packages icon



 FBMYSQLFR(1)                     MySQL 5.1                     FBMYSQLFR(1)
 MySQL Database System                                 MySQL Database System

                                 11/04/2013



 NAME
      mysql - the MySQL command-line tool

 SYNOPSIS
      mysql [options] db_name

 DESCRIPTION
      mysql is a simple SQL shell with input line editing capabilities. It
      supports interactive and noninteractive use. When used interactively,
      query results are presented in an ASCII-table format. When used
      noninteractively (for example, as a filter), the result is presented
      in tab-separated format. The output format can be changed using
      command options.

      If you have problems due to insufficient memory for large result sets,
      use the --quick option. This forces mysql to retrieve results from the
      server a row at a time rather than retrieving the entire result set
      and buffering it in memory before displaying it. This is done by
      returning the result set using the mysql_use_result() C API function
      in the client/server library rather than mysql_store_result().

      Using mysql is very easy. Invoke it from the prompt of your command
      interpreter as follows:

          shell> mysql db_name

      Or:

          shell> mysql --user=user_name --password=your_password db_name

      Then type an SQL statement, end it with ;, \g, or \G and press Enter.

      As of MySQL 5.1.10, typing Control+C causes mysql to attempt to kill
      the current statement. If this cannot be done, or Control+C is typed
      again before the statement is killed, mysql exits. Previously,
      Control+C caused mysql to exit in all cases.

      You can execute SQL statements in a script file (batch file) like
      this:

          shell> mysql db_name < script.sql > output.tab

      On Unix, the mysql client logs statements executed interactively to a
      history file. See the section called MYSQL LOGGING.

 MYSQL OPTIONS
      mysql supports the following options, which can be specified on the
      command line or in the [mysql] and [client] groups of an option file.
      mysql also supports the options for processing option files described



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      at Section 4.2.3.4, Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File
      Handling.

      +   --help, -?

          Display a help message and exit.

      +   --auto-rehash

          Enable automatic rehashing. This option is on by default, which
          enables database, table, and column name completion. Use
          --disable-auto-rehash to disable rehashing. That causes mysql to
          start faster, but you must issue the rehash command if you want to
          use name completion.

          To complete a name, enter the first part and press Tab. If the
          name is unambiguous, mysql completes it. Otherwise, you can press
          Tab again to see the possible names that begin with what you have
          typed so far. Completion does not occur if there is no default
          database.

      +   --batch, -B

          Print results using tab as the column separator, with each row on
          a new line. With this option, mysql does not use the history file.

          Batch mode results in nontabular output format and escaping of
          special characters. Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode;
          see the description for the --raw option.

      +   --bind-address=ip_address

          On a computer having multiple network interfaces, this option can
          be used to select which interface is employed when connecting to
          the MySQL server.

          This option is supported only in the version of the mysql client
          that is supplied with MySQL Cluster, beginning with MySQL Cluster
          NDB 6.3.4. It is not available in standard MySQL 5.1 releases.

      +   --character-sets-dir=path

          The directory where character sets are installed. See
          Section 10.5, Character Set Configuration.

      +   --column-names

          Write column names in results.




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      +   --column-type-info, -m

          Display result set metadata. This option was added in MySQL
          5.1.14. (Before that, use --debug-info.) The -m short option was
          added in MySQL 5.1.21.

      +   --comments, -c

          Whether to preserve comments in statements sent to the server. The
          default is --skip-comments (discard comments), enable with
          --comments (preserve comments). This option was added in MySQL
          5.1.23.

      +   --compress, -C

          Compress all information sent between the client and the server if
          both support compression.

      +   --database=db_name, -D db_name

          The database to use. This is useful primarily in an option file.

      +   --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

          Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is

      +   --debug-check

          Print some debugging information when the program exits. This
          option was added in MySQL 5.1.21.

      +   --debug-info, -T

          Before MySQL 5.1.14, this option prints debugging information and
          memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits, and also
          causes display of result set metadata during execution. As of
          MySQL 5.1.14, use --column-type-info to display result set
          metadata.

      +   --default-character-set=charset_name

          Use charset_name as the default character set for the client and
          connection.

          A common issue that can occur when the operating system uses utf8
          or another multi-byte character set is that output from the mysql
          client is formatted incorrectly, due to the fact that the MySQL
          client uses the latin1 character set by default. You can usually
          fix such issues by using this option to force the client to use



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          the system character set instead.

          See Section 10.5, Character Set Configuration, for more
          information.

      +   --delimiter=str

          Set the statement delimiter. The default is the semicolon
          character (;).

