the input- image.
      These are tEXt, zTXt & iTXt. It may be used to retain specific
      comments for presentation to the user.

      - mng_bool mng_processsave (mng_handle hHandle)

      - mng_bool mng_processseek (mng_handle hHandle,
                                  mng_pchar  zName)

      The purpose of these callbacks is to signal the processing of the SAVE
      & SEEK chunks in a MNG input-file. This may be used in the future to
      specify some special processing. At the moment these functions are
      only provided as a signal.

      - mng_ptr mng_getcanvasline (mng_handle hHandle,
                                   mng_uint32 iLinenr)

      - mng_ptr mng_getbkgdline   (mng_handle hHandle,
                                   mng_uint32 iLinenr)

      - mng_ptr mng_getalphaline  (mng_handle hHandle,
                                   mng_uint32 iLinenr)

      These callbacks are used to access the drawing canvas, background
      canvas and an optional separate alpha-channel canvas. The latter is

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 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005

      used only with the MNG_CANVAS_RGB8_A8 canvas-style.

      If the getbkgdline() callback is not supplied the library will
      composite fully or partially transparent pixels in the image against a
      specified background color. See mng_set_bgcolor() for more details.
      If a chosen canvas-style includes an alpha-channel, this callback is
      very likely not needed.

      The application is responsible for returning a pointer to a line of
      pixels, which should be in the exact format as defined by the call to
      mng_set_canvasstyle() and mng_set_bkgdstyle(), without gaps between
      the representation of each pixel, unless specified by the canvas-

      - mng_bool mng_refresh (mng_handle hHandle,
                              mng_uint32 iX,
                              mng_uint32 iY,
                              mng_uint32 iWidth,
                              mng_uint32 iHeight)

      This callback is called when the library has drawn a complete frame
      onto the drawing canvas, and it is ready to be displayed.  The
      application is responsible for transferring the drawing canvas from
      memory onto the actual output device.

      - mng_uint32 mng_gettickcount (mng_handle hHandle)

      This function should return the number of milliseconds on some
      internal clock. The entire animation timing depends heavily on this
      function, and the number returned should be as accurate as possible.

      - mng_bool mng_settimer (mng_handle hHandle,
                               mng_uint32 iMsecs)

      This callback is activated every time the library requires a "pause".
      Note that the function itself should NOT execute the wait. It should
      simply store the time-field and allow the library to return. Libmng
      will return with the MNG_NEEDTIMERWAIT code, indicating the callback
      was called and it is now time to execute the pause.

      After the indicated number of milliseconds have elapsed, the
      application should call mng_display_resume(), to resume the animation
      as planned.

      This method allows for both a real timer or a simple wait command in
      the application. Whichever method you select, both the gettickcount()
      and settimer() callbacks are crucial for proper animation timing.

      - mng_bool mng_processgamma  (mng_handle hHandle,
                                    mng_uint32 iGamma)

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 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005

      - mng_bool mng_processchroma (mng_handle hHandle,
                                    mng_uint32 iWhitepointx,
                                    mng_uint32 iWhitepointy,
                                    mng_uint32 iRedx,
                                    mng_uint32 iRedy,
                                    mng_uint32 iGreenx,
                                    mng_uint32 iGreeny,
                                    mng_uint32 iBluex,
                                    mng_uint32 iBluey)

      - mng_bool mng_processsrgb   (mng_handle hHandle,
                                    mng_uint8  iRenderingintent)

      - mng_bool mng_processiccp   (mng_handle hHandle,
                                    mng_uint32 iProfilesize,
                                    mng_ptr    pProfile)

      - mng_bool mng_processarow   (mng_handle hHandle,
                                    mng_uint32 iRowsamples,
                                    mng_bool   bIsRGBA16,
                                    mng_ptr    pRow)

      These callbacks are only required when you selected the MNG_APP_CMS
      directive during compilation of the library. See the configuration
      section for more details.

