packages icon



 FBMYSQLFR(1)                     MySQL 5.1                     FBMYSQLFR(1)
 MySQL Database System                                 MySQL Database System

                                 09/04/2009



 NAME
      mysql - the MySQL command-line tool

 SYNOPSIS
      mysql [options] db_name

 DESCRIPTION
      mysql is a simple SQL shell (with GNU readline capabilities). It
      supports interactive and noninteractive use. When used interactively,
      query results are presented in an ASCII-table format. When used
      noninteractively (for example, as a filter), the result is presented
      in tab-separated format. The output format can be changed using
      command options.

      If you have problems due to insufficient memory for large result sets,
      use the --quick option. This forces mysql to retrieve results from the
      server a row at a time rather than retrieving the entire result set
      and buffering it in memory before displaying it. This is done by
      returning the result set using the mysql_use_result() C API function
      in the client/server library rather than mysql_store_result().

      Using mysql is very easy. Invoke it from the prompt of your command
      interpreter as follows:

          shell> mysql db_name

      Or:

          shell> mysql --user=user_name --password=your_password db_name

      Then type an SQL statement, end it with ;, \g, or \G and press Enter.

      As of MySQL 5.1.10, typing Control-C causes mysql to attempt to kill
      the current statement. If this cannot be done, or Control-C is typed
      again before the statement is killed, mysql exits. Previously,
      Control-C caused mysql to exit in all cases.

      You can execute SQL statements in a script file (batch file) like
      this:

          shell> mysql db_name < script.sql > output.tab

 MYSQL OPTIONS
      mysql supports the options in the following list. It also reads option
      files and supports the options for processing them described at
      Section 4.2.3.3.1, Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File
      Handling.

      +   --help, -?



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          Display a help message and exit.

      +   --auto-rehash

          Enable automatic rehashing. This option is on by default, which
          enables database, table, and column name completion. Use
          --disable-auto-rehash to disable rehashing. That causes mysql to
          start faster, but you must issue the rehash command if you want to
          use name completion.

          To complete a name, enter the first part and press Tab. If the
          name is unambiguous, mysql completes it. Otherwise, you can press
          Tab again to see the possible names that begin with what you have
          typed so far. Completion does not occur if there is no default
          database.

      +   --batch, -B

          Print results using tab as the column separator, with each row on
          a new line. With this option, mysql does not use the history file.

          Batch mode results in nontabular output format and escaping of
          special characters. Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode;
          see the description for the --raw option.

      +   --character-sets-dir=path

          The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 9.2,
          The Character Set Used for Data and Sorting.

      +   --column-names

          Write column names in results.

      +   --column-type-info, -m

          Display result set metadata. This option was added in MySQL
          5.1.14. (Before that, use --debug-info.) The -m short option was
          added in MySQL 5.1.21.

      +   --comments, -c

          Whether to preserve comments in statements sent to the server. The
          default is --skip-comments (discard comments), enable with
          --comments (preserve comments). This option was added in MySQL
          5.1.23.

      +   --compress, -C




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          Compress all information sent between the client and the server if
          both support compression.

      +   --database=db_name, -D db_name

          The database to use. This is useful primarily in an option file.

      +   --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

          Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is
          'd:t:o,file_name'. The default is 'd:t:o,/tmp/mysql.trace'.

      +   --debug-check

          Print some debugging information when the program exits. This
          option was added in MySQL 5.1.21.

      +   --debug-info, -T

          Before MySQL 5.1.14, this option prints debugging information and
          memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits, and also
          causes display of result set metadata during execution. As of
          MySQL 5.1.14, use --column-type-info to display result set
          metadata.

      +   --default-character-set=charset_name

          Use charset_name as the default character set. See Section 9.2,
          The Character Set Used for Data and Sorting.

      +   --delimiter=str

          Set the statement delimiter. The default is the semicolon
          character (;).

      +   --disable-named-commands

          Disable named commands. Use the \* form only, or use named
          commands only at the beginning of a line ending with a semicolon
          (;).  mysql starts with this option enabled by default. However,
          even with this option, long-format commands still work from the
          first line. See the section called MYSQL COMMANDS.

