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 PSQL(1)                      PostgreSQL 9.6.2                       PSQL(1)
 PostgreSQL 9.6.2 Documentation               PostgreSQL 9.6.2 Documentation

                                    2017



 NAME
      psql - PostgreSQL interactive terminal

 SYNOPSIS
      psql [option...] [dbname [username]]

 DESCRIPTION
      psql is a terminal-based front-end to PostgreSQL. It enables you to
      type in queries interactively, issue them to PostgreSQL, and see the
      query results. Alternatively, input can be from a file or from command
      line arguments. In addition, psql provides a number of meta-commands
      and various shell-like features to facilitate writing scripts and
      automating a wide variety of tasks.

 OPTIONS
      -a
      --echo-all
          Print all nonempty input lines to standard output as they are
          read. (This does not apply to lines read interactively.) This is
          equivalent to setting the variable ECHO to all.

      -A
      --no-align
          Switches to unaligned output mode. (The default output mode is
          otherwise aligned.)

      -b
      --echo-errors
          Print failed SQL commands to standard error output. This is
          equivalent to setting the variable ECHO to errors.

      -c command
      --command=command
          Specifies that psql is to execute the given command string,
          command. This option can be repeated and combined in any order
          with the -f option. When either -c or -f is specified, psql does
          not read commands from standard input; instead it terminates after
          processing all the -c and -f options in sequence.

          command must be either a command string that is completely
          parsable by the server (i.e., it contains no psql-specific
          features), or a single backslash command. Thus you cannot mix SQL
          and psql meta-commands within a -c option. To achieve that, you
          could use repeated -c options or pipe the string into psql, for
          example:

              psql -c '\x' -c 'SELECT * FROM foo;'

          or



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              echo '\x \\ SELECT * FROM foo;' | psql

          (\\ is the separator meta-command.)

          Each SQL command string passed to -c is sent to the server as a
          single query. Because of this, the server executes it as a single
          transaction even if the string contains multiple SQL commands,
          unless there are explicit BEGIN/COMMIT commands included in the
          string to divide it into multiple transactions. Also, psql only
          prints the result of the last SQL command in the string. This is
          different from the behavior when the same string is read from a
          file or fed to psql's standard input, because then psql sends each
          SQL command separately.

          Because of this behavior, putting more than one command in a
          single -c string often has unexpected results. It's better to use
          repeated -c commands or feed multiple commands to psql's standard
          input, either using echo as illustrated above, or via a shell
          here-document, for example:

              psql <<EOF
              \x
              SELECT * FROM foo;
              EOF


      -d dbname
      --dbname=dbname
          Specifies the name of the database to connect to. This is
          equivalent to specifying dbname as the first non-option argument
          on the command line.

          If this parameter contains an = sign or starts with a valid URI
          prefix (postgresql:// or postgres://), it is treated as a conninfo
          string. See Section 32.1.1, Connection Strings, in the
          documentation for more information.

      -e
      --echo-queries
          Copy all SQL commands sent to the server to standard output as
          well. This is equivalent to setting the variable ECHO to queries.

      -E
      --echo-hidden
          Echo the actual queries generated by \d and other backslash
          commands. You can use this to study psql's internal operations.
          This is equivalent to setting the variable ECHO_HIDDEN to on.

      -f filename



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      --file=filename
          Read commands from the file filename, rather than standard input.
          This option can be repeated and combined in any order with the -c
          option. When either -c or -f is specified, psql does not read
          commands from standard input; instead it terminates after
          processing all the -c and -f options in sequence. Except for that,
          this option is largely equivalent to the meta-command \i.

          If filename is - (hyphen), then standard input is read until an
          EOF indication or \q meta-command. This can be used to intersperse
          interactive input with input from files. Note however that
          Readline is not used in this case (much as if -n had been
          specified).

          Using this option is subtly different from writing psql <
          filename. In general, both will do what you expect, but using -f
          enables some nice features such as error messages with line
          numbers. There is also a slight chance that using this option will
          reduce the start-up overhead. On the other hand, the variant using
          the shell's input redirection is (in theory) guaranteed to yield
          exactly the same output you would have received had you entered
          everything by hand.

      -F separator
      --field-separator=separator
          Use separator as the field separator for unaligned output. This is
          equivalent to \pset fieldsep or \f.

      -h hostname
      --host=hostname
          Specifies the host name of the machine on which the server is
          running. If the value begins with a slash, it is used as the
          directory for the Unix-domain socket.

      -H
      --html
          Turn on HTML tabular output. This is equivalent to \pset format
          html or the \H command.

      -l
      --list
          List all available databases, then exit. Other non-connection
          options are ignored. This is similar to the meta-command \list.

      -L filename
      --log-file=filename
          Write all query output into file filename, in addition to the
          normal output destination.




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      -n
      --no-readline
          Do not use Readline for line editing and do not use the command
          history. This can be useful to turn off tab expansion when cutting
          and pasting.

      -o filename
      --output=filename
          Put all query output into file filename. This is equivalent to the
          command \o.

      -p port
      --port=port
          Specifies the TCP port or the local Unix-domain socket file
          extension on which the server is listening for connections.
          Defaults to the value of the PGPORT environment variable or, if
          not set, to the port specified at compile time, usually 5432.

      -P assignment
      --pset=assignment
          Specifies printing options, in the style of \pset. Note that here
          you have to separate name and value with an equal sign instead of
          a space. For example, to set the output format to LaTeX, you could
          write -P format=latex.

      -q
      --quiet
          Specifies that psql should do its work quietly. By default, it
          prints welcome messages and various informational output. If this
          option is used, none of this happens. This is useful with the -c
          option. This is equivalent to setting the variable QUIET to on.

      -R separator
      --record-separator=separator
          Use separator as the record separator for unaligned output. This
          is equivalent to the \pset recordsep command.

      -s
      --single-step
          Run in single-step mode. That means the user is prompted before
          each command is sent to the server, with the option to cancel
          execution as well. Use this to debug scripts.

      -S
      --single-line
          Runs in single-line mode where a newline terminates an SQL
          command, as a semicolon does.

              Note



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              This mode is provided for those who insist on it, but you are
              not necessarily encouraged to use it. In particular, if you
              mix SQL and meta-commands on a line the order of execution
              might not always be clear to the inexperienced user.

      -t
      --tuples-only
          Turn off printing of column names and result row count footers,
          etc. This is equivalent to the \t command.

      -T table_options
      --table-attr=table_options
          Specifies options to be placed within the HTMLtable tag. See \pset
          for details.

      -U username
      --username=username
          Connect to the database as the user username instead of the
          default. (You must have permission to do so, of course.)

      -v assignment
      --set=assignment
      --variable=assignment
          Perform a variable assignment, like the \set meta-command. Note
          that you must separate name and value, if any, by an equal sign on
          the command line. To unset a variable, leave off the equal sign.
          To set a variable with an empty value, use the equal sign but
          leave off the value. These assignments are done during a very
          early stage of start-up, so variables reserved for internal
          purposes might get overwritten later.

      -V
      --version
          Print the psql version and exit.

      -w
      --no-password
          Never issue a password prompt. If the server requires password
          authentication and a password is not available by other means such
          as a .pgpass file, the connection attempt will fail. This option
          can be useful in batch jobs and scripts where no user is present
          to enter a password.

          Note that this option will remain set for the entire session, and
          so it affects uses of the meta-command \connect as well as the
          initial connection attempt.

      -W
      --password



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          Force psql to prompt for a password before connecting to a
          database.

          This option is never essential, since psql will automatically
          prompt for a password if the server demands password
          authentication. However, psql will waste a connection attempt
          finding out that the server wants a password. In some cases it is
          worth typing -W to avoid the extra connection attempt.

          Note that this option will remain set for the entire session, and
          so it affects uses of the meta-command \connect as well as the
          initial connection attempt.

      -x
      --expanded
          Turn on the expanded table formatting mode. This is equivalent to
          the \x command.

      -X,
      --no-psqlrc
          Do not read the start-up file (neither the system-wide psqlrc file
          nor the user's ~/.psqlrc file).

      -z
      --field-separator-zero
          Set the field separator for unaligned output to a zero byte.

      -0
      --record-separator-zero
          Set the record separator for unaligned output to a zero byte. This
          is useful for interfacing, for example, with xargs -0.

      -1
      --single-transaction
          This option can only be used in combination with one or more -c
          and/or -f options. It causes psql to issue a BEGIN command before
          the first such option and a COMMIT command after the last one,
          thereby wrapping all the commands into a single transaction. This
          ensures that either all the commands complete successfully, or no
          changes are applied.

          If the commands themselves contain BEGIN, COMMIT, or ROLLBACK,
          this option will not have the desired effects. Also, if an
          individual command cannot be executed inside a transaction block,
          specifying this option will cause the whole transaction to fail.

      -?
      --help[=topic]
          Show help about psql and exit. The optional topic parameter



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          (defaulting to options) selects which part of psql is explained:
          commands describes psql's backslash commands; options describes
          the command-line options that can be passed to psql; and variables
          shows help about psql configuration variables.

 EXIT STATUS
      psql returns 0 to the shell if it finished normally, 1 if a fatal
      error of its own occurs (e.g. out of memory, file not found), 2 if the
      connection to the server went bad and the session was not interactive,
      and 3 if an error occurred in a script and the variable ON_ERROR_STOP
      was set.