      - mng_bool mng_iteratechunk (mng_handle  hHandle,
                                   mng_handle  hChunk,
                                   mng_chunkid iChunkid,
                                   mng_uint32  iChunkseq)

      This callback is only used for the mng_iterate_chunks() function.  It
      is called exactly once for each chunk stored.

 III. Housekeeping
    Memory management
      The library can use internal memory allocation/deallocation or use
      provided callbacks for its memory management. The choice is made at
      compilation time. See the section on customization for details.

      If internal management has been selected, the memory callback
      functions need not be supplied. Even if you do supply them they will
      not be used.  The actual code used is similar to the code discussed in
      the callback section:

            pPtr = calloc (1, iLen);

            free (pPtr);

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 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005

      If your compiler does not support these functions, or you wish to
      monitor the library's use of memory for certain reasons, you can
      choose to compile the library with external memory management. In this
      case the memory callback functions MUST be supplied, and should
      function as if the above code was used.

      The basic initialization of the library is short and swift:

          myhandle = mng_initialize (myuserdata, my_alloc,
                                     my_free, MNG_NULL);
          if (myhandle == MNG_NULL)
            /* process error */;

      The first field is an application-only parameter. It is saved in
      libmng's internal structures and available at all times through the
      mng_get_userdata() function. This is especially handy in callback
      functions if your program may be handling multiple files at the same

      The second and third field supply the library with the memory callback
      function entry-points. These are described in more detail in the
      callback section and the previous paragraph.

      The fourth and last field may be used to supply the library with the
      entry-point of a trace callback function. For regular use you will not
      need this!

      The function returns a handle which will be your ticket to MNG-heaven.
      All other functions rely on this handle. It is the single fixed unique
      reference-point between your application and the library.

      You should call the initialization function for each image you wish to
      process simultaneously. If you are processing images consecutively,
      you can reset the internal status of the library with the mng_reset()
      function.  This function will clear all internal state variables, free
      any stored chunks and/or objects, etc, etc. Your callbacks and other
      external parameters will be retained.

      After you successfully received the handle it is time to set the
      required callbacks. The sections on reading, displaying & writing
      indicate which callbacks are required and which are optional.  To set
      the callbacks simply do:

          myretcode = mng_setcb_xxxxxx (myhandle, my_xxxxxx);
          if (myretcode != MNG_NOERROR)
            /* process error */;

      Naturally you'd replace the x's with the name of the callback.

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 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005

      Once you've gotten hold of that precious mng_handle, you should
      always, and I mean always, call the cleanup function when you're done.
      Just do:

          mng_cleanup (myhandle);

      And you're done. There shouldn't be an ounce of memory spilled after
      that call.

      Note that if you would like to process multiple files consecutively
      you do not need to do mng_cleanup() / mng_initialize() between each
      file but simply

          myretcode = mng_reset (myhandle);
          if (myretcode != MNG_NOERROR)
            /* process error */;

      will suffice. Saves some time and effort, that.

    Error handling
      From the examples in the previous paragraphs you may have noticed a
      meticulous scheme for error handling. And yes, that's exactly what it
      is.  Practically each call simply returns an errorcode, indicating
      success, eg. MNG_NOERROR or failure, anything else but
      MNG_NEEDMOREDATA and MNG_NEEDTIMERWAIT. These latter two will be
      discussed in more detail in their respective fields of interest: the
      reading section and displaying section respectively.

      It is the application's responsibility to check the returncode after
      each call. You can call mng_getlasterror() to receive the details of
      the last detected error. This even includes a discriptive error-
      message if you enabled that option during compilation of the library.

      Note that after receiving an error it is still possible to call the
      library, but it's also very likely that any following call will fail.
      The only functions deemed to work will be mng_reset() and
      mng_cleanup().  Yes, if you abort your program after an error, you
      should still call mng_cleanup().

 IV. Reading
      Reading a MNG, JNG or PNG is fairly easy. It depends slightly on your
      ultimate goal how certain specifics are to be handled, but the basics
      are similar in all cases.

      For the read functioins to work you must have compiled the library
      with the MNG_READ_SUPPRT directive. The standard DLL and Shared

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 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005

      Library have this on by default!