      +   --execute=statement, -e statement

          Execute the statement and quit. The default output format is like
          that produced with --batch. See Section 4.2.3.1, Using Options on
          the Command Line, for some examples.




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      +   --force, -f

          Continue even if an SQL error occurs.

      +   --host=host_name, -h host_name

          Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.

      +   --html, -H

          Produce HTML output.

      +   --ignore-spaces, -i

          Ignore spaces after function names. The effect of this is
          described in the discussion for the IGNORE_SPACE SQL mode (see
          Section 5.1.8, Server SQL Modes).

      +   --line-numbers

          Write line numbers for errors. Disable this with
          --skip-line-numbers.

      +   --local-infile[={0|1}]

          Enable or disable LOCAL capability for LOAD DATA INFILE. With no
          value, the option enables LOCAL. The option may be given as
          --local-infile=0 or --local-infile=1 to explicitly disable or
          enable LOCAL. Enabling LOCAL has no effect if the server does not
          also support it.

      +   --named-commands, -G

          Enable named mysql commands. Long-format commands are allowed, not
          just short-format commands. For example, quit and \q both are
          recognized. Use --skip-named-commands to disable named commands.
          See the section called MYSQL COMMANDS.

      +   --no-auto-rehash, -A

          Deprecated form of -skip-auto-rehash. Use --disable-auto-rehash
          instead. See the description for --auto-rehash.

      +   --no-beep, -b

          Do not beep when errors occur.

      +   --no-named-commands, -g




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          Deprecated, use --disable-named-commands instead.

      +   --no-pager

          Deprecated form of --skip-pager. See the --pager option.

      +   --no-tee

          Do not copy output to a file.  the section called MYSQL COMMANDS,
          discusses tee files further.

      +   --one-database, -o

          Ignore statements except those for the default database named on
          the command line. This is useful for skipping updates to other
          databases in the binary log.

      +   --pager[=command]

          Use the given command for paging query output. If the command is
          omitted, the default pager is the value of your PAGER environment
          variable. Valid pagers are less, more, cat [> filename], and so
          forth. This option works only on Unix. It does not work in batch
          mode. To disable paging, use --skip-pager.  the section called
          MYSQL COMMANDS, discusses output paging further.

      +   --password[=password], -p[password]

          The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the
          short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option
          and the password. If you omit the password value following the
          --password or -p option on the command line, you are prompted for
          one.

          Specifying a password on the command line should be considered
          insecure. See Section 5.5.6.2, End-User Guidelines for Password
          Security.

      +   --pipe, -W

          On Windows, connect to the server via a named pipe. This option
          applies only for connections to a local server, and only if the
          server supports named-pipe connections.

      +   --port=port_num, -P port_num

          The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

      +   --prompt=format_str



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          Set the prompt to the specified format. The default is mysql>. The
          special sequences that the prompt can contain are described in the
          section called MYSQL COMMANDS.

      +   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

          The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is
          useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a
          protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on
          the allowable values, see Section 4.2.2, Connecting to the MySQL
          Server.

      +   --quick, -q

          Do not cache each query result, print each row as it is received.
          This may slow down the server if the output is suspended. With
          this option, mysql does not use the history file.

      +   --raw, -r

          For tabular output, the boxing around columns enables one column
          value to be distinguished from another. For nontabular output
          (such as is produced in batch mode or when the --batch or --silent
          option is given), special characters are escaped in the output so
          they can be identified easily. Newline, tab, NUL, and backslash
          are written as \n, \t, \0, and \\. The --raw option disables this
          character escaping.

          The following example demonstrates tabular versus nontabular
          output and the use of raw mode to disable escaping:

              % mysql
              mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
              +----------+
              | CHAR(92) |
              +----------+
              | \        |
              +----------+
              % mysql -s
              mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
              CHAR(92)
              \\
              % mysql -s -r
              mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
              CHAR(92)
              \

      +   --reconnect




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          If the connection to the server is lost, automatically try to
          reconnect. A single reconnect attempt is made each time the
          connection is lost. To suppress reconnection behavior, use
          --skip-reconnect.