 USAGE
    Connecting to a Database
      psql is a regular PostgreSQL client application. In order to connect
      to a database you need to know the name of your target database, the
      host name and port number of the server, and what user name you want
      to connect as.  psql can be told about those parameters via command
      line options, namely -d, -h, -p, and -U respectively. If an argument
      is found that does not belong to any option it will be interpreted as
      the database name (or the user name, if the database name is already
      given). Not all of these options are required; there are useful
      defaults. If you omit the host name, psql will connect via a
      Unix-domain socket to a server on the local host, or via TCP/IP to
      localhost on machines that don't have Unix-domain sockets. The default
      port number is determined at compile time. Since the database server
      uses the same default, you will not have to specify the port in most
      cases. The default user name is your operating-system user name, as is
      the default database name. Note that you cannot just connect to any
      database under any user name. Your database administrator should have
      informed you about your access rights.

      When the defaults aren't quite right, you can save yourself some
      typing by setting the environment variables PGDATABASE, PGHOST, PGPORT
      and/or PGUSER to appropriate values. (For additional environment
      variables, see Section 32.14, Environment Variables, in the
      documentation.) It is also convenient to have a ~/.pgpass file to
      avoid regularly having to type in passwords. See Section 32.15, The
      Password File, in the documentation for more information.

      An alternative way to specify connection parameters is in a conninfo
      string or a URI, which is used instead of a database name. This
      mechanism give you very wide control over the connection. For example:

          $ psql "service=myservice sslmode=require"
          $ psql postgresql://dbmaster:5433/mydb?sslmode=require

      This way you can also use LDAP for connection parameter lookup as
      described in Section 32.17, LDAP Lookup of Connection Parameters, in



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      the documentation. See Section 32.1.2, Parameter Key Words, in the
      documentation for more information on all the available connection
      options.

      If the connection could not be made for any reason (e.g., insufficient
      privileges, server is not running on the targeted host, etc.), psql
      will return an error and terminate.

      If both standard input and standard output are a terminal, then psql
      sets the client encoding to auto, which will detect the appropriate
      client encoding from the locale settings (LC_CTYPE environment
      variable on Unix systems). If this doesn't work out as expected, the
      client encoding can be overridden using the environment variable
      PGCLIENTENCODING.

    Entering SQL Commands
      In normal operation, psql provides a prompt with the name of the
      database to which psql is currently connected, followed by the string
      =>. For example:

          $ psql testdb
          psql (9.6.2)
          Type "help" for help.

          testdb=>

      At the prompt, the user can type in SQL commands. Ordinarily, input
      lines are sent to the server when a command-terminating semicolon is
      reached. An end of line does not terminate a command. Thus commands
      can be spread over several lines for clarity. If the command was sent
      and executed without error, the results of the command are displayed
      on the screen.

      Whenever a command is executed, psql also polls for asynchronous
      notification events generated by LISTEN(7) and NOTIFY(7).

      While C-style block comments are passed to the server for processing
      and removal, SQL-standard comments are removed by psql.

    Meta-Commands
      Anything you enter in psql that begins with an unquoted backslash is a
      psql meta-command that is processed by psql itself. These commands
      make psql more useful for administration or scripting. Meta-commands
      are often called slash or backslash commands.

      The format of a psql command is the backslash, followed immediately by
      a command verb, then any arguments. The arguments are separated from
      the command verb and each other by any number of whitespace
      characters.



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      To include whitespace in an argument you can quote it with single
      quotes. To include a single quote in an argument, write two single
      quotes within single-quoted text. Anything contained in single quotes
      is furthermore subject to C-like substitutions for \n (new line), \t
      (tab), \b (backspace), \r (carriage return), \f (form feed), \digits
      (octal), and \xdigits (hexadecimal). A backslash preceding any other
      character within single-quoted text quotes that single character,
      whatever it is.

      Within an argument, text that is enclosed in backquotes (`) is taken
      as a command line that is passed to the shell. The output of the
      command (with any trailing newline removed) replaces the backquoted
      text.

      If an unquoted colon (:) followed by a psql variable name appears
      within an argument, it is replaced by the variable's value, as
      described in SQL Interpolation.

      Some commands take an SQL identifier (such as a table name) as
      argument. These arguments follow the syntax rules of SQL: Unquoted
      letters are forced to lowercase, while double quotes (") protect
      letters from case conversion and allow incorporation of whitespace
      into the identifier. Within double quotes, paired double quotes reduce
      to a single double quote in the resulting name. For example,
      FOO"BAR"BAZ is interpreted as fooBARbaz, and "A weird"" name" becomes
      A weird" name.

      Parsing for arguments stops at the end of the line, or when another
      unquoted backslash is found. An unquoted backslash is taken as the
      beginning of a new meta-command. The special sequence \\ (two
      backslashes) marks the end of arguments and continues parsing SQL
      commands, if any. That way SQL and psql commands can be freely mixed
      on a line. But in any case, the arguments of a meta-command cannot
      continue beyond the end of the line.

      The following meta-commands are defined:

      \a
          If the current table output format is unaligned, it is switched to
          aligned. If it is not unaligned, it is set to unaligned. This
          command is kept for backwards compatibility. See \pset for a more
          general solution.

      \c or \connect [ -reuse-previous=on|off ] [ dbname [ username ] [ host
      ] [ port ] | conninfo ]
          Establishes a new connection to a PostgreSQL server. The
          connection parameters to use can be specified either using a
          positional syntax, or using conninfo connection strings as
          detailed in Section 32.1.1, Connection Strings, in the



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          documentation.

          Where the command omits database name, user, host, or port, the
          new connection can reuse values from the previous connection. By
          default, values from the previous connection are reused except
          when processing a conninfo string. Passing a first argument of
          -reuse-previous=on or -reuse-previous=off overrides that default.
          When the command neither specifies nor reuses a particular
          parameter, the libpq default is used. Specifying any of dbname,
          username, host or port as - is equivalent to omitting that
          parameter.

          If the new connection is successfully made, the previous
          connection is closed. If the connection attempt failed (wrong user
          name, access denied, etc.), the previous connection will only be
          kept if psql is in interactive mode. When executing a
          non-interactive script, processing will immediately stop with an
          error. This distinction was chosen as a user convenience against
          typos on the one hand, and a safety mechanism that scripts are not
          accidentally acting on the wrong database on the other hand.

          Examples:

              => \c mydb myuser host.dom 6432
              => \c service=foo
              => \c "host=localhost port=5432 dbname=mydb connect_timeout=10 sslmode=disable"
              => \c postgresql:// HREF=mailto:tom@localhost>tom@localhost/mydb?application_name=myapp

      \C [ title ]
          Sets the title of any tables being printed as the result of a
          query or unset any such title. This command is equivalent to \pset
          title title. (The name of this command derives from caption, as it
          was previously only used to set the caption in an HTML table.)

      \cd [ directory ]
          Changes the current working directory to directory. Without
          argument, changes to the current user's home directory.

              Tip
              To print your current working directory, use \! pwd.

      \conninfo
          Outputs information about the current database connection.

      \copy { table [ ( column_list ) ] | ( query ) } { from | to } {
      'filename' | program 'command' | stdin | stdout | pstdin | pstdout } [
      [ with ] ( option [, ...] ) ]
          Performs a frontend (client) copy. This is an operation that runs
          an SQLCOPY(7) command, but instead of the server reading or



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          writing the specified file, psql reads or writes the file and
          routes the data between the server and the local file system. This
          means that file accessibility and privileges are those of the
          local user, not the server, and no SQL superuser privileges are
          required.

          When program is specified, command is executed by psql and the
          data passed from or to command is routed between the server and
          the client. Again, the execution privileges are those of the local
          user, not the server, and no SQL superuser privileges are
          required.

          For \copy ... from stdin, data rows are read from the same source
          that issued the command, continuing until \.  is read or the
          stream reaches EOF. This option is useful for populating tables
          in-line within a SQL script file. For \copy ... to stdout, output
          is sent to the same place as psql command output, and the COPY
          count command status is not printed (since it might be confused
          with a data row). To read/write psql's standard input or output
          regardless of the current command source or \o option, write from
          pstdin or to pstdout.

          The syntax of this command is similar to that of the SQLCOPY(7)
          command. All options other than the data source/destination are as
          specified for COPY(7). Because of this, special parsing rules
          apply to the \copy command. In particular, psql's variable
          substitution rules and backslash escapes do not apply.

              Tip
              This operation is not as efficient as the SQLCOPY command
              because all data must pass through the client/server
              connection. For large amounts of data the SQL command might be
              preferable.

      \copyright
          Shows the copyright and distribution terms of PostgreSQL.

      \crosstabview [ colV [ colH [ colD [ sortcolH ] ] ] ]
          Executes the current query buffer (like \g) and shows the results
          in a crosstab grid. The query must return at least three columns.
          The output column identified by colV becomes a vertical header and
          the output column identified by colH becomes a horizontal header.
          colD identifies the output column to display within the grid.
          sortcolH identifies an optional sort column for the horizontal
          header.

          Each column specification can be a column number (starting at 1)
          or a column name. The usual SQL case folding and quoting rules
          apply to column names. If omitted, colV is taken as column 1 and



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          colH as column 2.  colH must differ from colV. If colD is not
          specified, then there must be exactly three columns in the query
          result, and the column that is neither colV nor colH is taken to
          be colD.

          The vertical header, displayed as the leftmost column, contains
          the values found in column colV, in the same order as in the query
          results, but with duplicates removed.