      Naturally you must have initialized the library and be the owner of a
      mng_handle. The following callbacks are essential:

          mng_openstream, mng_readdata, mng_closestream

      You may optionally define:

          mng_errorproc, mng_traceproc
          mng_processheader, mng_processtext
          mng_processsave, mng_processseek

      The reading bit will also fail if you are already creating or
      displaying a file. Seems a bit obvious, but I thought I'd mention it,
      just in case.

    To suspend or not to suspend
      There is one choice you need to make before calling the read function.
      Are you in need of suspension-mode or not?

      If you're reading from a disk you most certainly do not need
      suspension-mode. Even the oldest and slowest of disks will be fast
      enough for straight reading.

      However, if your input comes from a really slow device, such as a
      dialup-line or the likes, you may opt for suspension-mode. This is
      done by calling

          myretcode = mng_set_suspensionmode (myhandle,
          if (myretcode != MNG_NOERROR)
            /* process error */;

      Suspension-mode will force the library to use special buffering on the
      input. This allows your application to receive data of arbitrarily
      length and return this in the mng_readdata() callback, without
      disturbing the chunk processing routines of the library.

      Suspension-mode does require a little extra care in the main logic of
      the application. The read function may return with MNG_NEEDMOREDATA
      when the mng_readdata() callback returns less data then it needs to
      process the next chunk. This indicates the application to wait for
      more data to arrive and then resume processing by calling

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 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005

    The read HLAPI
      The actual reading is just plain simple. Since all I/O is done outside
      the library through the callbacks, the library can focus on its real
      task. Understanding, checking and labelling the input data!

      All you really need to do is this:

          myretcode = mng_read (myhandle);
          if (myretcode != MNG_NOERROR)
            /* process error */;

      Of course, if you're on suspension-mode the code is a little more

          myretcode = mng_read (myhandle);

          while (myretcode == MNG_NEEDMOREDATA) {
            /* wait for input-data to arrive */
            myretcode = mng_read_resume (myhandle);

          if (myretcode != MNG_NOERROR)
            /* process error */;

      This is rather crude and more sophisticated programming methods may
      dictate another approach. Whatever method you decide on, it should act
      as if the above code was in its place.

      There is also the mng_readdisplay() function, but this is discussed in
      the displaying section. It functions pretty much as the mng_read()
      function, but also immediately starts displaying the image.
      mng_read_resume() should be replaced by mng_display_resume() in that

    What happens inside
      What actually happens inside the library depends on the configuration
      options set during the compilation of the library.

      Basically the library will first read the 8-byte file header, to
      determine its validity and the type of image it is about to process.
      Then it will repeatedly read a 4-byte chunk-length and then the
      remainder of the chunk until it either reaches EOF (indicated by the
      mng_readdata() callback) or implicitly decides EOF as it processed the
      logically last chunk of the image.

      Applications that require strict conformity and do not allow
      superfluous data after the ending chunk, will need to perform this
      check in their mng_closestream() callback.

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 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005

      Each chunk is then checked on CRC, after which it is handed over to
      the appropriate chunk processing routine. These routines will disect
      the chunk, check the validity of its contents, check its position with
      respect to other chunks, etc, etc.

      If everything checks out, the chunk is further processed as follows:

      If display support has been selected during compilation, certain pre-
      display initialization will take place.

      If chunk-storage support has been selected during compilation, the
      chunks data may be stored in a special internal structure and held for
      future reference.

    Storing and accessing chunks
      One of the compilation options activates support for chunk storage.
      This option may be useful if you want to examine an image. The
      directive is MNG_STORE_CHUNKS. You must also turn on the
      MNG_ACCESS_CHUNKS directive.

      The actual storage facility can be turned on or off with the
      mng_set_storechunks() function. If set to MNG_TRUE, chunks will be
      stored as they are read.

      At any point you can then call the mng_iterate_chunks() function to
      iterate through the current list of chunks. This function requires a
      callback which is called for each chunk and receives a specific
      chunk-handle. This chunk-handle can be used to call the appropriate
      mng_getchunk_xxxx() function, to access the chunks properties.