      +   --safe-updates, --i-am-a-dummy, -U

          Allow only those UPDATE and DELETE statements that specify which
          rows to modify by using key values. If you have set this option in
          an option file, you can override it by using --safe-updates on the
          command line. See the section called MYSQL TIPS, for more
          information about this option.

      +   --secure-auth

          Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1.1) format.
          This prevents connections except for servers that use the newer
          password format.

      +   --show-warnings

          Cause warnings to be shown after each statement if there are any.
          This option applies to interactive and batch mode.

      +   --sigint-ignore

          Ignore SIGINT signals (typically the result of typing Control-C).

      +   --silent, -s

          Silent mode. Produce less output. This option can be given
          multiple times to produce less and less output.

          This option results in nontabular output format and escaping of
          special characters. Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode;
          see the description for the --raw option.

      +   --skip-column-names, -N

          Do not write column names in results. The short format, -N is
          deprecated, use the long format instead.

      +   --skip-line-numbers, -L

          Do not write line numbers for errors. Useful when you want to
          compare result files that include error messages. The short
          format, -L is deprecated, use the long format instead.

      +   --socket=path, -S path



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          For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on
          Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

      +   --ssl*

          Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the
          server via SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and
          certificates. See Section 5.5.7.3, SSL Command Options.

      +   --table, -t

          Display output in table format. This is the default for
          interactive use, but can be used to produce table output in batch
          mode.

      +   --tee=file_name

          Append a copy of output to the given file. This option does not
          work in batch mode.  the section called MYSQL COMMANDS, discusses
          tee files further.

      +   --unbuffered, -n

          Flush the buffer after each query.

      +   --user=user_name, -u user_name

          The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.

      +   --verbose, -v

          Verbose mode. Produce more output about what the program does.
          This option can be given multiple times to produce more and more
          output. (For example, -v -v -v produces table output format even
          in batch mode.)

      +   --version, -V

          Display version information and exit.

      +   --vertical, -E

          Print query output rows vertically (one line per column value).
          Without this option, you can specify vertical output for
          individual statements by terminating them with \G.

      +   --wait, -w

          If the connection cannot be established, wait and retry instead of



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          aborting.

      +   --xml, -X

          Produce XML output.

              Note
              Prior to MySQL 5.1.12, there was no differentiation in the
              output when using this option between columns containing the
              NULL value and columns containing the string literal 'NULL';
              both were represented as

              <field name="column_name">NULL</field>

          Beginning with MySQL 5.1.12, the output when --xml is used with
          mysql matches that of mysqldump --xml. See mysqldump(1) for
          details.

          Beginning with MySQL 5.1.18, the XML output also uses an XML
          namespace, as shown here:

              shell> mysql --xml -uroot -e "SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'"
              <?xml version="1.0"?>
              <resultset statement="SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
              <row>
              <field name="Variable_name">version</field>
              <field name="Value">5.0.40-debug</field>
              </row>
              <row>
              <field name="Variable_name">version_comment</field>
              <field name="Value">Source distribution</field>
              </row>
              <row>
              <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_machine</field>
              <field name="Value">i686</field>
              </row>
              <row>
              <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_os</field>
              <field name="Value">suse-linux-gnu</field>
              </row>
              </resultset>

          (See m[blue]Bug#25946m[][1].)

      You can also set the following variables by using --var_name=value.
      The --set-variable format is deprecated.

      +   connect_timeout




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          The number of seconds before connection timeout. (Default value is
          0.)

      +   max_allowed_packet

          The maximum packet length to send to or receive from the server.
          (Default value is 16MB.)

      +   max_join_size

          The automatic limit for rows in a join when using --safe-updates.
          (Default value is 1,000,000.)

      +   net_buffer_length

          The buffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication. (Default
          value is 16KB.)

      +   select_limit

          The automatic limit for SELECT statements when using
          --safe-updates. (Default value is 1,000.)