      +   --disable-named-commands

          Disable named commands. Use the \* form only, or use named
          commands only at the beginning of a line ending with a semicolon
          (;).  mysql starts with this option enabled by default. However,
          even with this option, long-format commands still work from the
          first line. See the section called MYSQL COMMANDS.

      +   --execute=statement, -e statement

          Execute the statement and quit. The default output format is like
          that produced with --batch. See Section 4.2.3.1, Using Options on
          the Command Line, for some examples. With this option, mysql does
          not use the history file.

      +   --force, -f

          Continue even if an SQL error occurs.

      +   --host=host_name, -h host_name

          Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.

      +   --html, -H

          Produce HTML output.

      +   --ignore-spaces, -i

          Ignore spaces after function names. The effect of this is
          described in the discussion for the IGNORE_SPACE SQL mode (see
          Section 5.1.7, Server SQL Modes).

      +   --line-numbers

          Write line numbers for errors. Disable this with
          --skip-line-numbers.

      +   --local-infile[={0|1}]



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          Enable or disable LOCAL capability for LOAD DATA INFILE. With no
          value, the option enables LOCAL. The option may be given as
          --local-infile=0 or --local-infile=1 to explicitly disable or
          enable LOCAL. Enabling LOCAL has no effect if the server does not
          also support it.

      +   --named-commands, -G

          Enable named mysql commands. Long-format commands are permitted,
          not just short-format commands. For example, quit and \q both are
          recognized. Use --skip-named-commands to disable named commands.
          See the section called MYSQL COMMANDS.

      +   --no-auto-rehash, -A

          This has the same effect as -skip-auto-rehash. See the description
          for --auto-rehash.

      +   --no-beep, -b

          Do not beep when errors occur.

      +   --no-named-commands, -g

          Deprecated, use --disable-named-commands instead.
          --no-named-commands is removed in MySQL 5.5.

      +   --no-pager

          Deprecated form of --skip-pager. See the --pager option.
          --no-pager is removed in MySQL 5.5.

      +   --no-tee

          Deprecated form of --skip-tee. See the --tee option.  --no-tee is
          removed in MySQL 5.5.

      +   --one-database, -o

          Ignore statements except those that occur while the default
          database is the one named on the command line. This option is
          rudimentary and should be used with care. Statement filtering is
          based only on USE statements.

          Initially, mysql executes statements in the input because
          specifying a database db_name on the command line is equivalent to
          inserting USE db_name at the beginning of the input. Then, for
          each USE statement encountered, mysql accepts or rejects following
          statements depending on whether the database named is the one on



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          the command line. The content of the statements is immaterial.

          Suppose that mysql is invoked to process this set of statements:

              DELETE FROM db2.t2;
              USE db2;
              DROP TABLE db1.t1;
              CREATE TABLE db1.t1 (i INT);
              USE db1;
              INSERT INTO t1 (i) VALUES(1);
              CREATE TABLE db2.t1 (j INT);

          If the command line is mysql --force --one-database db1, mysql
          handles the input as follows:

          +   The DELETE statement is executed because the default database
              is db1, even though the statement names a table in a different
              database.

          +   The DROP TABLE and CREATE TABLE statements are not executed
              because the default database is not db1, even though the
              statements name a table in db1.

          +   The INSERT and CREATE TABLE statements are executed because
              the default database is db1, even though the CREATE TABLE
              statement names a table in a different database.

      +   --pager[=command]

          Use the given command for paging query output. If the command is
          omitted, the default pager is the value of your PAGER environment
          variable. Valid pagers are less, more, cat [> filename], and so
          forth. This option works only on Unix and only in interactive
          mode. To disable paging, use --skip-pager.  the section called
          MYSQL COMMANDS, discusses output paging further.

      +   --password[=password], -p[password]

          The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the
          short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option
          and the password. If you omit the password value following the
          --password or -p option on the command line, mysql prompts for
          one.

          Specifying a password on the command line should be considered
          insecure. See Section 6.1.2.1, End-User Guidelines for Password
          Security. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password
          on the command line.




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      +   --pipe, -W

          On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option
          applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.

      +   --port=port_num, -P port_num

          The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

      +   --prompt=format_str

          Set the prompt to the specified format. The default is mysql>. The
          special sequences that the prompt can contain are described in the
          section called MYSQL COMMANDS.

      +   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

          The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is
          useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a
          protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on
          the permissible values, see Section 4.2.2, Connecting to the MySQL
          Server.

      +   --quick, -q

          Do not cache each query result, print each row as it is received.
          This may slow down the server if the output is suspended. With
          this option, mysql does not use the history file.

      +   --raw, -r

          For tabular output, the boxing around columns enables one column
          value to be distinguished from another. For nontabular output
          (such as is produced in batch mode or when the --batch or --silent
          option is given), special characters are escaped in the output so
          they can be identified easily. Newline, tab, NUL, and backslash
          are written as \n, \t, \0, and \\. The --raw option disables this
          character escaping.