          The horizontal header, displayed as the first row, contains the
          values found in column colH, with duplicates removed. By default,
          these appear in the same order as in the query results. But if the
          optional sortcolH argument is given, it identifies a column whose
          values must be integer numbers, and the values from colH will
          appear in the horizontal header sorted according to the
          corresponding sortcolH values.

          Inside the crosstab grid, for each distinct value x of colH and
          each distinct value y of colV, the cell located at the
          intersection (x,y) contains the value of the colD column in the
          query result row for which the value of colH is x and the value of
          colV is y. If there is no such row, the cell is empty. If there
          are multiple such rows, an error is reported.

      \d[S+] [ pattern ]
          For each relation (table, view, index, sequence, or foreign table)
          or composite type matching the pattern, show all columns, their
          types, the tablespace (if not the default) and any special
          attributes such as NOT NULL or defaults. Associated indexes,
          constraints, rules, and triggers are also shown. For foreign
          tables, the associated foreign server is shown as well. (Matching
          the pattern is defined in Patterns below.)

          For some types of relation, \d shows additional information for
          each column: column values for sequences, indexed expression for
          indexes and foreign data wrapper options for foreign tables.

          The command form \d+ is identical, except that more information is
          displayed: any comments associated with the columns of the table
          are shown, as is the presence of OIDs in the table, the view
          definition if the relation is a view, a non-default replica
          identity setting.

          By default, only user-created objects are shown; supply a pattern
          or the S modifier to include system objects.

              Note
              If \d is used without a pattern argument, it is equivalent to
              \dtvsE which will show a list of all visible tables, views,



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              sequences and foreign tables. This is purely a convenience
              measure.

      \da[S] [ pattern ]
          Lists aggregate functions, together with their return type and the
          data types they operate on. If pattern is specified, only
          aggregates whose names match the pattern are shown. By default,
          only user-created objects are shown; supply a pattern or the S
          modifier to include system objects.

      \dA[+] [ pattern ]
          Lists access methods. If pattern is specified, only access methods
          whose names match the pattern are shown. If + is appended to the
          command name, each access method is listed with its associated
          handler function and description.

      \db[+] [ pattern ]
          Lists tablespaces. If pattern is specified, only tablespaces whose
          names match the pattern are shown. If + is appended to the command
          name, each tablespace is listed with its associated options,
          on-disk size, permissions and description.

      \dc[S+] [ pattern ]
          Lists conversions between character-set encodings. If pattern is
          specified, only conversions whose names match the pattern are
          listed. By default, only user-created objects are shown; supply a
          pattern or the S modifier to include system objects. If + is
          appended to the command name, each object is listed with its
          associated description.

      \dC[+] [ pattern ]
          Lists type casts. If pattern is specified, only casts whose source
          or target types match the pattern are listed. If + is appended to
          the command name, each object is listed with its associated
          description.

      \dd[S] [ pattern ]
          Shows the descriptions of objects of type constraint, operator
          class, operator family, rule, and trigger. All other comments may
          be viewed by the respective backslash commands for those object
          types.

          \dd displays descriptions for objects matching the pattern, or of
          visible objects of the appropriate type if no argument is given.
          But in either case, only objects that have a description are
          listed. By default, only user-created objects are shown; supply a
          pattern or the S modifier to include system objects.

          Descriptions for objects can be created with the COMMENT(7)SQL



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 PostgreSQL 9.6.2 Documentation               PostgreSQL 9.6.2 Documentation

                                    2017



          command.

      \ddp [ pattern ]
          Lists default access privilege settings. An entry is shown for
          each role (and schema, if applicable) for which the default
          privilege settings have been changed from the built-in defaults.
          If pattern is specified, only entries whose role name or schema
          name matches the pattern are listed.

          The ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES (ALTER_DEFAULT_PRIVILEGES(7)) command
          is used to set default access privileges. The meaning of the
          privilege display is explained under GRANT(7).

      \dD[S+] [ pattern ]
          Lists domains. If pattern is specified, only domains whose names
          match the pattern are shown. By default, only user-created objects
          are shown; supply a pattern or the S modifier to include system
          objects. If + is appended to the command name, each object is
          listed with its associated permissions and description.

      \dE[S+] [ pattern ]
      \di[S+] [ pattern ]
      \dm[S+] [ pattern ]
      \ds[S+] [ pattern ]
      \dt[S+] [ pattern ]
      \dv[S+] [ pattern ]
          In this group of commands, the letters E, i, m, s, t, and v stand
          for foreign table, index, materialized view, sequence, table, and
          view, respectively. You can specify any or all of these letters,
          in any order, to obtain a listing of objects of these types. For
          example, \dit lists indexes and tables. If + is appended to the
          command name, each object is listed with its physical size on disk
          and its associated description, if any. If pattern is specified,
          only objects whose names match the pattern are listed. By default,
          only user-created objects are shown; supply a pattern or the S
          modifier to include system objects.

      \des[+] [ pattern ]
          Lists foreign servers (mnemonic: external servers). If pattern is
          specified, only those servers whose name matches the pattern are
          listed. If the form \des+ is used, a full description of each
          server is shown, including the server's ACL, type, version,
          options, and description.

      \det[+] [ pattern ]
          Lists foreign tables (mnemonic: external tables). If pattern is
          specified, only entries whose table name or schema name matches
          the pattern are listed. If the form \det+ is used, generic options
          and the foreign table description are also displayed.



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                                    2017



      \deu[+] [ pattern ]
          Lists user mappings (mnemonic: external users). If pattern is
          specified, only those mappings whose user names match the pattern
          are listed. If the form \deu+ is used, additional information
          about each mapping is shown.

              Caution
              \deu+ might also display the user name and password of the
              remote user, so care should be taken not to disclose them.

      \dew[+] [ pattern ]
          Lists foreign-data wrappers (mnemonic: external wrappers). If
          pattern is specified, only those foreign-data wrappers whose name
          matches the pattern are listed. If the form \dew+ is used, the
          ACL, options, and description of the foreign-data wrapper are also
          shown.

      \df[antwS+] [ pattern ]
          Lists functions, together with their result data types, argument
          data types, and function types, which are classified as agg
          (aggregate), normal, trigger, or window. To display only functions
          of specific type(s), add the corresponding letters a, n, t, or w
          to the command. If pattern is specified, only functions whose
          names match the pattern are shown. By default, only user-created
          objects are shown; supply a pattern or the S modifier to include
          system objects. If the form \df+ is used, additional information
          about each function is shown, including volatility, parallel
          safety, owner, security classification, access privileges,
          language, source code and description.

              Tip
              To look up functions taking arguments or returning values of a
              specific data type, use your pager's search capability to
              scroll through the \df output.


      \dF[+] [ pattern ]
          Lists text search configurations. If pattern is specified, only
          configurations whose names match the pattern are shown. If the
          form \dF+ is used, a full description of each configuration is
          shown, including the underlying text search parser and the
          dictionary list for each parser token type.

      \dFd[+] [ pattern ]
          Lists text search dictionaries. If pattern is specified, only
          dictionaries whose names match the pattern are shown. If the form
          \dFd+ is used, additional information is shown about each selected
          dictionary, including the underlying text search template and the
          option values.



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      \dFp[+] [ pattern ]
          Lists text search parsers. If pattern is specified, only parsers
          whose names match the pattern are shown. If the form \dFp+ is
          used, a full description of each parser is shown, including the
          underlying functions and the list of recognized token types.

      \dFt[+] [ pattern ]
          Lists text search templates. If pattern is specified, only
          templates whose names match the pattern are shown. If the form
          \dFt+ is used, additional information is shown about each
          template, including the underlying function names.

      \dg[S+] [ pattern ]
          Lists database roles. (Since the concepts of users and groups have
          been unified into roles, this command is now equivalent to \du.)
          By default, only user-created roles are shown; supply the S
          modifier to include system roles. If pattern is specified, only
          those roles whose names match the pattern are listed. If the form
          \dg+ is used, additional information is shown about each role;
          currently this adds the comment for each role.

      \dl
          This is an alias for \lo_list, which shows a list of large
          objects.

      \dL[S+] [ pattern ]
          Lists procedural languages. If pattern is specified, only
          languages whose names match the pattern are listed. By default,
          only user-created languages are shown; supply the S modifier to
          include system objects. If + is appended to the command name, each
          language is listed with its call handler, validator, access
          privileges, and whether it is a system object.

      \dn[S+] [ pattern ]
          Lists schemas (namespaces). If pattern is specified, only schemas
          whose names match the pattern are listed. By default, only
          user-created objects are shown; supply a pattern or the S modifier
          to include system objects. If + is appended to the command name,
          each object is listed with its associated permissions and
          description, if any.

      \do[S+] [ pattern ]
          Lists operators with their operand and result types. If pattern is
          specified, only operators whose names match the pattern are
          listed. By default, only user-created objects are shown; supply a
          pattern or the S modifier to include system objects. If + is
          appended to the command name, additional information about each
          operator is shown, currently just the name of the underlying
          function.



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                                    2017



      \dO[S+] [ pattern ]
          Lists collations. If pattern is specified, only collations whose
          names match the pattern are listed. By default, only user-created
          objects are shown; supply a pattern or the S modifier to include
          system objects. If + is appended to the command name, each
          collation is listed with its associated description, if any. Note
          that only collations usable with the current database's encoding
          are shown, so the results may vary in different databases of the
          same installation.