      A typical implementation may look like this:

          mng_bool my_iteratechunk (mng_handle  hHandle,
                                    mng_handle  hChunk,
                                    mng_chunkid iChunkid,
                                    mng_uint32  iChunkseq) {
            switch (iChunkid) {
              case MNG_UINT_MHDR : { /* process MHDR */;
                                     break; }
              case MNG_UINT_FRAM : { /* process FRAM */;
                                     break; }


              case MNG_UINT_HUH  : { /* unknown chunk */;
                                     break; }
              default : { /* duh; forgot one */; }

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 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005

            return MNG_TRUE; /* keep'm coming */

      To get to the actual chunk fields of lets say a SHOW chunk you would

          mng_bool isempty;
          mng_uint16 firstid, lastid;
          mng_uint8 showmode;

          myretcode mng_getchunk_show (hHandle, hChunk,
                                       isempty, firstid,
                                       lastid, showmode);
          if (myretcode != MNG_NOERROR)
            /* process error */;

 V. Displaying
      Assuming you have initialized the library and are the owner of a
      mng_handle. The following callbacks are essential:

          mng_getcanvasline, mng_refresh
          mng_gettickcount, mng_settimer

      If you wish to use an application supplied background you must supply:


      If you wish to use the MNG_CANVAS_RGB8_A8 canvas style you must


      You may optionally define:

          mng_errorproc, mng_traceproc
          mng_processheader, mng_processtext
          mng_processsave, mng_processseek

      Note that the mng_processheader() callback is optional but will be
      quite significant for proper operation!

      Displaying an image will fail if you are creating a file or already
      displaying one. Yes, you can't display it twice!

    A word on canvas styles
      The canvas style describes how your drawing canvas is made up.  You

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 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005

      must set this before the library actually starts drawing, so the
      mng_processheader() callback is a pretty good place for it.

      Currently only 8-bit RGB canvas styles are supported, either with or
      without an alpha channel.

      If you like to do alpha composition yourself you can select one of the
      canvas styles that include an alpha channel. You can even have a
      separate alpha canvas by selecting the MNG_CANVAS_RGB8_A8 style.

      All styles require a compact model. Eg. MNG_CANVAS_BGR8 requires your
      canvas lines in bgrbgrbgr... storage, where each letter represents an
      8-bit value of the corresponding color, and each threesome makes up
      the values of one(1) pixel.

      The library processes a line at a time, so the canvas lines do not
      actually need to be consecutive in memory.

    Alpha composition and application backgrounds
      All Network Graphics can be partially transparent. This requires
      special processing if you need to display an image against some
      background. Note that the MNG header (MHDR chunk) contains a
      simplicity field indicating whether transparency information in the
      file is critical or not. This only applies to embedded images, which
      means the full image-frame of the MNG may still contain fully
      transparent pixels!

      Depending on your needs you can supply a single background color, a
      background canvas or tell the library to return the alpha-channel and
      do alpha composition yourself.

      This is different from the BACK chunk in a MNG, or the bKGD chunk in
      an (embedded) PNG or JNG. The BACK chunk indicates an optional or
      mandatory background color and/or image. The bKGD chunk only indicates
      an optional background color. These chunks indicate the Authors
      preferences. They may be absent in which case you need to supply some
      sort of background yourself.

    Composing against a background color
      This is the easiest method. Call the mng_set_bgcolor() function to set
      the values of the red, green and blue component of your preferred
      background color.

      Use one of the canvas styles that do not have an alpha-channel, and
      which matches your output requirements.

                                   - 14 -      Formatted:  February 21, 2024

 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005

    Composing against a background canvas
      This is somewhat more complicated. You will need to set the
      mng_getbkgdline() callback. This will be called whenever the library
      needs to compose a partially transparent line.

      This canvas must hold the background against which the image should be
      composed. Its size must match exactly with the image dimensions and
      thus the drawing canvas!