      On Unix, the mysql client writes a record of executed statements to a
      history file. By default, this file is named .mysql_history and is
      created in your home directory. To specify a different file, set the
      value of the MYSQL_HISTFILE environment variable.

      The .mysql_history should be protected with a restrictive access mode
      because sensitive information might be written to it, such as the text
      of SQL statements that contain passwords. See Section 5.5.6.2, End-
      User Guidelines for Password Security.

      If you do not want to maintain a history file, first remove
      .mysql_history if it exists, and then use either of the following
      techniques:

      +   Set the MYSQL_HISTFILE variable to /dev/null. To cause this
          setting to take effect each time you log in, put the setting in
          one of your shell's startup files.

      +   Create .mysql_history as a symbolic link to /dev/null:

              shell> ln -s /dev/null $HOME/.mysql_history

          You need do this only once.

 MYSQL COMMANDS
      mysql sends each SQL statement that you issue to the server to be



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      executed. There is also a set of commands that mysql itself
      interprets. For a list of these commands, type help or \h at the
      mysql> prompt:

          mysql> help
          List of all MySQL commands:
          Note that all text commands must be first on line and end with ';'
          ?         (\?) Synonym for `help'.
          clear     (\c) Clear command.
          connect   (\r) Reconnect to the server. Optional arguments are db and host.
          delimiter (\d) Set statement delimiter.
          edit      (\e) Edit command with $EDITOR.
          ego       (\G) Send command to mysql server, display result vertically.
          exit      (\q) Exit mysql. Same as quit.
          go        (\g) Send command to mysql server.
          help      (\h) Display this help.
          nopager   (\n) Disable pager, print to stdout.
          notee     (\t) Don't write into outfile.
          pager     (\P) Set PAGER [to_pager]. Print the query results via PAGER.
          print     (\p) Print current command.
          prompt    (\R) Change your mysql prompt.
          quit      (\q) Quit mysql.
          rehash    (\#) Rebuild completion hash.
          source    (\.) Execute an SQL script file. Takes a file name as an argument.
          status    (\s) Get status information from the server.
          system    (\!) Execute a system shell command.
          tee       (\T) Set outfile [to_outfile]. Append everything into given
                         outfile.
          use       (\u) Use another database. Takes database name as argument.
          charset   (\C) Switch to another charset. Might be needed for processing
                         binlog with multi-byte charsets.
          warnings  (\W) Show warnings after every statement.
          nowarning (\w) Don't show warnings after every statement.
          For server side help, type 'help contents'

      Each command has both a long and short form. The long form is not case
      sensitive; the short form is. The long form can be followed by an
      optional semicolon terminator, but the short form should not.

      The use of short-form commands within multi-line /* ... */ comments is
      not supported.

      +   help [arg], \h [arg], \? [arg], ? [arg]

          Display a help message listing the available mysql commands.

          If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as a
          search string to access server-side help from the contents of the
          MySQL Reference Manual. For more information, see the section



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          called MYSQL SERVER-SIDE HELP.

      +   charset charset_name, \C charset_name

          Change the default character set and issue a SET NAMES statement.
          This enables the character set to remain synchronized on the
          client and server if mysql is run with auto-reconnect enabled
          (which is not recommended), because the specified character set is
          used for reconnects. This command was added in MySQL 5.1.7.

      +   clear, \c

          Clear the current input. Use this if you change your mind about
          executing the statement that you are entering.

      +   connect [db_name host_name]], \r [db_name host_name]]

          Reconnect to the server. The optional database name and host name
          arguments may be given to specify the default database or the host
          where the server is running. If omitted, the current values are
          used.

      +   delimiter str, \d str

          Change the string that mysql interprets as the separator between
          SQL statements. The default is the semicolon character (;).

          The delimiter can be specified as an unquoted or quoted argument.
          Quoting can be done with either single quote (') or douple quote
          (") characters. To include a quote within a quoted string, either
          quote the string with the other quote character or escape the
          quote with a backslash (\) character. Backslash should be avoided
          outside of quoted strings because it is the escape character for
          MySQL. For an unquoted argument, the delmiter is read up to the
          first space or end of line. For a quoted argument, the delimiter
          is read up to the matching quote on the line.