      \dp [ pattern ]
          Lists tables, views and sequences with their associated access
          privileges. If pattern is specified, only tables, views and
          sequences whose names match the pattern are listed.

          The GRANT(7) and REVOKE(7) commands are used to set access
          privileges. The meaning of the privilege display is explained
          under GRANT(7).

      \drds [ role-pattern [ database-pattern ] ]
          Lists defined configuration settings. These settings can be
          role-specific, database-specific, or both.  role-pattern and
          database-pattern are used to select specific roles and databases
          to list, respectively. If omitted, or if * is specified, all
          settings are listed, including those not role-specific or
          database-specific, respectively.

          The ALTER ROLE (ALTER_ROLE(7)) and ALTER DATABASE
          (ALTER_DATABASE(7)) commands are used to define per-role and
          per-database configuration settings.

      \dT[S+] [ pattern ]
          Lists data types. If pattern is specified, only types whose names
          match the pattern are listed. If + is appended to the command
          name, each type is listed with its internal name and size, its
          allowed values if it is an enum type, and its associated
          permissions. By default, only user-created objects are shown;
          supply a pattern or the S modifier to include system objects.

      \du[S+] [ pattern ]
          Lists database roles. (Since the concepts of users and groups have
          been unified into roles, this command is now equivalent to \dg.)
          By default, only user-created roles are shown; supply the S
          modifier to include system roles. If pattern is specified, only
          those roles whose names match the pattern are listed. If the form
          \du+ is used, additional information is shown about each role;
          currently this adds the comment for each role.

      \dx[+] [ pattern ]



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                                    2017



          Lists installed extensions. If pattern is specified, only those
          extensions whose names match the pattern are listed. If the form
          \dx+ is used, all the objects belonging to each matching extension
          are listed.

      \dy[+] [ pattern ]
          Lists event triggers. If pattern is specified, only those event
          triggers whose names match the pattern are listed. If + is
          appended to the command name, each object is listed with its
          associated description.

      \e or \edit [ filename ] [ line_number ]
          If filename is specified, the file is edited; after the editor
          exits, its content is copied back to the query buffer. If no
          filename is given, the current query buffer is copied to a
          temporary file which is then edited in the same fashion.

          The new query buffer is then re-parsed according to the normal
          rules of psql, where the whole buffer is treated as a single line.
          (Thus you cannot make scripts this way. Use \i for that.) This
          means that if the query ends with (or contains) a semicolon, it is
          immediately executed. Otherwise it will merely wait in the query
          buffer; type semicolon or \g to send it, or \r to cancel.

          If a line number is specified, psql will position the cursor on
          the specified line of the file or query buffer. Note that if a
          single all-digits argument is given, psql assumes it is a line
          number, not a file name.

              Tip
              See under ENVIRONMENT for how to configure and customize your
              editor.

      \echo text [ ... ]
          Prints the arguments to the standard output, separated by one
          space and followed by a newline. This can be useful to intersperse
          information in the output of scripts. For example:

              => \echo `date`
              Tue Oct 26 21:40:57 CEST 1999

          If the first argument is an unquoted -n the trailing newline is
          not written.

              Tip
              If you use the \o command to redirect your query output you
              might wish to use \qecho instead of this command.





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      \ef [ function_description [ line_number ] ]
          This command fetches and edits the definition of the named
          function, in the form of a CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION command.
          Editing is done in the same way as for \edit. After the editor
          exits, the updated command waits in the query buffer; type
          semicolon or \g to send it, or \r to cancel.

          The target function can be specified by name alone, or by name and
          arguments, for example foo(integer, text). The argument types must
          be given if there is more than one function of the same name.

          If no function is specified, a blank CREATE FUNCTION template is
          presented for editing.

          If a line number is specified, psql will position the cursor on
          the specified line of the function body. (Note that the function
          body typically does not begin on the first line of the file.)

              Tip
              See under ENVIRONMENT for how to configure and customize your
              editor.

      \encoding [ encoding ]
          Sets the client character set encoding. Without an argument, this
          command shows the current encoding.

      \errverbose
          Repeats the most recent server error message at maximum verbosity,
          as though VERBOSITY were set to verbose and SHOW_CONTEXT were set
          to always.

      \ev [ view_name [ line_number ] ]
          This command fetches and edits the definition of the named view,
          in the form of a CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW command. Editing is done
          in the same way as for \edit. After the editor exits, the updated
          command waits in the query buffer; type semicolon or \g to send
          it, or \r to cancel.

          If no view is specified, a blank CREATE VIEW template is presented
          for editing.

          If a line number is specified, psql will position the cursor on
          the specified line of the view definition.

      \f [ string ]
          Sets the field separator for unaligned query output. The default
          is the vertical bar (|). See also \pset for a generic way of
          setting output options.




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      \g [ filename ]
      \g [ |command ]
          Sends the current query input buffer to the server, and optionally
          stores the query's output in filename or pipes the output to the
          shell command command. The file or command is written to only if
          the query successfully returns zero or more tuples, not if the
          query fails or is a non-data-returning SQL command.

          A bare \g is essentially equivalent to a semicolon. A \g with
          argument is a one-shot alternative to the \o command.

      \gexec
          Sends the current query input buffer to the server, then treats
          each column of each row of the query's output (if any) as a SQL
          statement to be executed. For example, to create an index on each
          column of my_table:

              => SELECT format('create index on my_table(%I)', attname)
              -> FROM pg_attribute
              -> WHERE attrelid = 'my_table'::regclass AND attnum > 0
              -> ORDER BY attnum
              -> \gexec
              CREATE INDEX
              CREATE INDEX
              CREATE INDEX
              CREATE INDEX

          The generated queries are executed in the order in which the rows
          are returned, and left-to-right within each row if there is more
          than one column. NULL fields are ignored. The generated queries
          are sent literally to the server for processing, so they cannot be
          psql meta-commands nor contain psql variable references. If any
          individual query fails, execution of the remaining queries
          continues unless ON_ERROR_STOP is set. Execution of each query is
          subject to ECHO processing. (Setting ECHO to all or queries is
          often advisable when using \gexec.) Query logging, single-step
          mode, timing, and other query execution features apply to each
          generated query as well.

      \gset [ prefix ]
          Sends the current query input buffer to the server and stores the
          query's output into psql variables (see Variables). The query to
          be executed must return exactly one row. Each column of the row is
          stored into a separate variable, named the same as the column. For
          example:

              => SELECT 'hello' AS var1, 10 AS var2
              -> \gset
              => \echo :var1 :var2



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              hello 10

          If you specify a prefix, that string is prepended to the query's
          column names to create the variable names to use:

              => SELECT 'hello' AS var1, 10 AS var2
              -> \gset result_
              => \echo :result_var1 :result_var2
              hello 10

          If a column result is NULL, the corresponding variable is unset
          rather than being set.

          If the query fails or does not return one row, no variables are
          changed.

      \h or \help [ command ]
          Gives syntax help on the specified SQL command. If command is not
          specified, then psql will list all the commands for which syntax
          help is available. If command is an asterisk (*), then syntax help
          on all SQL commands is shown.

              Note
              To simplify typing, commands that consists of several words do
              not have to be quoted. Thus it is fine to type \help alter
              table.

      \H or \html
          Turns on HTML query output format. If the HTML format is already
          on, it is switched back to the default aligned text format. This
          command is for compatibility and convenience, but see \pset about
          setting other output options.

      \i or \include filename
          Reads input from the file filename and executes it as though it
          had been typed on the keyboard.

          If filename is - (hyphen), then standard input is read until an
          EOF indication or \q meta-command. This can be used to intersperse
          interactive input with input from files. Note that Readline
          behavior will be used only if it is active at the outermost level.

              Note
              If you want to see the lines on the screen as they are read
              you must set the variable ECHO to all.


      \ir or \include_relative filename
          The \ir command is similar to \i, but resolves relative file names



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          differently. When executing in interactive mode, the two commands
          behave identically. However, when invoked from a script, \ir
          interprets file names relative to the directory in which the
          script is located, rather than the current working directory.

      \l[+] or \list[+] [ pattern ]
          List the databases in the server and show their names, owners,
          character set encodings, and access privileges. If pattern is
          specified, only databases whose names match the pattern are
          listed. If + is appended to the command name, database sizes,
          default tablespaces, and descriptions are also displayed. (Size
          information is only available for databases that the current user
          can connect to.)

      \lo_export loid filename
          Reads the large object with OIDloid from the database and writes
          it to filename. Note that this is subtly different from the server
          function lo_export, which acts with the permissions of the user
          that the database server runs as and on the server's file system.

              Tip
              Use \lo_list to find out the large object's OID.

      \lo_import filename [ comment ]
          Stores the file into a PostgreSQL large object. Optionally, it
          associates the given comment with the object. Example:

              foo=> \lo_import '/home/peter/pictures/photo.xcf' 'a picture of me'
              lo_import 152801

          The response indicates that the large object received object ID
          152801, which can be used to access the newly-created large object
          in the future. For the sake of readability, it is recommended to
          always associate a human-readable comment with every object. Both
          OIDs and comments can be viewed with the \lo_list command.

          Note that this command is subtly different from the server-side
          lo_import because it acts as the local user on the local file
          system, rather than the server's user and file system.

      \lo_list
          Shows a list of all PostgreSQL large objects currently stored in
          the database, along with any comments provided for them.