      Use one of the canvas styles that do not have an alpha-channel, and
      which matches your output requirements. The canvas style of the
      background canvas may even differ from the drawing canvas. The
      library's composing will still function properly.

    Composing within the application
      If you have the option in your application to draw a (partially)
      transparent canvas to the output device, this option is preferred.

      Select one of the canvas styles that do have an alpha-channel.  The
      library will now supply the appropriate alpha information, allowing
      the application to compose the image as it sees fit.

    Color information and CMS
      Network Graphics may, and usually will, contain color-correction
      information. This information is intended to compensate for the
      difference in recording and display devices used.

      This document does not address the specifics of color-management.  See
      the PNG specification for a more detailed description.

    Using little cms by Marti Maria
      This is the easiest method, providing you can compile the lcms
      package.  Select the MNG_FULL_CMS directive during compilation, and
      sit back and relax. The library will take care of all color-correction
      for you.

    Using an OS- or application-supplied CMS
      If you are so lucky to have access to CMS functionality from within
      your application, you may instruct the library to leave color-
      correction to you.

      Select the MNG_APP_CMS directive during compilation of the library.
      You MUST also set the following callbacks:

          mng_processgamma, mng_processchroma,
          mng_processsrgb, mng_processiccp and

                                   - 15 -      Formatted:  February 21, 2024

 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005


      The last callback is called when the library needs you to correct an
      arbitrary line of pixels. The other callbacks are called when the
      corresponding color-information is encountered in the file.  You must
      store this information somewhere for use in the mng_processarow()

    Using gamma-only correction
      This isn't a preferred method, but it's better than no correction at
      all. Gamma-only correction will at least compensate for gamma-
      differences between the original recorder and your output device.

      Select the MNG_GAMMA_ONLY directive during compilation of the library.
      Your compiler MUST support fp operations.

    No color correction
      Ouch. This is really bad. This is the least preferred method, but may
      be necessary if your system cannot use lcms, doesn't have its own CMS,
      and does not allow fp operations, ruling out the gamma-only option.

      Select the MNG_NO_CMS directive during compilation.  Images will
      definitely not be displayed as seen by the Author!!!

    Animations and timing
      Animations require some form of timing support. The library relies on
      two callbacks for this purpose. The mng_gettickcount() and
      mng_settimer() callbacks. mng_gettickcount() is used to determine the
      passing of time in milliseconds since the beginning of the animation.
      This is also used to compensate during suspension-mode if you are
      using the mng_readdisplay() function to read & display the file

      The callback may return an arbitrary number of milliseconds, but this
      number must increase proportionaly between calls. Most modern systems
      will have some tickcount() function which derives its input from an
      internal clock. The value returned from this function is more than
      adequate for libmng.

      The mng_settimer() callback is called when the library determines a
      little "pause" is required before rendering another frame of the
      animation. The pause interval is also expressed in milliseconds.  Your
      application should store this value and return immediately.  The
      library will then make appropriate arrangements to store its internal
      state and returns to your application with the MNG_NEEDTIMERWAIT code.

      At that point you should suspend processing and wait the given

                                   - 16 -      Formatted:  February 21, 2024

 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005

      interval. Please use your OS features for this. Do not engage some
      sort of loop. That is real bad programming practice. Most modern
      systems will have some timing functions. A simple wait() function may
      suffice, but this may prevent your applications main-task from
      running, and possibly prevent the actual update of your output device.

    The mng_refresh() callback
      The mng_refresh() callback is called whenever the library has
      "finished" drawing a new frame onto your canvas, and just before it
      will call the mng_settimer() callback.

      This allows you to perform some actions necessary to "refresh" the
      canvas onto your output device. Please do NOT suspend processing
      inside this callback. This must be handled after the mng_settimer()

    Displaying while reading
      This method is preferred if you are reading from a slow input device
      (such as a dialup-line) and you wish to start displaying something as
      quickly as possible. This functionality is provided mainly for
      browser-type applications but may be appropriate for other
      applications as well.