          The following example demonstrates tabular versus nontabular
          output and the use of raw mode to disable escaping:

              % mysql
              mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
              +----------+
              | CHAR(92) |
              +----------+
              | \        |
              +----------+



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              % mysql -s
              mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
              CHAR(92)
              \\
              % mysql -s -r
              mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
              CHAR(92)
              \

      +   --reconnect

          If the connection to the server is lost, automatically try to
          reconnect. A single reconnect attempt is made each time the
          connection is lost. To suppress reconnection behavior, use
          --skip-reconnect.

      +   --safe-updates, --i-am-a-dummy, -U

          Permit only those UPDATE and DELETE statements that specify which
          rows to modify by using key values. If you have set this option in
          an option file, you can override it by using --safe-updates on the
          command line. See the section called MYSQL TIPS, for more
          information about this option.

      +   --secure-auth

          Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1) format. This
          prevents connections except for servers that use the newer
          password format.

      +   --show-warnings

          Cause warnings to be shown after each statement if there are any.
          This option applies to interactive and batch mode.

      +   --sigint-ignore

          Ignore SIGINT signals (typically the result of typing Control+C).

      +   --silent, -s

          Silent mode. Produce less output. This option can be given
          multiple times to produce less and less output.

          This option results in nontabular output format and escaping of
          special characters. Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode;
          see the description for the --raw option.

      +   --skip-column-names, -N



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          Do not write column names in results.

      +   --skip-line-numbers, -L

          Do not write line numbers for errors. Useful when you want to
          compare result files that include error messages.

      +   --socket=path, -S path

          For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on
          Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

      +   --ssl*

          Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the
          server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and
          certificates. See Section 6.3.6.4, SSL Command Options.

      +   --table, -t

          Display output in table format. This is the default for
          interactive use, but can be used to produce table output in batch
          mode.

      +   --tee=file_name

          Append a copy of output to the given file. This option works only
          in interactive mode.  the section called MYSQL COMMANDS, discusses
          tee files further.

      +   --unbuffered, -n

          Flush the buffer after each query.

      +   --user=user_name, -u user_name

          The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.

      +   --verbose, -v

          Verbose mode. Produce more output about what the program does.
          This option can be given multiple times to produce more and more
          output. (For example, -v -v -v produces table output format even
          in batch mode.)

      +   --version, -V

          Display version information and exit.




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      +   --vertical, -E

          Print query output rows vertically (one line per column value).
          Without this option, you can specify vertical output for
          individual statements by terminating them with \G.

      +   --wait, -w

          If the connection cannot be established, wait and retry instead of
          aborting.

      +   --xml, -X

          Produce XML output.

              Note
              Prior to MySQL 5.1.12, there was no differentiation in the
              output when using this option between columns containing the
              NULL value and columns containing the string literal

              <field name="column_name">NULL</field>

          Beginning with MySQL 5.1.12, the output when --xml is used with
          mysql matches that of mysqldump --xml. See mysqldump(1) for
          details.

          Beginning with MySQL 5.1.18, the XML output also uses an XML
          namespace, as shown here:

              shell> mysql --xml -uroot -e "SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'"
              <?xml version="1.0"?>
              <resultset statement="SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
              <row>
              <field name="Variable_name">version</field>
              <field name="Value">5.0.40-debug</field>
              </row>
              <row>
              <field name="Variable_name">version_comment</field>
              <field name="Value">Source distribution</field>
              </row>
              <row>
              <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_machine</field>
              <field name="Value">i686</field>
              </row>
              <row>
              <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_os</field>
              <field name="Value">suse-linux-gnu</field>
              </row>
              </resultset>



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          (See Bug #25946.)

      You can also set the following variables by using --var_name=value.
      The --set-variable format is deprecated and is removed in MySQL 5.5.

      +   connect_timeout

          The number of seconds before connection timeout. (Default value is
          0.)

      +   max_allowed_packet

          The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication.
          The default is 16MB, the maximum is 1GB.

      +   max_join_size

          The automatic limit for rows in a join when using --safe-updates.
          (Default value is 1,000,000.)

      +   net_buffer_length

          The buffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication. (Default
          value is 16KB.)

      +   select_limit

          The automatic limit for SELECT statements when using
          --safe-updates. (Default value is 1,000.)