      \lo_unlink loid
          Deletes the large object with OIDloid from the database.

              Tip
              Use \lo_list to find out the large object's OID.



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      \o or \out [ filename ]
      \o or \out [ |command ]
          Arranges to save future query results to the file filename or pipe
          future results to the shell command command. If no argument is
          specified, the query output is reset to the standard output.

          Query results includes all tables, command responses, and notices
          obtained from the database server, as well as output of various
          backslash commands that query the database (such as \d), but not
          error messages.

              Tip
              To intersperse text output in between query results, use
              \qecho.

      \p or \print
          Print the current query buffer to the standard output.

      \password [ username ]
          Changes the password of the specified user (by default, the
          current user). This command prompts for the new password, encrypts
          it, and sends it to the server as an ALTER ROLE command. This
          makes sure that the new password does not appear in cleartext in
          the command history, the server log, or elsewhere.

      \prompt [ text ] name
          Prompts the user to supply text, which is assigned to the variable
          name. An optional prompt string, text, can be specified. (For
          multiword prompts, surround the text with single quotes.)

          By default, \prompt uses the terminal for input and output.
          However, if the -f command line switch was used, \prompt uses
          standard input and standard output.

      \pset [ option [ value ] ]
          This command sets options affecting the output of query result
          tables.  option indicates which option is to be set. The semantics
          of value vary depending on the selected option. For some options,
          omitting value causes the option to be toggled or unset, as
          described under the particular option. If no such behavior is
          mentioned, then omitting value just results in the current setting
          being displayed.

          \pset without any arguments displays the current status of all
          printing options.

          Adjustable printing options are:





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          border
              The value must be a number. In general, the higher the number
              the more borders and lines the tables will have, but details
              depend on the particular format. In HTML format, this will
              translate directly into the border=...  attribute. In most
              other formats only values 0 (no border), 1 (internal dividing
              lines), and 2 (table frame) make sense, and values above 2
              will be treated the same as border = 2. The latex and
              latex-longtable formats additionally allow a value of 3 to add
              dividing lines between data rows.

          columns
              Sets the target width for the wrapped format, and also the
              width limit for determining whether output is wide enough to
              require the pager or switch to the vertical display in
              expanded auto mode. Zero (the default) causes the target width
              to be controlled by the environment variable COLUMNS, or the
              detected screen width if COLUMNS is not set. In addition, if
              columns is zero then the wrapped format only affects screen
              output. If columns is nonzero then file and pipe output is
              wrapped to that width as well.

          expanded (or x)
              If value is specified it must be either on or off, which will
              enable or disable expanded mode, or auto. If value is omitted
              the command toggles between the on and off settings. When
              expanded mode is enabled, query results are displayed in two
              columns, with the column name on the left and the data on the
              right. This mode is useful if the data wouldn't fit on the
              screen in the normal horizontal mode. In the auto setting, the
              expanded mode is used whenever the query output has more than
              one column and is wider than the screen; otherwise, the
              regular mode is used. The auto setting is only effective in
              the aligned and wrapped formats. In other formats, it always
              behaves as if the expanded mode is off.

          fieldsep
              Specifies the field separator to be used in unaligned output
              format. That way one can create, for example, tab- or
              comma-separated output, which other programs might prefer. To
              set a tab as field separator, type \pset fieldsep '\t'. The
              default field separator is (a vertical bar).

          fieldsep_zero
              Sets the field separator to use in unaligned output format to
              a zero byte.

          footer
              If value is specified it must be either on or off which will



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              enable or disable display of the table footer (the (n rows)
              count). If value is omitted the command toggles footer display
              on or off.

          format
              Sets the output format to one of unaligned, aligned, wrapped,
              html, asciidoc, latex (uses tabular), latex-longtable, or
              troff-ms. Unique abbreviations are allowed. (That would mean
              one letter is enough.)

              unaligned format writes all columns of a row on one line,
              separated by the currently active field separator. This is
              useful for creating output that might be intended to be read
              in by other programs (for example, tab-separated or
              comma-separated format).

              aligned format is the standard, human-readable, nicely
              formatted text output; this is the default.

              wrapped format is like aligned but wraps wide data values
              across lines to make the output fit in the target column
              width. The target width is determined as described under the
              columns option. Note that psql will not attempt to wrap column
              header titles; therefore, wrapped format behaves the same as
              aligned if the total width needed for column headers exceeds
              the target.

              The html, asciidoc, latex, latex-longtable, and troff-ms
              formats put out tables that are intended to be included in
              documents using the respective mark-up language. They are not
              complete documents! This might not be necessary in HTML, but
              in LaTeX you must have a complete document wrapper.
              latex-longtable also requires the LaTeXlongtable and booktabs
              packages.

          linestyle
              Sets the border line drawing style to one of ascii, old-ascii,
              or unicode. Unique abbreviations are allowed. (That would mean
              one letter is enough.) The default setting is ascii. This
              option only affects the aligned and wrapped output formats.

              ascii style uses plain ASCII characters. Newlines in data are
              shown using a + symbol in the right-hand margin. When the
              wrapped format wraps data from one line to the next without a
              newline character, a dot (.) is shown in the right-hand margin
              of the first line, and again in the left-hand margin of the
              following line.

              old-ascii style uses plain ASCII characters, using the



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              formatting style used in PostgreSQL 8.4 and earlier. Newlines
              in data are shown using a : symbol in place of the left-hand
              column separator. When the data is wrapped from one line to
              the next without a newline character, a ; symbol is used in
              place of the left-hand column separator.

              unicode style uses Unicode box-drawing characters. Newlines in
              data are shown using a carriage return symbol in the
              right-hand margin. When the data is wrapped from one line to
              the next without a newline character, an ellipsis symbol is
              shown in the right-hand margin of the first line, and again in
              the left-hand margin of the following line.

              When the border setting is greater than zero, the linestyle
              option also determines the characters with which the border
              lines are drawn. Plain ASCII characters work everywhere, but
              Unicode characters look nicer on displays that recognize them.

          null
              Sets the string to be printed in place of a null value. The
              default is to print nothing, which can easily be mistaken for
              an empty string. For example, one might prefer \pset null
              '(null)'.

          numericlocale
              If value is specified it must be either on or off which will
              enable or disable display of a locale-specific character to
              separate groups of digits to the left of the decimal marker.
              If value is omitted the command toggles between regular and
              locale-specific numeric output.

          pager
              Controls use of a pager program for query and psql help
              output. If the environment variable PAGER is set, the output
              is piped to the specified program. Otherwise a
              platform-dependent default (such as more) is used.

              When the pager option is off, the pager program is not used.
              When the pager option is on, the pager is used when
              appropriate, i.e., when the output is to a terminal and will
              not fit on the screen. The pager option can also be set to
              always, which causes the pager to be used for all terminal
              output regardless of whether it fits on the screen.  \pset
              pager without a value toggles pager use on and off.

          pager_min_lines
              If pager_min_lines is set to a number greater than the page
              height, the pager program will not be called unless there are
              at least this many lines of output to show. The default



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              setting is 0.

          recordsep
              Specifies the record (line) separator to use in unaligned
              output format. The default is a newline character.

          recordsep_zero
              Sets the record separator to use in unaligned output format to
              a zero byte.

          tableattr (or T)
              In HTML format, this specifies attributes to be placed inside
              the table tag. This could for example be cellpadding or
              bgcolor. Note that you probably don't want to specify border
              here, as that is already taken care of by \pset border. If no
              value is given, the table attributes are unset.

              In latex-longtable format, this controls the proportional
              width of each column containing a left-aligned data type. It
              is specified as a whitespace-separated list of values, e.g.

          title (or C)
              Sets the table title for any subsequently printed tables. This
              can be used to give your output descriptive tags. If no value
              is given, the title is unset.

          tuples_only (or t)
              If value is specified it must be either on or off which will
              enable or disable tuples-only mode. If value is omitted the
              command toggles between regular and tuples-only output.
              Regular output includes extra information such as column
              headers, titles, and various footers. In tuples-only mode,
              only actual table data is shown.

          unicode_border_linestyle
              Sets the border drawing style for the unicode line style to
              one of single or double.

          unicode_column_linestyle
              Sets the column drawing style for the unicode line style to
              one of single or double.

          unicode_header_linestyle
              Sets the header drawing style for the unicode line style to
              one of single or double.

          Illustrations of how these different formats look can be seen in
          the EXAMPLES section.




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              Tip
              There are various shortcut commands for \pset. See \a, \C, \H,
              \t, \T, and \x.

      \q or \quit
          Quits the psql program. In a script file, only execution of that
          script is terminated.

      \qecho text [ ... ]
          This command is identical to \echo except that the output will be
          written to the query output channel, as set by \o.

      \r or \reset
          Resets (clears) the query buffer.

      \s [ filename ]
          Print psql's command line history to filename. If filename is
          omitted, the history is written to the standard output (using the
          pager if appropriate). This command is not available if psql was
          built without Readline support.

      \set [ name [ value [ ... ] ] ]
          Sets the psql variable name to value, or if more than one value is
          given, to the concatenation of all of them. If only one argument
          is given, the variable is set with an empty value. To unset a
          variable, use the \unset command.

          \set without any arguments displays the names and values of all
          currently-set psql variables.

          Valid variable names can contain letters, digits, and underscores.
          See the section Variables below for details. Variable names are
          case-sensitive.

          Although you are welcome to set any variable to anything you want,
          psql treats several variables as special. They are documented in
          the section about variables.