      The method is usually used in unison with the suspension-mode of the
      read module. A typical implementation would look like this:

          /* initiale library and set required callbacks */

          /* activate suspension-mode */
          myretcode = mng_set_suspensionmode (myhandle,
          if (myretcode != MNG_NOERROR)
            /* process error */;

          myretcode = mng_readdisplay (myhandle);

          while ((myretcode == MNG_NEEDMOREDATA) ||
                 (myretcode == MNG_NEEDTIMERWAIT)) {
            if (myretcode == MNG_NEEDMOREDATA)
              /* wait for more input-data */;
              /* wait for timer interval */;

            myretcode = mng_display_resume (myhandle);

          if (myretcode != MNG_NOERROR)

                                   - 17 -      Formatted:  February 21, 2024

 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005

            /* process error */;

      More advanced programming methods may require a different approach,
      but the final result should function as in the code above.

    Displaying after reading
      This method is used to display a file that was previously read.  It is
      primarily meant for viewers with direct file access, such as 1a local

      Once you have successfully read the file, all you need to do is:

          myretcode = mng_display (myhandle);

          while (myretcode == MNG_NEEDTIMERWAIT) {
            /* wait for timer interval */;
            myretcode = mng_display_resume (myhandle);

          if (myretcode != MNG_NOERROR)
            /* process error */;

      Again, more advanced programming methods may require a different
      approach, but the final result should function as in the code above.

    Display manipulation
      Several HLAPI functions are provided to allow a user to manipulate the
      normal flow of an animation.

      - mng_display_freeze (mng_handle hHandle)

      This will "freeze" the animation in place.

      - mng_display_resume (mng_handle hHandle)

      This function can be used to resume a frozen animation, or to force
      the library to advance the animation to the next frame.

      - mng_display_reset (mng_handle hHandle)

      This function will "reset" the animation into its pristine state.
      Calling mng_display() afterwards will re-display the animation from
      the first frame.

      - mng_display_golayer (mng_handle hHandle,
                              mng_uint32 iLayer)

                                   - 18 -      Formatted:  February 21, 2024

 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005

      - mng_display_goframe (mng_handle hHandle,
                              mng_uint32 iFrame)

      - mng_display_gotime (mng_handle hHandle,
                             mng_uint32 iPlaytime)

      These three functions can be used to "jump" to a specific layer, frame
      or timeslot in the animation. You must "freeze" the animation before
      using any of these functions.

      All above functions may only be called during a timer interval!  It is
      the applications responsibility to cleanup any resources with respect
      to the timer wait.

 VI. Writing
      The main focus of the library lies in its displaying capabilites.  But
      it does offer writing support as well.  You can create and write a
      file, or you can write a file you have previously read, providing the
      storage of chunks was enabled and active.

      For this to work you must have compiled the library with the
      MNG_WRITE_SUPPO1RT and MNG_ACCESS_CHUNKS directives. The standard DLL
      and Shared Library have this on by default!

      As always you must have initialized the library and be the owner of a
      mng_handle. The following callbacks are essential:

          mng_openstream, mng_writedata, mng_closestream

      You can optionally define:

          mng_errorproc, mng_traceproc

      The creation and writing functions will fail if you are in the middle
      of reading, creating or writing a file.

    Creating a new file
      To start a new file the library must be in its initial state.  First
      you need to tell the library your intentions:

          myretcode = mng_create (myhandle);
          if (myretcode != MNG_NOERROR)
            /* process error */;

                                   - 19 -      Formatted:  February 21, 2024

 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005

      After that you start adding the appropriate chunks:

          myretcode = mng_put1chunk_mhdr (myhandle, ...);
          if (myretcode != MNG_NOERROR)
            /* process error */;

      And so on, and so forth. Note that the library will automatically
      signal the logical end of the file by the ending chunk. Also the first
      chunk will indicate the library the filetype (eg. PNG, JNG or MNG) and
      force the proper signature when writing the file.