 MYSQL COMMANDS
      mysql sends each SQL statement that you issue to the server to be
      executed. There is also a set of commands that mysql itself
      interprets. For a list of these commands, type help or \h at the
      mysql> prompt:

          mysql> help
          List of all MySQL commands:
          Note that all text commands must be first on line and end with ';'
          ?         (\?) Synonym for `help'.
          clear     (\c) Clear command.
          connect   (\r) Reconnect to the server. Optional arguments are db and host.
          delimiter (\d) Set statement delimiter.
          edit      (\e) Edit command with $EDITOR.
          ego       (\G) Send command to mysql server, display result vertically.
          exit      (\q) Exit mysql. Same as quit.
          go        (\g) Send command to mysql server.
          help      (\h) Display this help.
          nopager   (\n) Disable pager, print to stdout.



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          notee     (\t) Don't write into outfile.
          pager     (\P) Set PAGER [to_pager]. Print the query results via PAGER.
          print     (\p) Print current command.
          prompt    (\R) Change your mysql prompt.
          quit      (\q) Quit mysql.
          rehash    (\#) Rebuild completion hash.
          source    (\.) Execute an SQL script file. Takes a file name as an argument.
          status    (\s) Get status information from the server.
          system    (\!) Execute a system shell command.
          tee       (\T) Set outfile [to_outfile]. Append everything into given
                         outfile.
          use       (\u) Use another database. Takes database name as argument.
          charset   (\C) Switch to another charset. Might be needed for processing
                         binlog with multi-byte charsets.
          warnings  (\W) Show warnings after every statement.
          nowarning (\w) Don't show warnings after every statement.
          For server side help, type 'help contents'

      Each command has both a long and short form. The long form is not case
      sensitive; the short form is. The long form can be followed by an
      optional semicolon terminator, but the short form should not.

      The use of short-form commands within multi-line /* ... */ comments is
      not supported.

      +   help [arg], \h [arg], \? [arg], ? [arg]

          Display a help message listing the available mysql commands.

          If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as a
          search string to access server-side help from the contents of the
          MySQL Reference Manual. For more information, see the section
          called MYSQL SERVER-SIDE HELP.

      +   charset charset_name, \C charset_name

          Change the default character set and issue a SET NAMES statement.
          This enables the character set to remain synchronized on the
          client and server if mysql is run with auto-reconnect enabled
          (which is not recommended), because the specified character set is
          used for reconnects. This command was added in MySQL 5.1.7.

      +   clear, \c

          Clear the current input. Use this if you change your mind about
          executing the statement that you are entering.

      +   connect [db_name host_name]], \r [db_name host_name]]




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          Reconnect to the server. The optional database name and host name
          arguments may be given to specify the default database or the host
          where the server is running. If omitted, the current values are
          used.

      +   delimiter str, \d str

          Change the string that mysql interprets as the separator between
          SQL statements. The default is the semicolon character (;).

          The delimiter string can be specified as an unquoted or quoted
          argument on the delimiter command line. Quoting can be done with
          either single quote ('), double quote ("), or backtick (`)
          characters. To include a quote within a quoted string, either
          quote the string with a different quote character or escape the
          quote with a backslash (\) character. Backslash should be avoided
          outside of quoted strings because it is the escape character for
          MySQL. For an unquoted argument, the delimiter is read up to the
          first space or end of line. For a quoted argument, the delimiter
          is read up to the matching quote on the line.

          mysql interprets instances of the delimiter string as a statement
          delimiter anywhere it occurs, except within quoted strings. Be
          careful about defining a delimiter that might occur within other
          words. For example, if you define the delimiter as X, you will be
          unable to use the word INDEX in statements.  mysql interprets this
          as INDE followed by the delimiter X.

          When the delimiter recognized by mysql is set to something other
          than the default of ;, instances of that character are sent to the
          server without interpretation. However, the server itself still
          interprets ; as a statement delimiter and processes statements
          accordingly. This behavior on the server side comes into play for
          multiple-statement execution (see Section 21.8.16, C API Support
          for Multiple Statement Execution), and for parsing the body of
          stored procedures and functions, triggers, and events (see
          Section 19.1, Defining Stored Programs).

      +   edit, \e

          Edit the current input statement.  mysql checks the values of the
          EDITOR and VISUAL environment variables to determine which editor
          to use. The default editor is vi if neither variable is set.

          The edit command works only in Unix.

      +   ego, \G

          Send the current statement to the server to be executed and



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          display the result using vertical format.

      +   exit, \q

          Exit mysql.

      +   go, \g

          Send the current statement to the server to be executed.

      +   nopager, \n

          Disable output paging. See the description for pager.

          The nopager command works only in Unix.

      +   notee, \t

          Disable output copying to the tee file. See the description for
          tee.

      +   nowarning, \w

          Enable display of warnings after each statement.