          When the delimiter recognized by mysql is set to something other
          than the default of ;, instances of that character are sent to the
          server without interpretation. However, the server itself still
          interprets ; as a statement delimiter and processes statements
          accordingly. This behavior on the server side comes into play for
          multiple-statement execution (see Section 21.10.12, C API Support
          for Multiple Statement Execution), and for parsing the body of
          stored procedures and functions, triggers, and events (see
          Section 19.1, Defining Stored Programs).

      +   edit, \e




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          Edit the current input statement.  mysql checks the values of the
          EDITOR and VISUAL environment variables to determine which editor
          to use. The default editor is vi if neither variable is set.

          The edit command works only in Unix.

      +   ego, \G

          Send the current statement to the server to be executed and
          display the result using vertical format.

      +   exit, \q

          Exit mysql.

      +   go, \g

          Send the current statement to the server to be executed.

      +   nopager, \n

          Disable output paging. See the description for pager.

          The nopager command works only in Unix.

      +   notee, \t

          Disable output copying to the tee file. See the description for
          tee.

      +   nowarning, \w

          Enable display of warnings after each statement.

      +   pager [command], \P [command]

          Enable output paging. By using the --pager option when you invoke
          mysql, it is possible to browse or search query results in
          interactive mode with Unix programs such as less, more, or any
          other similar program. If you specify no value for the option,
          mysql checks the value of the PAGER environment variable and sets
          the pager to that.

          Output paging can be enabled interactively with the pager command
          and disabled with nopager. The command takes an optional argument;
          if given, the paging program is set to that. With no argument, the
          pager is set to the pager that was set on the command line, or
          stdout if no pager was specified.




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          Output paging works only in Unix because it uses the popen()
          function, which does not exist on Windows. For Windows, the tee
          option can be used instead to save query output, although it is
          not as convenient as pager for browsing output in some situations.

      +   print, \p

          Print the current input statement without executing it.

      +   prompt [str], \R [str]

          Reconfigure the mysql prompt to the given string. The special
          character sequences that can be used in the prompt are described
          later in this section.

          If you specify the prompt command with no argument, mysql resets
          the prompt to the default of mysql>.

      +   quit, \q

          Exit mysql.

      +   rehash, \#

          Rebuild the completion hash that enables database, table, and
          column name completion while you are entering statements. (See the
          description for the --auto-rehash option.)

      +   source file_name, \. file_name

          Read the named file and executes the statements contained therein.
          On Windows, you can specify path name separators as / or \\.

      +   status, \s

          Provide status information about the connection and the server you
          are using. If you are running in --safe-updates mode, status also
          prints the values for the mysql variables that affect your
          queries.

      +   system command, \! command

          Execute the given command using your default command interpreter.

          The system command works only in Unix.

      +   tee [file_name], \T [file_name]

          By using the --tee option when you invoke mysql, you can log



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          statements and their output. All the data displayed on the screen
          is appended into a given file. This can be very useful for
          debugging purposes also.  mysql flushes results to the file after
          each statement, just before it prints its next prompt.

          You can enable this feature interactively with the tee command.
          Without a parameter, the previous file is used. The tee file can
          be disabled with the notee command. Executing tee again re-enables
          logging.

      +   use db_name, \u db_name

          Use db_name as the default database.

      +   warnings, \W

          Enable display of warnings after each statement (if there are
          any).