              Note
              This command is unrelated to the SQL command SET(7).


      \setenv name [ value ]
          Sets the environment variable name to value, or if the value is
          not supplied, unsets the environment variable. Example:

              testdb=> \setenv PAGER less
              testdb=> \setenv LESS -imx4F




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      \sf[+] function_description
          This command fetches and shows the definition of the named
          function, in the form of a CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION command. The
          definition is printed to the current query output channel, as set
          by \o.

          The target function can be specified by name alone, or by name and
          arguments, for example foo(integer, text). The argument types must
          be given if there is more than one function of the same name.

          If + is appended to the command name, then the output lines are
          numbered, with the first line of the function body being line 1.

      \sv[+] view_name
          This command fetches and shows the definition of the named view,
          in the form of a CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW command. The definition is
          printed to the current query output channel, as set by \o.

          If + is appended to the command name, then the output lines are
          numbered from 1.

      \t
          Toggles the display of output column name headings and row count
          footer. This command is equivalent to \pset tuples_only and is
          provided for convenience.

      \T table_options
          Specifies attributes to be placed within the table tag in HTML
          output format. This command is equivalent to \pset tableattr
          table_options.

      \timing [ on | off ]
          Without parameter, toggles a display of how long each SQL
          statement takes, in milliseconds. With parameter, sets same.

      \unset name
          Unsets (deletes) the psql variable name.

      \w or \write filename
      \w or \write |command
          Outputs the current query buffer to the file filename or pipes it
          to the shell command command.

      \watch [ seconds ]
          Repeatedly execute the current query buffer (as \g does) until
          interrupted or the query fails. Wait the specified number of
          seconds (default 2) between executions. Each query result is
          displayed with a header that includes the \pset title string (if
          any), the time as of query start, and the delay interval.



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      \x [ on | off | auto ]
          Sets or toggles expanded table formatting mode. As such it is
          equivalent to \pset expanded.

      \z [ pattern ]
          Lists tables, views and sequences with their associated access
          privileges. If a pattern is specified, only tables, views and
          sequences whose names match the pattern are listed.

          This is an alias for \dp (display privileges).

      \! [ command ]
          Escapes to a separate shell or executes the shell command command.
          The arguments are not further interpreted; the shell will see them
          as-is. In particular, the variable substitution rules and
          backslash escapes do not apply.

      \? [ topic ]
          Shows help information. The optional topic parameter (defaulting
          to commands) selects which part of psql is explained: commands
          describes psql's backslash commands; options describes the
          command-line options that can be passed to psql; and variables
          shows help about psql configuration variables.

      Patterns

          The various \d commands accept a pattern parameter to specify the
          object name(s) to be displayed. In the simplest case, a pattern is
          just the exact name of the object. The characters within a pattern
          are normally folded to lower case, just as in SQL names; for
          example, \dt FOO will display the table named foo. As in SQL
          names, placing double quotes around a pattern stops folding to
          lower case. Should you need to include an actual double quote
          character in a pattern, write it as a pair of double quotes within
          a double-quote sequence; again this is in accord with the rules
          for SQL quoted identifiers. For example, \dt "FOO""BAR" will
          display the table named FOO"BAR (not foo"bar). Unlike the normal
          rules for SQL names, you can put double quotes around just part of
          a pattern, for instance \dt FOO"FOO"BAR will display the table
          named fooFOObar.

          Whenever the pattern parameter is omitted completely, the \d
          commands display all objects that are visible in the current
          schema search path - this is equivalent to using * as the pattern.
          (An object is said to be visible if its containing schema is in
          the search path and no object of the same kind and name appears
          earlier in the search path. This is equivalent to the statement
          that the object can be referenced by name without explicit schema
          qualification.) To see all objects in the database regardless of



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          visibility, use *.* as the pattern.

          Within a pattern, * matches any sequence of characters (including
          no characters) and ?  matches any single character. (This notation
          is comparable to Unix shell file name patterns.) For example, \dt
          int* displays tables whose names begin with int. But within double
          quotes, * and ?  lose these special meanings and are just matched
          literally.

          A pattern that contains a dot (.) is interpreted as a schema name
          pattern followed by an object name pattern. For example, \dt
          foo*.*bar* displays all tables whose table name includes bar that
          are in schemas whose schema name starts with foo. When no dot
          appears, then the pattern matches only objects that are visible in
          the current schema search path. Again, a dot within double quotes
          loses its special meaning and is matched literally.

          Advanced users can use regular-expression notations such as
          character classes, for example [0-9] to match any digit. All
          regular expression special characters work as specified in Section
          9.7.3, POSIX Regular Expressions, in the documentation, except for
          .  which is taken as a separator as mentioned above, * which is
          translated to the regular-expression notation .*, ?  which is
          translated to ., and $ which is matched literally. You can emulate
          these pattern characters at need by writing ?  for ., (R+|) for
          R*, or (R|) for R?.  $ is not needed as a regular-expression
          character since the pattern must match the whole name, unlike the
          usual interpretation of regular expressions (in other words, $ is
          automatically appended to your pattern). Write * at the beginning
          and/or end if you don't wish the pattern to be anchored. Note that
          within double quotes, all regular expression special characters
          lose their special meanings and are matched literally. Also, the
          regular expression special characters are matched literally in
          operator name patterns (i.e., the argument of \do).

    Advanced Features
      Variables

          psql provides variable substitution features similar to common
          Unix command shells. Variables are simply name/value pairs, where
          the value can be any string of any length. The name must consist
          of letters (including non-Latin letters), digits, and underscores.

          To set a variable, use the psql meta-command \set. For example,

              testdb=> \set foo bar

          sets the variable foo to the value bar. To retrieve the content of
          the variable, precede the name with a colon, for example:



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              testdb=> \echo :foo
              bar

          This works in both regular SQL commands and meta-commands; there
          is more detail in SQL Interpolation, below.

          If you call \set without a second argument, the variable is set,
          with an empty string as value. To unset (i.e., delete) a variable,
          use the command \unset. To show the values of all variables, call
          \set without any argument.

              Note

              The arguments of \set are subject to the same substitution
              rules as with other commands. Thus you can construct
              interesting references such as \set :foo 'something' and get
              soft links or variable variables of Perl or PHP fame,
              respectively. Unfortunately (or fortunately?), there is no way
              to do anything useful with these constructs. On the other
              hand, \set bar :foo is a perfectly valid way to copy a
              variable.

          A number of these variables are treated specially by psql. They
          represent certain option settings that can be changed at run time
          by altering the value of the variable, or in some cases represent
          changeable state of psql. Although you can use these variables for
          other purposes, this is not recommended, as the program behavior
          might grow really strange really quickly. By convention, all
          specially treated variables' names consist of all upper-case ASCII
          letters (and possibly digits and underscores). To ensure maximum
          compatibility in the future, avoid using such variable names for
          your own purposes. A list of all specially treated variables
          follows.

          AUTOCOMMIT
              When on (the default), each SQL command is automatically
              committed upon successful completion. To postpone commit in
              this mode, you must enter a BEGIN or START TRANSACTION SQL
              command. When off or unset, SQL commands are not committed
              until you explicitly issue COMMIT or END. The autocommit-off
              mode works by issuing an implicit BEGIN for you, just before
              any command that is not already in a transaction block and is
              not itself a BEGIN or other transaction-control command, nor a
              command that cannot be executed inside a transaction block
              (such as VACUUM).

                  Note
                  In autocommit-off mode, you must explicitly abandon any
                  failed transaction by entering ABORT or ROLLBACK. Also



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                  keep in mind that if you exit the session without
                  committing, your work will be lost.

                  Note
                  The autocommit-on mode is PostgreSQL's traditional
                  behavior, but autocommit-off is closer to the SQL spec. If
                  you prefer autocommit-off, you might wish to set it in the
                  system-wide psqlrc file or your ~/.psqlrc file.


          COMP_KEYWORD_CASE
              Determines which letter case to use when completing an SQL key
              word. If set to lower or upper, the completed word will be in
              lower or upper case, respectively. If set to preserve-lower or
              preserve-upper (the default), the completed word will be in
              the case of the word already entered, but words being
              completed without anything entered will be in lower or upper
              case, respectively.

          DBNAME
              The name of the database you are currently connected to. This
              is set every time you connect to a database (including program
              start-up), but can be unset.

          ECHO
              If set to all, all nonempty input lines are printed to
              standard output as they are read. (This does not apply to
              lines read interactively.) To select this behavior on program
              start-up, use the switch -a. If set to queries, psql prints
              each query to standard output as it is sent to the server. The
              switch for this is -e. If set to errors, then only failed
              queries are displayed on standard error output. The switch for
              this is -b. If unset, or if set to none (or any other value
              than those above) then no queries are displayed.

          ECHO_HIDDEN
              When this variable is set to on and a backslash command
              queries the database, the query is first shown. This feature
              helps you to study PostgreSQL internals and provide similar
              functionality in your own programs. (To select this behavior
              on program start-up, use the switch -E.) If you set the
              variable to the value noexec, the queries are just shown but
              are not actually sent to the server and executed.

          ENCODING
              The current client character set encoding.

          FETCH_COUNT
              If this variable is set to an integer value > 0, the results



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              of SELECT queries are fetched and displayed in groups of that
              many rows, rather than the default behavior of collecting the
              entire result set before display. Therefore only a limited
              amount of memory is used, regardless of the size of the result
              set. Settings of 100 to 1000 are commonly used when enabling
              this feature. Keep in mind that when using this feature, a
              query might fail after having already displayed some rows.