      +   pager [command], \P [command]

          Enable output paging. By using the --pager option when you invoke
          mysql, it is possible to browse or search query results in
          interactive mode with Unix programs such as less, more, or any
          other similar program. If you specify no value for the option,
          mysql checks the value of the PAGER environment variable and sets
          the pager to that. Pager functionality works only in interactive
          mode.

          Output paging can be enabled interactively with the pager command
          and disabled with nopager. The command takes an optional argument;
          if given, the paging program is set to that. With no argument, the
          pager is set to the pager that was set on the command line, or
          stdout if no pager was specified.

          Output paging works only in Unix because it uses the popen()
          function, which does not exist on Windows. For Windows, the tee
          option can be used instead to save query output, although it is
          not as convenient as pager for browsing output in some situations.

      +   print, \p

          Print the current input statement without executing it.



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      +   prompt [str], \R [str]

          Reconfigure the mysql prompt to the given string. The special
          character sequences that can be used in the prompt are described
          later in this section.

          If you specify the prompt command with no argument, mysql resets
          the prompt to the default of mysql>.

      +   quit, \q

          Exit mysql.

      +   rehash, \#

          Rebuild the completion hash that enables database, table, and
          column name completion while you are entering statements. (See the
          description for the --auto-rehash option.)

      +   source file_name, \. file_name

          Read the named file and executes the statements contained therein.
          On Windows, you can specify path name separators as / or \\.

      +   status, \s

          Provide status information about the connection and the server you
          are using. If you are running in --safe-updates mode, status also
          prints the values for the mysql variables that affect your
          queries.

      +   system command, \! command

          Execute the given command using your default command interpreter.

          The system command works only in Unix.

      +   tee [file_name], \T [file_name]

          By using the --tee option when you invoke mysql, you can log
          statements and their output. All the data displayed on the screen
          is appended into a given file. This can be very useful for
          debugging purposes also.  mysql flushes results to the file after
          each statement, just before it prints its next prompt. Tee
          functionality works only in interactive mode.

          You can enable this feature interactively with the tee command.
          Without a parameter, the previous file is used. The tee file can
          be disabled with the notee command. Executing tee again re-enables



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          logging.

      +   use db_name, \u db_name

          Use db_name as the default database.

      +   warnings, \W

          Enable display of warnings after each statement (if there are
          any).

      Here are a few tips about the pager command:

      +   You can use it to write to a file and the results go only to the
          file:

              mysql> pager cat > /tmp/log.txt

          You can also pass any options for the program that you want to use
          as your pager:

              mysql> pager less -n -i -S

      +   In the preceding example, note the -S option. You may find it very
          useful for browsing wide query results. Sometimes a very wide
          result set is difficult to read on the screen. The -S option to
          less can make the result set much more readable because you can
          scroll it horizontally using the left-arrow and right-arrow keys.
          You can also use -S interactively within less to switch the
          horizontal-browse mode on and off. For more information, read the
          less manual page:

              shell> man less

      +   The -F and -X options may be used with less to cause it to exit if
          output fits on one screen, which is convenient when no scrolling
          is necessary:

              mysql> pager less -n -i -S -F -X

      +   You can specify very complex pager commands for handling query
          output:

              mysql> pager cat | tee /dr1/tmp/res.txt \
                        | tee /dr2/tmp/res2.txt | less -n -i -S

          In this example, the command would send query results to two files
          in two different directories on two different file systems mounted
          on /dr1 and /dr2, yet still display the results onscreen using



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          less.

      You can also combine the tee and pager functions. Have a tee file
      enabled and pager set to less, and you are able to browse the results
      using the less program and still have everything appended into a file
      the same time. The difference between the Unix tee used with the pager
      command and the mysql built-in tee command is that the built-in tee
      works even if you do not have the Unix tee available. The built-in tee
      also logs everything that is printed on the screen, whereas the Unix
      tee used with pager does not log quite that much. Additionally, tee
      file logging can be turned on and off interactively from within mysql.
      This is useful when you want to log some queries to a file, but not
      others.

      The prompt command reconfigures the default mysql> prompt. The string
      for defining the prompt can contain the following special sequences.
      allbox tab(:); lB lB.  T{ Option T}:T{ Description T} l l l l l l l l
      l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l
      l l l l l l l l l l l l l.  T{ \c T}:T{ A counter that increments for
      each statement you issue T} T{ \D T}:T{ The full current date T} T{ \d
      T}:T{ The default database T} T{ \h T}:T{ The server host T} T{ \l
      T}:T{ The current delimiter (new in 5.1.12) T} T{ \m T}:T{ Minutes of
      the current time T} T{ \n T}:T{ A newline character T} T{ \O T}:T{ The
      current month in three-letter format (Jan, Feb, ...) T} T{ \o T}:T{
      The current month in numeric format T} T{ \P T}:T{ am/pm T} T{ \p
      T}:T{ The current TCP/IP port or socket file T} T{ \R T}:T{ The
      current time, in 24-hour military time (023) T} T{ \r T}:T{ The
      current time, standard 12-hour time (112) T} T{ \S T}:T{ Semicolon T}
      T{ \s T}:T{ Seconds of the current time T} T{ \t T}:T{ A tab character
      T} T{ \U T}:T{