      Here are a few tips about the pager command:

      +   You can use it to write to a file and the results go only to the
          file:

              mysql> pager cat > /tmp/log.txt

          You can also pass any options for the program that you want to use
          as your pager:

              mysql> pager less -n -i -S

      +   In the preceding example, note the -S option. You may find it very
          useful for browsing wide query results. Sometimes a very wide
          result set is difficult to read on the screen. The -S option to
          less can make the result set much more readable because you can
          scroll it horizontally using the left-arrow and right-arrow keys.
          You can also use -S interactively within less to switch the
          horizontal-browse mode on and off. For more information, read the
          less manual page:

              shell> man less

      +   The -F and -X options may be used with less to cause it to exit if
          output fits on one screen, which is convenient when no scrolling
          is necessary:

              mysql> pager less -n -i -S -F -X

      +   You can specify very complex pager commands for handling query



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          output:

              mysql> pager cat | tee /dr1/tmp/res.txt \
                        | tee /dr2/tmp/res2.txt | less -n -i -S

          In this example, the command would send query results to two files
          in two different directories on two different file systems mounted
          on /dr1 and /dr2, yet still display the results onscreen via less.

      You can also combine the tee and pager functions. Have a tee file
      enabled and pager set to less, and you are able to browse the results
      using the less program and still have everything appended into a file
      the same time. The difference between the Unix tee used with the pager
      command and the mysql built-in tee command is that the built-in tee
      works even if you do not have the Unix tee available. The built-in tee
      also logs everything that is printed on the screen, whereas the Unix
      tee used with pager does not log quite that much. Additionally, tee
      file logging can be turned on and off interactively from within mysql.
      This is useful when you want to log some queries to a file, but not
      others.

      The prompt command reconfigures the default mysql> prompt. The string
      for defining the prompt can contain the following special sequences.
      allbox tab(:); l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l
      l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l.  T{
      Option T}:T{ Description T} T{ \c T}:T{ A counter that increments for
      each statement you issue T} T{ \D T}:T{ The full current date T} T{ \d
      T}:T{ The default database T} T{ \h T}:T{ The server host T} T{ \l
      T}:T{ The current delimiter (new in 5.1.12) T} T{ \m T}:T{ Minutes of
      the current time T} T{ \n T}:T{ A newline character T} T{ \O T}:T{ The
      current month in three-letter format (Jan, Feb, ...) T} T{ \o T}:T{
      The current month in numeric format T} T{ \P T}:T{ am/pm T} T{ \p
      T}:T{ The current TCP/IP port or socket file T} T{ \R T}:T{ The
      current time, in 24-hour military time (023) T} T{ \r T}:T{ The
      current time, standard 12-hour time (112) T} T{ \S T}:T{ Semicolon T}
      T{ \s T}:T{ Seconds of the current time T} T{ \t T}:T{ A tab character
      T} T{ \U T}:T{

      Your full user_name@host_name account name T} T{ \u T}:T{ Your user
      name T} T{ \v T}:T{ The server version T} T{ \w T}:T{ The current day
      of the week in three-letter format (Mon, Tue, ...) T} T{ \Y T}:T{ The
      current year, four digits T} T{ \y T}:T{ The current year, two digits
      T} T{ \_ T}:T{ A space T} T{ \  T}:T{ A space (a space follows the
      backslash) T} T{ \' T}:T{ Single quote T} T{ \" T}:T{ Double quote T}
      T{ \\ T}:T{ A literal \ backslash character T} T{ \x T}:T{

      x, for any x not listed above T}





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      You can set the prompt in several ways:

      +   Use an environment variable.  You can set the MYSQL_PS1
          environment variable to a prompt string. For example:

              shell> export MYSQL_PS1="(\u@\h) [\d]> "

      +   Use a command-line option.  You can set the --prompt option on the
          command line to mysql. For example:

              shell> mysql --prompt="(\u@\h) [\d]> "
              (user@host) [database]>

      +   Use an option file.  You can set the prompt option in the [mysql]
          group of any MySQL option file, such as /etc/my.cnf or the .my.cnf
          file in your home directory. For example:

              [mysql]
              prompt=(\\u@\\h) [\\d]>\\_

          In this example, note that the backslashes are doubled. If you set
          the prompt using the prompt option in an option file, it is
          advisable to double the backslashes when using the special prompt
          options. There is some overlap in the set of allowable prompt
          options and the set of special escape sequences that are
          recognized in option files. (These sequences are listed in
          Section 4.2.3.3, Using Option Files.) The overlap may cause you
          problems if you use single backslashes. For example, \s is
          interpreted as a space rather than as the current seconds value.
          The following example shows how to define a prompt within an
          option file to include the current time in HH:MM:SS> format:

              [mysql]
              prompt="\\r:\\m:\\s> "

      +   Set the prompt interactively.  You can change your prompt
          interactively by using the prompt (or \R) command. For example:

              mysql> prompt (\u@\h) [\d]>\_
              PROMPT set to '(\u@\h) [\d]>\_'
              (user@host) [database]>
              (user@host) [database]> prompt
              Returning to default PROMPT of mysql>
              mysql>

 MYSQL SERVER-SIDE HELP
          mysql> help search_string

      If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as a



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      search string to access server-side help from the contents of the
      MySQL Reference Manual. The proper operation of this command requires
      that the help tables in the mysql database be initialized with help
      topic information (see Section 5.1.9, Server-Side Help).

      If there is no match for the search string, the search fails:

          mysql> help me
          Nothing found
          Please try to run 'help contents' for a list of all accessible topics

      Use help contents to see a list of the help categories:

          mysql> help contents
          You asked for help about help category: "Contents"
          For more information, type 'help <item>', where <item> is one of the
          following categories:
             Account Management
             Administration
             Data Definition
             Data Manipulation
             Data Types
             Functions
             Functions and Modifiers for Use with GROUP BY
             Geographic Features
             Language Structure
             Plugins
             Storage Engines
             Stored Routines
             Table Maintenance
             Transactions
             Triggers

      If the search string matches multiple items, mysql shows a list of
      matching topics:

          mysql> help logs
          Many help items for your request exist.
          To make a more specific request, please type 'help <item>',
          where <item> is one of the following topics:
             SHOW
             SHOW BINARY LOGS
             SHOW ENGINE
             SHOW LOGS

      Use a topic as the search string to see the help entry for that topic:

          mysql> help show binary logs
          Name: 'SHOW BINARY LOGS'



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          Description:
          Syntax:
          SHOW BINARY LOGS
          SHOW MASTER LOGS
          Lists the binary log files on the server. This statement is used as
          part of the procedure described in [purge-binary-logs], that shows how
          to determine which logs can be purged.
          mysql> SHOW BINARY LOGS;
          +---------------+-----------+
          | Log_name      | File_size |
          +---------------+-----------+
          | binlog.000015 |    724935 |
          | binlog.000016 |    733481 |
          +---------------+-----------+

 EXECUTING SQL STATEMENTS FROM A TEXT FILE
      The mysql client typically is used interactively, like this:

          shell> mysql db_name

      However, it is also possible to put your SQL statements in a file and
      then tell mysql to read its input from that file. To do so, create a
      text file text_file that contains the statements you wish to execute.
      Then invoke mysql as shown here:

          shell> mysql db_name < text_file

      If you place a USE db_name statement as the first statement in the
      file, it is unnecessary to specify the database name on the command
      line:

          shell> mysql < text_file

      If you are already running mysql, you can execute an SQL script file
      using the source command or \.  command:

          mysql> source file_name
          mysql> \. file_name

      Sometimes you may want your script to display progress information to
      the user. For this you can insert statements like this:

          SELECT '<info_to_display>' AS ' ';

      The statement shown outputs <info_to_display>.

      You can also invoke mysql with the --verbose option, which causes each
      statement to be displayed before the result that it produces.




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      As of MySQL 5.1.23, mysql ignores Unicode byte order mark (BOM)
      characters at the beginning of input files. Previously, it read them
      and sent them to the server, resulting in a syntax error. Presence of
      a BOM does not cause mysql to change its default character set. To do
      that, invoke mysql with an option such as
      --default-character-set=utf8.

      For more information about batch mode, see Section 3.5, Using mysql in
      Batch Mode.

 MYSQL TIPS
      This section describes some techniques that can help you use mysql
      more effectively.