                  Tip
                  Although you can use any output format with this feature,
                  the default aligned format tends to look bad because each
                  group of FETCH_COUNT rows will be formatted separately,
                  leading to varying column widths across the row groups.
                  The other output formats work better.

          HISTCONTROL
              If this variable is set to ignorespace, lines which begin with
              a space are not entered into the history list. If set to a
              value of ignoredups, lines matching the previous history line
              are not entered. A value of ignoreboth combines the two
              options. If unset, or if set to none (or any other value than
              those above), all lines read in interactive mode are saved on
              the history list.

                  Note
                  This feature was shamelessly plagiarized from Bash.


          HISTFILE
              The file name that will be used to store the history list. The
              default value is ~/.psql_history. For example, putting:

                  \set HISTFILE ~/.psql_history- :DBNAME

              in ~/.psqlrc will cause psql to maintain a separate history
              for each database.

                  Note
                  This feature was shamelessly plagiarized from Bash.

          HISTSIZE
              The number of commands to store in the command history. The
              default value is 500.

                  Note
                  This feature was shamelessly plagiarized from Bash.


          HOST



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              The database server host you are currently connected to. This
              is set every time you connect to a database (including program
              start-up), but can be unset.

          IGNOREEOF
              If unset, sending an EOF character (usually Control+D) to an
              interactive session of psql will terminate the application. If
              set to a numeric value, that many EOF characters are ignored
              before the application terminates. If the variable is set but
              has no numeric value, the default is 10.

                  Note
                  This feature was shamelessly plagiarized from Bash.

          LASTOID
              The value of the last affected OID, as returned from an INSERT
              or \lo_import command. This variable is only guaranteed to be
              valid until after the result of the next SQL command has been
              displayed.

          ON_ERROR_ROLLBACK
              When set to on, if a statement in a transaction block
              generates an error, the error is ignored and the transaction
              continues. When set to interactive, such errors are only
              ignored in interactive sessions, and not when reading script
              files. When unset or set to off, a statement in a transaction
              block that generates an error aborts the entire transaction.
              The error rollback mode works by issuing an implicit SAVEPOINT
              for you, just before each command that is in a transaction
              block, and then rolling back to the savepoint if the command
              fails.

          ON_ERROR_STOP
              By default, command processing continues after an error. When
              this variable is set to on, processing will instead stop
              immediately. In interactive mode, psql will return to the
              command prompt; otherwise, psql will exit, returning error
              code 3 to distinguish this case from fatal error conditions,
              which are reported using error code 1. In either case, any
              currently running scripts (the top-level script, if any, and
              any other scripts which it may have in invoked) will be
              terminated immediately. If the top-level command string
              contained multiple SQL commands, processing will stop with the
              current command.

          PORT
              The database server port to which you are currently connected.
              This is set every time you connect to a database (including
              program start-up), but can be unset.



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          PROMPT1
          PROMPT2
          PROMPT3
              These specify what the prompts psql issues should look like.
              See Prompting below.

          QUIET
              Setting this variable to on is equivalent to the command line
              option -q. It is probably not too useful in interactive mode.

          SHOW_CONTEXT
              This variable can be set to the values never, errors, or
              always to control whether CONTEXT fields are displayed in
              messages from the server. The default is errors (meaning that
              context will be shown in error messages, but not in notice or
              warning messages). This setting has no effect when VERBOSITY
              is set to terse. (See also \errverbose, for use when you want
              a verbose version of the error you just got.)

          SINGLELINE
              Setting this variable to on is equivalent to the command line
              option -S.

          SINGLESTEP
              Setting this variable to on is equivalent to the command line
              option -s.

          USER
              The database user you are currently connected as. This is set
              every time you connect to a database (including program
              start-up), but can be unset.

          VERBOSITY
              This variable can be set to the values default, verbose, or
              terse to control the verbosity of error reports. (See also
              \errverbose, for use when you want a verbose version of the
              error you just got.)

      SQL Interpolation

          A key feature of psql variables is that you can substitute
          (interpolate) them into regular SQL statements, as well as the
          arguments of meta-commands. Furthermore, psql provides facilities
          for ensuring that variable values used as SQL literals and
          identifiers are properly quoted. The syntax for interpolating a
          value without any quoting is to prepend the variable name with a
          colon (:). For example,

              testdb=> \set foo 'my_table'



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              testdb=> SELECT * FROM :foo;

          would query the table my_table. Note that this may be unsafe: the
          value of the variable is copied literally, so it can contain
          unbalanced quotes, or even backslash commands. You must make sure
          that it makes sense where you put it.

          When a value is to be used as an SQL literal or identifier, it is
          safest to arrange for it to be quoted. To quote the value of a
          variable as an SQL literal, write a colon followed by the variable
          name in single quotes. To quote the value as an SQL identifier,
          write a colon followed by the variable name in double quotes.
          These constructs deal correctly with quotes and other special
          characters embedded within the variable value. The previous
          example would be more safely written this way:

              testdb=> \set foo 'my_table'
              testdb=> SELECT * FROM :"foo";

          Variable interpolation will not be performed within quoted SQL
          literals and identifiers. Therefore, a construction such as
          doesn't work to produce a quoted literal from a variable's value
          (and it would be unsafe if it did work, since it wouldn't
          correctly handle quotes embedded in the value).

          One example use of this mechanism is to copy the contents of a
          file into a table column. First load the file into a variable and
          then interpolate the variable's value as a quoted string:

              testdb=> \set content `cat my_file.txt`
              testdb=> INSERT INTO my_table VALUES (:'content');

          (Note that this still won't work if my_file.txt contains NUL
          bytes.  psql does not support embedded NUL bytes in variable
          values.)

          Since colons can legally appear in SQL commands, an apparent
          attempt at interpolation (that is, :name, :'name', or :"name") is
          not replaced unless the named variable is currently set. In any
          case, you can escape a colon with a backslash to protect it from
          substitution.

          The colon syntax for variables is standard SQL for embedded query
          languages, such as ECPG. The colon syntaxes for array slices and
          type casts are PostgreSQL extensions, which can sometimes conflict
          with the standard usage. The colon-quote syntax for escaping a
          variable's value as an SQL literal or identifier is a psql
          extension.




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      Prompting

          The prompts psql issues can be customized to your preference. The
          three variables PROMPT1, PROMPT2, and PROMPT3 contain strings and
          special escape sequences that describe the appearance of the
          prompt. Prompt 1 is the normal prompt that is issued when psql
          requests a new command. Prompt 2 is issued when more input is
          expected during command entry, for example because the command was
          not terminated with a semicolon or a quote was not closed. Prompt
          3 is issued when you are running an SQLCOPY FROM STDIN command and
          you need to type in a row value on the terminal.

          The value of the selected prompt variable is printed literally,
          except where a percent sign (%) is encountered. Depending on the
          next character, certain other text is substituted instead. Defined
          substitutions are:

          %M
              The full host name (with domain name) of the database server,
              or [local] if the connection is over a Unix domain socket, or
              [local:/dir/name], if the Unix domain socket is not at the
              compiled in default location.

          %m
              The host name of the database server, truncated at the first
              dot, or [local] if the connection is over a Unix domain
              socket.

          %>
              The port number at which the database server is listening.

          %n
              The database session user name. (The expansion of this value
              might change during a database session as the result of the
              command SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION.)

          %/
              The name of the current database.

          %~
              Like %/, but the output is ~ (tilde) if the database is your
              default database.

          %#
              If the session user is a database superuser, then a #,
              otherwise a >. (The expansion of this value might change
              during a database session as the result of the command SET
              SESSION AUTHORIZATION.)




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          %p
              The process ID of the backend currently connected to.

          %R
              In prompt 1 normally =, but ^ if in single-line mode, or !  if
              the session is disconnected from the database (which can
              happen if \connect fails). In prompt 2 %R is replaced by a
              character that depends on why psql expects more input: - if
              the command simply wasn't terminated yet, but * if there is an
              unfinished /* ... */ comment, a single quote if there is an
              unfinished quoted string, a double quote if there is an
              unfinished quoted identifier, a dollar sign if there is an
              unfinished dollar-quoted string, or ( if there is an unmatched
              left parenthesis. In prompt 3 %R doesn't produce anything.

          %x
              Transaction status: an empty string when not in a transaction
              block, or * when in a transaction block, or !  when in a
              failed transaction block, or ?  when the transaction state is
              indeterminate (for example, because there is no connection).

          %l
              The line number inside the current statement, starting from 1.

          %digits
              The character with the indicated octal code is substituted.

          %:name:
              The value of the psql variable name. See the section Variables
              for details.

          %`command`
              The output of command, similar to ordinary back-tick
              substitution.

          %[ ... %]
              Prompts can contain terminal control characters which, for
              example, change the color, background, or style of the prompt
              text, or change the title of the terminal window. In order for
              the line editing features of Readline to work properly, these
              non-printing control characters must be designated as
              invisible by surrounding them with %[ and %]. Multiple pairs
              of these can occur within the prompt. For example:

                  testdb=> \set PROMPT1 '%[%033[1;33;40m%]%n@%/%R%[%033[0m%]%# '

              results in a boldfaced (1;) yellow-on-black (33;40) prompt on
              VT100-compatible, color-capable terminals.
          To insert a percent sign into your prompt, write %%. The default



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          prompts are for prompts 1 and 2, and for prompt 3.