      Your full user_name@host_name account name T} T{ \u T}:T{ Your user
      name T} T{ \v T}:T{ The server version T} T{ \w T}:T{ The current day
      of the week in three-letter format (Mon, Tue, ...) T} T{ \Y T}:T{ The
      current year, four digits T} T{ \y T}:T{ The current year, two digits
      T} T{ \_ T}:T{ A space T} T{ \  T}:T{ A space (a space follows the
      backslash) T} T{ \' T}:T{ Single quote T} T{ \" T}:T{ Double quote T}
      T{ \\ T}:T{ A literal \ backslash character T} T{ \x T}:T{

      x, for any x not listed above T}


      You can set the prompt in several ways:

      +   Use an environment variable.  You can set the MYSQL_PS1
          environment variable to a prompt string. For example:

              shell> export MYSQL_PS1="(\u@\h) [\d]> "




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      +   Use a command-line option.  You can set the --prompt option on the
          command line to mysql. For example:

              shell> mysql --prompt="(\u@\h) [\d]> "
              (user@host) [database]>

      +   Use an option file.  You can set the prompt option in the [mysql]
          group of any MySQL option file, such as /etc/my.cnf or the .my.cnf
          file in your home directory. For example:

              [mysql]
              prompt=(\\u@\\h) [\\d]>\\_

          In this example, note that the backslashes are doubled. If you set
          the prompt using the prompt option in an option file, it is
          advisable to double the backslashes when using the special prompt
          options. There is some overlap in the set of permissible prompt
          options and the set of special escape sequences that are
          recognized in option files. (The rules for escape sequences in
          option files are listed in Section 4.2.3.3, Using Option Files.)
          The overlap may cause you problems if you use single backslashes.
          For example, \s is interpreted as a space rather than as the
          current seconds value. The following example shows how to define a
          prompt within an option file to include the current time in
          HH:MM:SS> format:

              [mysql]
              prompt="\\r:\\m:\\s> "

      +   Set the prompt interactively.  You can change your prompt
          interactively by using the prompt (or \R) command. For example:

              mysql> prompt (\u@\h) [\d]>\_
              PROMPT set to '(\u@\h) [\d]>\_'
              (user@host) [database]>
              (user@host) [database]> prompt
              Returning to default PROMPT of mysql>
              mysql>

 MYSQL LOGGING
      On Unix, the mysql client logs statements executed interactively to a
      history file. By default, this file is named .mysql_history in your
      home directory. To specify a different file, set the value of the
      MYSQL_HISTFILE environment variable.
              How Logging Occurs

      Statement logging occurs as follows:

      +   Statements are logged only when executed interactively. Statements



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          are noninteractive, for example, when read from a file or a pipe.
          It is also possible to suppress statement logging by using the
          --batch or --execute option.

      +   mysql logs each nonempty statement line individually.

      +   If a statement spans multiple lines (not including the terminating
          delimiter), mysql concatenates the lines to form the complete
          statement, maps newlines to spaces, and logs the result, plus a
          delimiter.

      Consequently, an input statement that spans multiple lines can be
      logged twice. Consider this input:

          mysql> SELECT
              -> 'Today is'
              -> ,
              -> CONCAT()
              -> ;

      In this case, mysql logs the SELECT, ,, CONCAT(), and ; lines as it
      reads them. It also logs the complete statement, after mapping
      SELECT\n'Today is'\n,\nCURDATE() to SELECT 'Today is' , CURDATE(),
      plus a delimiter. Thus, these lines appear in logged output:

          SELECT
          ,
          CURDATE()
          ;
          SELECT 'Today is' , CURDATE();

              Controlling the History File

      The .mysql_history file should be protected with a restrictive access
      mode because sensitive information might be written to it, such as the
      text of SQL statements that contain passwords. See Section 6.1.2.1,
      End-User Guidelines for Password Security.

      If you do not want to maintain a history file, first remove
      .mysql_history if it exists. Then use either of the following
      techniques to prevent it from being created again:

      +   Set the MYSQL_HISTFILE environment variable to /dev/null. To cause
          this setting to take effect each time you log in, put it in one of
          your shell's startup files.