    Displaying Query Results Vertically
      Some query results are much more readable when displayed vertically,
      instead of in the usual horizontal table format. Queries can be
      displayed vertically by terminating the query with \G instead of a
      semicolon. For example, longer text values that include newlines often
      are much easier to read with vertical output:

          mysql> SELECT * FROM mails WHERE LENGTH(txt) < 300 LIMIT 300,1\G
          *************************** 1. row ***************************
            msg_nro: 3068
               date: 2000-03-01 23:29:50
          time_zone: +0200
          mail_from: Monty
              reply: monty@no.spam.com
            mail_to: "Thimble Smith" <tim@no.spam.com>
                sbj: UTF-8
                txt: >>>>> "Thimble" == Thimble Smith writes:
          Thimble> Hi.  I think this is a good idea.  Is anyone familiar
          Thimble> with UTF-8 or Unicode? Otherwise, I'll put this on my
          Thimble> TODO list and see what happens.
          Yes, please do that.
          Regards,
          Monty
               file: inbox-jani-1
               hash: 190402944
          1 row in set (0.09 sec)

    Using the --safe-updates Option
      For beginners, a useful startup option is --safe-updates (or
      --i-am-a-dummy, which has the same effect). It is helpful for cases
      when you might have issued a DELETE FROM tbl_name statement but
      forgotten the WHERE clause. Normally, such a statement deletes all
      rows from the table. With --safe-updates, you can delete rows only by
      specifying the key values that identify them. This helps prevent
      accidents.



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      When you use the --safe-updates option, mysql issues the following
      statement when it connects to the MySQL server:

          SET sql_safe_updates=1, sql_select_limit=1000, sql_max_join_size=1000000;

      See Section 5.1.5, Session System Variables.

      The SET statement has the following effects:

      +   You are not allowed to execute an UPDATE or DELETE statement
          unless you specify a key constraint in the WHERE clause or provide
          a LIMIT clause (or both). For example:

              UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val WHERE key_column=val;
              UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val LIMIT 1;

      +   The server limits all large SELECT results to 1,000 rows unless
          the statement includes a LIMIT clause.

      +   The server aborts multiple-table SELECT statements that probably
          need to examine more than 1,000,000 row combinations.

      To specify limits different from 1,000 and 1,000,000, you can override
      the defaults by using the --select_limit and --max_join_size options:

          shell> mysql --safe-updates --select_limit=500 --max_join_size=10000

    Disabling mysql Auto-Reconnect
      If the mysql client loses its connection to the server while sending a
      statement, it immediately and automatically tries to reconnect once to
      the server and send the statement again. However, even if mysql
      succeeds in reconnecting, your first connection has ended and all your
      previous session objects and settings are lost: temporary tables, the
      autocommit mode, and user-defined and session variables. Also, any
      current transaction rolls back. This behavior may be dangerous for
      you, as in the following example where the server was shut down and
      restarted between the first and second statements without you knowing
      it:

          mysql> SET @a=1;
          Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.05 sec)
          mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(@a);
          ERROR 2006: MySQL server has gone away
          No connection. Trying to reconnect...
          Connection id:    1
          Current database: test
          Query OK, 1 row affected (1.30 sec)
          mysql> SELECT * FROM t;
          +------+



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          | a    |
          +------+
          | NULL |
          +------+
          1 row in set (0.05 sec)

      The @a user variable has been lost with the connection, and after the
      reconnection it is undefined. If it is important to have mysql
      terminate with an error if the connection has been lost, you can start
      the mysql client with the --skip-reconnect option.

      For more information about auto-reconnect and its effect on state
      information when a reconnection occurs, see Section 21.10.11,
      Controlling Automatic Reconnection Behavior.

 COPYRIGHT
      Copyright 2007-2008 MySQL AB, 2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.

      This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
      modify it only under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
      published by the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.

      This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
      but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
      MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
      General Public License for more details.

      You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
      along with the program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
      Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA or
      see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.


 NOTES
       1. Bug#25946
          http://bugs.mysql.com/25946

 SEE ALSO
      For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual,
      which may already be installed locally and which is also available
      online at http://dev.mysql.com/doc/.

 AUTHOR
      Sun Microsystems, Inc. (http://www.mysql.com/).








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