              Note

              This feature was shamelessly plagiarized from tcsh.

      Command-Line Editing

          psql supports the Readline library for convenient line editing and
          retrieval. The command history is automatically saved when psql
          exits and is reloaded when psql starts up. Tab-completion is also
          supported, although the completion logic makes no claim to be an
          SQL parser. The queries generated by tab-completion can also
          interfere with other SQL commands, e.g.  SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION
          LEVEL. If for some reason you do not like the tab completion, you
          can turn it off by putting this in a file named .inputrc in your
          home directory:

              $if psql
              set disable-completion on
              $endif

          (This is not a psql but a Readline feature. Read its documentation
          for further details.)

 ENVIRONMENT
      COLUMNS
          If \pset columns is zero, controls the width for the wrapped
          format and width for determining if wide output requires the pager
          or should be switched to the vertical format in expanded auto
          mode.

      PAGER
          If the query results do not fit on the screen, they are piped
          through this command. Typical values are more or less. The default
          is platform-dependent. Use of the pager can be disabled by setting
          PAGER to empty, or by using pager-related options of the \pset
          command.

      PGDATABASE
      PGHOST
      PGPORT
      PGUSER
          Default connection parameters (see Section 32.14, Environment
          Variables, in the documentation).

      PSQL_EDITOR
      EDITOR
      VISUAL



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          Editor used by the \e, \ef, and \ev commands. These variables are
          examined in the order listed; the first that is set is used.

          The built-in default editors are vi on Unix systems and
          notepad.exe on Windows systems.

      PSQL_EDITOR_LINENUMBER_ARG
          When \e, \ef, or \ev is used with a line number argument, this
          variable specifies the command-line argument used to pass the
          starting line number to the user's editor. For editors such as
          Emacs or vi, this is a plus sign. Include a trailing space in the
          value of the variable if there needs to be space between the
          option name and the line number. Examples:

              PSQL_EDITOR_LINENUMBER_ARG='+'
              PSQL_EDITOR_LINENUMBER_ARG='--line '

          The default is + on Unix systems (corresponding to the default
          editor vi, and useful for many other common editors); but there is
          no default on Windows systems.

      PSQL_HISTORY
          Alternative location for the command history file. Tilde (~)
          expansion is performed.

      PSQLRC
          Alternative location of the user's .psqlrc file. Tilde (~)
          expansion is performed.

      SHELL
          Command executed by the \!  command.

      TMPDIR
          Directory for storing temporary files. The default is /tmp.

      This utility, like most other PostgreSQL utilities, also uses the
      environment variables supported by libpq (see Section 32.14,
      Environment Variables, in the documentation).

 FILES
      psqlrc and ~/.psqlrc
          Unless it is passed an -X option, psql attempts to read and
          execute commands from the system-wide startup file (psqlrc) and
          then the user's personal startup file (~/.psqlrc), after
          connecting to the database but before accepting normal commands.
          These files can be used to set up the client and/or the server to
          taste, typically with \set and SET commands.

          The system-wide startup file is named psqlrc and is sought in the



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          installation's system configuration directory, which is most
          reliably identified by running pg_config --sysconfdir. By default
          this directory will be ../etc/ relative to the directory
          containing the PostgreSQL executables. The name of this directory
          can be set explicitly via the PGSYSCONFDIR environment variable.

          The user's personal startup file is named .psqlrc and is sought in
          the invoking user's home directory. On Windows, which lacks such a
          concept, the personal startup file is named
          %APPDATA%\postgresql\psqlrc.conf. The location of the user's
          startup file can be set explicitly via the PSQLRC environment
          variable.

          Both the system-wide startup file and the user's personal startup
          file can be made psql-version-specific by appending a dash and the
          PostgreSQL major or minor release number to the file name, for
          example ~/.psqlrc-9.2 or ~/.psqlrc-9.2.5. The most specific
          version-matching file will be read in preference to a
          non-version-specific file.

      .psql_history
          The command-line history is stored in the file ~/.psql_history, or
          %APPDATA%\postgresql\psql_history on Windows.

          The location of the history file can be set explicitly via the
          PSQL_HISTORY environment variable.

 NOTES
      +   psql works best with servers of the same or an older major
          version. Backslash commands are particularly likely to fail if the
          server is of a newer version than psql itself. However, backslash
          commands of the \d family should work with servers of versions
          back to 7.4, though not necessarily with servers newer than psql
          itself. The general functionality of running SQL commands and
          displaying query results should also work with servers of a newer
          major version, but this cannot be guaranteed in all cases.

          If you want to use psql to connect to several servers of different
          major versions, it is recommended that you use the newest version
          of psql. Alternatively, you can keep around a copy of psql from
          each major version and be sure to use the version that matches the
          respective server. But in practice, this additional complication
          should not be necessary.

      +   Before PostgreSQL 9.6, the -c option implied -X (--no-psqlrc);
          this is no longer the case.

      +   Before PostgreSQL 8.4, psql allowed the first argument of a
          single-letter backslash command to start directly after the



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          command, without intervening whitespace. Now, some whitespace is
          required.

 NOTES FOR WINDOWS USERS
      psql is built as a console application. Since the Windows console
      windows use a different encoding than the rest of the system, you must
      take special care when using 8-bit characters within psql. If psql
      detects a problematic console code page, it will warn you at startup.
      To change the console code page, two things are necessary:

      +   Set the code page by entering cmd.exe /c chcp 1252. (1252 is a
          code page that is appropriate for German; replace it with your
          value.) If you are using Cygwin, you can put this command in
          /etc/profile.

      +   Set the console font to Lucida Console, because the raster font
          does not work with the ANSI code page.

 EXAMPLES
      The first example shows how to spread a command over several lines of
      input. Notice the changing prompt:

          testdb=> CREATE TABLE my_table (
          testdb(>  first integer not null default 0,
          testdb(>  second text)
          testdb-> ;
          CREATE TABLE

      Now look at the table definition again:

          testdb=> \d my_table
                       Table "my_table"
           Attribute |  Type   |      Modifier
          -----------+---------+--------------------
           first     | integer | not null default 0
           second    | text    |

      Now we change the prompt to something more interesting:

          testdb=> \set PROMPT1 '%n@%m %~%R%# '
          peter@localhost testdb=>

      Let's assume you have filled the table with data and want to take a
      look at it:

          peter@localhost testdb=> SELECT * FROM my_table;
           first | second
          -------+--------
               1 | one



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               2 | two
               3 | three
               4 | four
          (4 rows)

      You can display tables in different ways by using the \pset command:

          peter@localhost testdb=> \pset border 2
          Border style is 2.
          peter@localhost testdb=> SELECT * FROM my_table;
          +-------+--------+
          | first | second |
          +-------+--------+
          |     1 | one    |
          |     2 | two    |
          |     3 | three  |
          |     4 | four   |
          +-------+--------+
          (4 rows)

          peter@localhost testdb=> \pset border 0
          Border style is 0.
          peter@localhost testdb=> SELECT * FROM my_table;
          first second
          ----- ------
              1 one
              2 two
              3 three
              4 four
          (4 rows)

          peter@localhost testdb=> \pset border 1
          Border style is 1.
          peter@localhost testdb=> \pset format unaligned
          Output format is unaligned.
          peter@localhost testdb=> \pset fieldsep ","
          Field separator is ",".
          peter@localhost testdb=> \pset tuples_only
          Showing only tuples.
          peter@localhost testdb=> SELECT second, first FROM my_table;
          one,1
          two,2
          three,3
          four,4

      Alternatively, use the short commands:

          peter@localhost testdb=> \a \t \x
          Output format is aligned.



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          Tuples only is off.
          Expanded display is on.
          peter@localhost testdb=> SELECT * FROM my_table;
          -[ RECORD 1 ]-
          first  | 1
          second | one
          -[ RECORD 2 ]-
          first  | 2
          second | two
          -[ RECORD 3 ]-
          first  | 3
          second | three
          -[ RECORD 4 ]-
          first  | 4
          second | four

      When suitable, query results can be shown in a crosstab representation
      with the \crosstabview command:

          testdb=> SELECT first, second, first > 2 AS gt2 FROM my_table;
           first | second | gt2
          -------+--------+-----
               1 | one    | f
               2 | two    | f
               3 | three  | t
               4 | four   | t
          (4 rows)

          testdb=> \crosstabview first second
           first | one | two | three | four
          -------+-----+-----+-------+------
               1 | f   |     |       |
               2 |     | f   |       |
               3 |     |     | t     |
               4 |     |     |       | t
          (4 rows)

      This second example shows a multiplication table with rows sorted in
      reverse numerical order and columns with an independent, ascending
      numerical order.

          testdb=> SELECT t1.first as "A", t2.first+100 AS "B", t1.first*(t2.first+100) as "AxB",
          testdb(> row_number() over(order by t2.first) AS ord
          testdb(> FROM my_table t1 CROSS JOIN my_table t2 ORDER BY 1 DESC
          testdb(> \crosstabview "A" "B" "AxB" ord
           A | 101 | 102 | 103 | 104
          ---+-----+-----+-----+-----
           4 | 404 | 408 | 412 | 416
           3 | 303 | 306 | 309 | 312



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           2 | 202 | 204 | 206 | 208
           1 | 101 | 102 | 103 | 104
          (4 rows)

















































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