      +   Create .mysql_history as a symbolic link to /dev/null; this need
          be done only once:




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              shell> ln -s /dev/null $HOME/.mysql_history

 MYSQL SERVER-SIDE HELP
          mysql> help search_string

      If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as a
      search string to access server-side help from the contents of the
      MySQL Reference Manual. The proper operation of this command requires
      that the help tables in the mysql database be initialized with help
      topic information (see Section 5.1.9, Server-Side Help).

      If there is no match for the search string, the search fails:

          mysql> help me
          Nothing found
          Please try to run 'help contents' for a list of all accessible topics

      Use help contents to see a list of the help categories:

          mysql> help contents
          You asked for help about help category: "Contents"
          For more information, type 'help <item>', where <item> is one of the
          following categories:
             Account Management
             Administration
             Data Definition
             Data Manipulation
             Data Types
             Functions
             Functions and Modifiers for Use with GROUP BY
             Geographic Features
             Language Structure
             Plugins
             Storage Engines
             Stored Routines
             Table Maintenance
             Transactions
             Triggers

      If the search string matches multiple items, mysql shows a list of
      matching topics:

          mysql> help logs
          Many help items for your request exist.
          To make a more specific request, please type 'help <item>',
          where <item> is one of the following topics:
             SHOW
             SHOW BINARY LOGS
             SHOW ENGINE



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             SHOW LOGS

      Use a topic as the search string to see the help entry for that topic:

          mysql> help show binary logs
          Name: 'SHOW BINARY LOGS'
          Description:
          Syntax:
          SHOW BINARY LOGS
          SHOW MASTER LOGS
          Lists the binary log files on the server. This statement is used as
          part of the procedure described in [purge-binary-logs], that shows how
          to determine which logs can be purged.
          mysql> SHOW BINARY LOGS;
          +---------------+-----------+
          | Log_name      | File_size |
          +---------------+-----------+
          | binlog.000015 |    724935 |
          | binlog.000016 |    733481 |
          +---------------+-----------+

      The search string can contain the the wildcard characters % and _.
      These have the same meaning as for pattern-matching operations
      performed with the LIKE operator. For example, HELP rep% returns a
      list of topics that begin with rep:

          mysql> HELP rep%
          Many help items for your request exist.
          To make a more specific request, please type 'help <item>',
          where <item> is one of the following
          topics:
             REPAIR TABLE
             REPEAT FUNCTION
             REPEAT LOOP
             REPLACE
             REPLACE FUNCTION

 EXECUTING SQL STATEMENTS FROM A TEXT FILE
      The mysql client typically is used interactively, like this:

          shell> mysql db_name

      However, it is also possible to put your SQL statements in a file and
      then tell mysql to read its input from that file. To do so, create a
      text file text_file that contains the statements you wish to execute.
      Then invoke mysql as shown here:

          shell> mysql db_name < text_file




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      If you place a USE db_name statement as the first statement in the
      file, it is unnecessary to specify the database name on the command
      line:

          shell> mysql < text_file

      If you are already running mysql, you can execute an SQL script file
      using the source command or \.  command:

          mysql> source file_name
          mysql> \. file_name

      Sometimes you may want your script to display progress information to
      the user. For this you can insert statements like this:

          SELECT '<info_to_display>' AS ' ';

      The statement shown outputs <info_to_display>.

      You can also invoke mysql with the --verbose option, which causes each
      statement to be displayed before the result that it produces.

      As of MySQL 5.1.23, mysql ignores Unicode byte order mark (BOM)
      characters at the beginning of input files. Previously, it read them
      and sent them to the server, resulting in a syntax error. Presence of
      a BOM does not cause mysql to change its default character set. To do
      that, invoke mysql with an option such as
      --default-character-set=utf8.

      For more information about batch mode, see Section 3.5, Using mysql in
      Batch Mode.

 MYSQL TIPS
      This section describes some techniques that can help you use mysql
      more effectively.

    Input-Line Editing
      mysql supports input-line editing, which enables you to modify the
      current input line in place or recall previous input lines. For
      example, the left-arrow and right-arrow keys move horizontally within
      the current input line, and the up-arror and down-arrow keys move up
      and down through the set of previously entered lines.  Backspace
      deletes the character before the cursor and typing new characters
      enters them at the cursor position. To enter the line, press Enter.

      On Windows, the editing key sequences are the same as supported for
      command editing in console windows. On Unix, the key sequences depend
      on the input library used to build mysql (for example, the libedit or
      readline library).



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      Documentation for the libedit and readline libraries is available
      online. To change the set of key sequences permitted by a given input
      library, define key bindings in the library startup file. This is a
      file in your home directory: .editrc for libedit and .inputrc for
      readline.