      The code above can be simplified, as you can always get the last
      errorcode by using the mng_getlasterror() function:

          if ( (mng_putchunk_xxxx (myhandle, ...)) or
               (mng_putchunk_xxxx (myhandle, ...)) or
                   ...etc...                          )
            /* process error */;

      Please note that you must have a pretty good understanding of the
      chunk specification. Unlike the read functions, there are virtually no
      checks, so it is quite possible to write completely wrong files.  It
      is a good practice to read back your file into the library to verify
      its integrity.

      Once you've got all the chunks added, all you do is:

          myretcode mng_write (myhandle);
          if (myretcode != MNG_NOERROR)
            /* process error */;

      And presto. You're done. The real work is of course carried out in
      your callbacks. Note that this is a single operation as opposed to the
      read & display functions that may return with MNG_NEEDMOREDATA and/or
      MNG_NEEDTIMERWAIT. The write function just does the job, and only
      returns after it's finished or if it encounters some unrecoverable

    Writing a previously read file
      If you have already successfully read a file, you can use the library
      to write it out as a copy or something. You MUST have compiled the
      library with the MNG_STORE_CHUNKS directive, and you must have done
      mng_set_storechunks (myhandle, MNG_TRUE).

      This doesn't require the MNG_ACCESS_CHUNKS directive, unless you want
      to fiddle with the chunks as well.

      Again all you need to do is:

                                   - 20 -      Formatted:  February 21, 2024

 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005

          myretcode mng_write (myhandle);
          if (myretcode != MNG_NOERROR)
            /* process error */;

 VII. Modifying/Customizing libmng:
      not finished yet

    Compilation directives
      not finished yet

    Platform dependant modification
      not finished yet


      libmng :


           zlib :


           IJG JPEG library :


           lcms (little CMS) by Marti Maria Saguer :


           MNG specification:


           In the case of any inconsistency between the MNG specification
           and this library, the specification takes precedence.

                                   - 21 -      Formatted:  February 21, 2024

 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005

      This man page: Gerard Juyn <gerard at>

      The contributing authors would like to thank all those who helped with
      testing, bug fixes, and patience.  This wouldn't have been possible
      without all of you!!!

      Copyright (c) 2000-2002 Gerard Juyn

      For the purposes of this copyright and license, "Contributing Authors"
      is defined as the following set of individuals:

         Gerard Juyn

      The MNG Library is supplied "AS IS".  The Contributing Authors
      disclaim all warranties, expressed or implied, including, without
      limitation, the warranties of merchantability and of fitness for any
      purpose.  The Contributing Authors assume no liability for direct,
      indirect, incidental, special, exemplary, or consequential damages,
      which may result from the use of the MNG Library, even if advised of
      the possibility of such damage.

      Permission is hereby granted to use, copy, modify, and distribute this
      source code, or portions hereof, for any purpose, without fee, subject
      to the following restrictions:

      1. The origin of this source code must not be misrepresented; you must
      not claim that you wrote the original software.

      2. Altered versions must be plainly marked as such and must not be
      misrepresented as being the original source.

      3. This Copyright notice may not be removed or altered from any source
      or altered source distribution.

      The Contributing Authors specifically permit, without fee, and
      encourage the use of this source code as a component to supporting the
      MNG and JNG file format in commercial products.  If you use this
      source code in a product, acknowledgment would be highly appreciated.

      Parts of this software have been adapted from the libpng library.
      Although this library supports all features from the PNG specification
      (as MNG descends from it) it does not require the libpng library.  It
      does require the zlib library and optionally the IJG JPEG library,
      and/or the "little-cms" library by Marti Maria Saguer (depending on
      the inclusion of support for JNG and Full-Color-Management

                                   - 22 -      Formatted:  February 21, 2024

 LIBMNG(3)                                                         LIBMNG(3)
                             January 30th, 2005


      This library's function is primarily to read and display MNG
      animations. It is not meant as a full-featured image-editing
      component! It does however offer creation and editing functionality at
      the chunk level. (future modifications may include some more support
      for creation and or editing)

                                   - 23 -      Formatted:  February 21, 2024