      For example, in libedit, Control+W deletes everything before the
      current cursor position and Control+U deletes the entire line. In
      readline, Control+W deletes the word before the cursor and Control+U
      deletes everything before the current cursor position. If mysql was
      built using libedit, a user who prefers the readline behavior for
      these two keys can put the following lines in the .editrc file
      (creating the file if necessary):

          bind "^W" ed-delete-prev-word
          bind "^U" vi-kill-line-prev

      To see the current set of key bindings, temporarily put a line that
      says only bind at the end of .editrc.  mysql will show the bindings
      when it starts.

    Displaying Query Results Vertically
      Some query results are much more readable when displayed vertically,
      instead of in the usual horizontal table format. Queries can be
      displayed vertically by terminating the query with \G instead of a
      semicolon. For example, longer text values that include newlines often
      are much easier to read with vertical output:

          mysql> SELECT * FROM mails WHERE LENGTH(txt) < 300 LIMIT 300,1\G
          *************************** 1. row ***************************
            msg_nro: 3068
               date: 2000-03-01 23:29:50
          time_zone: +0200
          mail_from: Monty
              reply: monty@no.spam.com
            mail_to: "Thimble Smith" <tim@no.spam.com>
                sbj: UTF-8
                txt: >>>>> "Thimble" == Thimble Smith writes:
          Thimble> Hi.  I think this is a good idea.  Is anyone familiar
          Thimble> with UTF-8 or Unicode? Otherwise, I'll put this on my
          Thimble> TODO list and see what happens.
          Yes, please do that.
          Regards,
          Monty
               file: inbox-jani-1
               hash: 190402944
          1 row in set (0.09 sec)

    Using the --safe-updates Option



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      For beginners, a useful startup option is --safe-updates (or
      --i-am-a-dummy, which has the same effect). It is helpful for cases
      when you might have issued a DELETE FROM tbl_name statement but
      forgotten the WHERE clause. Normally, such a statement deletes all
      rows from the table. With --safe-updates, you can delete rows only by
      specifying the key values that identify them. This helps prevent
      accidents.

      When you use the --safe-updates option, mysql issues the following
      statement when it connects to the MySQL server:

          SET sql_safe_updates=1, sql_select_limit=1000, sql_max_join_size=1000000;

      See Section 5.1.4, Server System Variables.

      The SET statement has the following effects:

      +   You are not permitted to execute an UPDATE or DELETE statement
          unless you specify a key constraint in the WHERE clause or provide
          a LIMIT clause (or both). For example:

              UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val WHERE key_column=val;
              UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val LIMIT 1;

      +   The server limits all large SELECT results to 1,000 rows unless
          the statement includes a LIMIT clause.

      +   The server aborts multiple-table SELECT statements that probably
          need to examine more than 1,000,000 row combinations.

      To specify limits different from 1,000 and 1,000,000, you can override
      the defaults by using the --select_limit and --max_join_size options:

          shell> mysql --safe-updates --select_limit=500 --max_join_size=10000

    Disabling mysql Auto-Reconnect
      If the mysql client loses its connection to the server while sending a
      statement, it immediately and automatically tries to reconnect once to
      the server and send the statement again. However, even if mysql
      succeeds in reconnecting, your first connection has ended and all your
      previous session objects and settings are lost: temporary tables, the
      autocommit mode, and user-defined and session variables. Also, any
      current transaction rolls back. This behavior may be dangerous for
      you, as in the following example where the server was shut down and
      restarted between the first and second statements without you knowing
      it:

          mysql> SET @a=1;
          Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.05 sec)



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          mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(@a);
          ERROR 2006: MySQL server has gone away
          No connection. Trying to reconnect...
          Connection id:    1
          Current database: test
          Query OK, 1 row affected (1.30 sec)
          mysql> SELECT * FROM t;
          +------+
          | a    |
          +------+
          | NULL |
          +------+
          1 row in set (0.05 sec)

      The @a user variable has been lost with the connection, and after the
      reconnection it is undefined. If it is important to have mysql
      terminate with an error if the connection has been lost, you can start
      the mysql client with the --skip-reconnect option.

      For more information about auto-reconnect and its effect on state
      information when a reconnection occurs, see Section 21.8.15,
      Controlling Automatic Reconnection Behavior.

 COPYRIGHT
      Copyright c 1997, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights
      reserved.

      This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
      modify it only under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
      published by the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.

      This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
      but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
      MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
      General Public License for more details.

      You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
      along with the program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
      Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA or
      see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.


 SEE ALSO
      For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual,
      which may already be installed locally and which is also available
      online at http://dev.mysql.com/doc/.

 AUTHOR
      Oracle Corporation (http://dev.mysql.com/).



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