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 rsync(1)                                                           rsync(1)
                                 28 Jan 2018



 NAME
      rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

 SYNOPSIS
      Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

      Access via remote shell:
        Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
        Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

      Access via rsync daemon:
        Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
              rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
        Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
              rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST


      Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files
      instead of copying.

 DESCRIPTION
      Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool.  It
      can copy locally, to/from another host over any remote shell, or
      to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a large number of options
      that control every aspect of its behavior and permit very flexible
      specification of the set of files to be copied.  It is famous for its
      delta-transfer algorithm, which reduces the amount of data sent over
      the network by sending only the differences between the source files
      and the existing files in the destination.  Rsync is widely used for
      backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday
      use.

      Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a quick check
      algorithm (by default) that looks for files that have changed in size
      or in last-modified time.  Any changes in the other preserved
      attributes (as requested by options) are made on the destination file
      directly when the quick check indicates that the files data does not
      need to be updated.

      Some of the additional features of rsync are:

      o    support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and
           permissions

      o    exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

      o    a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would
           ignore

      o    can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh




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 rsync(1)                                                           rsync(1)
                                 28 Jan 2018



      o    does not require super-user privileges

      o    pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

      o    support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for
           mirroring)


 GENERAL
      Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally on the
      current host (it does not support copying files between two remote
      hosts).

      There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote system:
      using a remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or
      contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The remote-shell
      transport is used whenever the source or destination path contains a
      single colon (:) separator after a host specification.  Contacting an
      rsync daemon directly happens when the source or destination path
      contains a double colon (::) separator after a host specification, OR
      when an rsync:// URL is specified (see also the USING RSYNC-DAEMON
      FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION section for an exception to
      this latter rule).

      As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a
      destination, the files are listed in an output format similar to ls
      -l.

      As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a
      remote host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only
      option).

      Rsync refers to the local side as the client and the remote side as
      the server.  Dont confuse server with an rsync daemon -- a daemon is
      always a server, but a server can be either a daemon or a remote-shell
      spawned process.

 SETUP
      See the file README for installation instructions.

      Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that you can access
      via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the
      rsync daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync
      uses ssh for its communications, but it may have been configured to
      use a different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

      You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the -e
      command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

      Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination
      machines.



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 rsync(1)                                                           rsync(1)
                                 28 Jan 2018



 USAGE
      You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must specify a source
      and a destination, one of which may be remote.

      Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

           rsync -t *.c foo:src/


      This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the
      current directory to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of
      the files already exist on the remote system then the rsync
      remote-update protocol is used to update the file by sending only the
      differences in the data.  Note that the expansion of wildcards on the
      commandline (*.c) into a list of files is handled by the shell before
      it runs rsync and not by rsync itself (exactly the same as all other
      posix-style programs).

           rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp


      This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar
      on the machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local
      machine. The files are transferred in archive mode, which ensures that
      symbolic links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships, etc. are
      preserved in the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to
      reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

           rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp


      A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid creating
      an additional directory level at the destination.  You can think of a
      trailing / on a source as meaning copy the contents of this directory
      as opposed to copy the directory by name, but in both cases the
      attributes of the containing directory are transferred to the
      containing directory on the destination.  In other words, each of the
      following commands copies the files in the same way, including their
      setting of the attributes of /dest/foo:

           rsync -av /src/foo /dest
           rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo


      Note also that host and module references dont require a trailing
      slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example,
      both of these copy the remote directorys contents into /dest:

           rsync -av host: /dest
           rsync -av host::module /dest




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 rsync(1)                                                           rsync(1)
                                 28 Jan 2018



      You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and
      destination dont have a : in the name. In this case it behaves like an
      improved copy command.

      Finally, you can list all the (listable) modules available from a
      particular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:

           rsync somehost.mydomain.com::


      See the following section for more details.

 ADVANCED USAGE
      The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done by
      specifying additional remote-host args in the same style as the first,
      or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

           rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
           rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
           rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}


      Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like
      these examples:

           rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
           rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest


      This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but
      is not as easy to use as the first method.

      If you need to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can
      either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or youll need to escape
      the whitespace in a way that the remote shell will understand.  For
      instance:

           rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest


 CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON
      It is also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the
      transport.  In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync
      daemon, typically using TCP port 873.  (This obviously requires the
      daemon to be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN
      RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on
      that.)

      Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell
      except that:




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 rsync(1)                                                           rsync(1)
                                 28 Jan 2018



      o    you either use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
           separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

      o    the first word of the path is actually a module name.

      o    the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you
           connect.

      o    if you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list of
           accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

      o    if you specify no local destination then a listing of the
           specified files on the remote daemon is provided.

      o    you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.


      An example that copies all the files in a remote module named src:

          rsync -av host::src /dest


      Some modules on the remote daemon may require authentication. If so,
      you will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid the
      password prompt by setting the environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
      the password you want to use or using the --password-file option. This
      may be useful when scripting rsync.

      WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible to all
      users. On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

      You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting the
      environment variable RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to
      your web proxy.  Note that your web proxys configuration must support
      proxy connections to port 873.

      You may also establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy
      by setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands
      you wish to run in place of making a direct socket connection.  The
      string may contain the escape %H to represent the hostname specified
      in the rsync command (so use %% if you need a single % in your
      string).  For example:

        export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
        rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
        rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/


      The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a
      proxyhost, which forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on
      the targethost (%H).



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 rsync(1)                                                           rsync(1)
                                 28 Jan 2018



 USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION
      It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon
      (such as named modules) without actually allowing any new socket
      connections into a system (other than what is already required to
      allow remote-shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to a host using
      a remote shell and then spawning a single-use daemon server that
      expects to read its config file in the home dir of the remote user.
      This can be useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfers
      data, but since the daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you
      may not be able to use features such as chroot or change the uid used
      by the daemon.  (For another way to encrypt a daemon transfer,
      consider using ssh to tunnel a local port to a remote machine and
      configure a normal rsync daemon on that remote host to only allow
      connections from localhost.)

      From the users perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell
      connection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal
      rsync-daemon transfer, with the only exception being that you must
      explicitly set the remote shell program on the command-line with the
      --rsh=COMMAND option.  (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment will
      not turn on this functionality.)  For example:

          rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest


      If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind
      that the user@ prefix in front of the host is specifying the
      rsync-user value (for a module that requires user-based
      authentication).  This means that you must give the -l user option to
      ssh when specifying the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the
      short version of the --rsh option:

          rsync -av -e ssh -l ssh-user rsync-user@host::module /dest


      The ssh-user will be used at the ssh level; the rsync-user will be
      used to log-in to the module.

 STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS
      In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to
      have a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured
      something like inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections
      on a particular port).  For full information on how to start a daemon
      that will handling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5)
      man page -- that is the config file for the daemon, and it contains
      the full details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and
      inetd configurations).

      If youre using one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer,
      there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.




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 rsync(1)                                                           rsync(1)
                                 28 Jan 2018



 SORTED TRANSFER ORDER
      Rsync always sorts the specified filenames into its internal transfer
      list.  This handles the merging together of the contents of
      identically named directories, makes it easy to remove duplicate
      filenames, and may confuse someone when the files are transferred in a
      different order than what was given on the command-line.

      If you need a particular file to be transferred prior to another,
      either separate the files into different rsync calls, or consider
      using --delay-updates (which doesnt affect the sorted transfer order,
      but does make the final file-updating phase happen much more rapidly).

 EXAMPLES
      Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

      To backup my wifes home directory, which consists of large MS Word
      files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

           rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup


      each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my
      machine arvidsjaur.

      To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile
      targets:

          get:
                  rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
          put:
                  rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
          sync: get put


      this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the
      connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which
      saves a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isnt very efficient.

      I mirror a directory between my old and new ftp sites with the
      command:

      rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:~ftp/pub/tridge

      This is launched from cron every few hours.

 OPTIONS SUMMARY
      Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please
      refer to the detailed description below for a complete description.

       -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
           --info=FLAGS            fine-grained informational verbosity



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 rsync(1)                                                           rsync(1)
                                 28 Jan 2018



           --debug=FLAGS           fine-grained debug verbosity
           --msgs2stderr           special output handling for debugging
       -q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
           --no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
       -c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
       -a, --archive               archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
           --no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
       -r, --recursive             recurse into directories
       -R, --relative              use relative path names
           --no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with --relative
       -b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
           --backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
           --suffix=SUFFIX         backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
       -u, --update                skip files that are newer on the receiver
           --inplace               update destination files in-place
           --append                append data onto shorter files
           --append-verify         --append w/old data in file checksum
       -d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing
       -l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks
       -L, --copy-links            transform symlink into referent file/dir
           --copy-unsafe-links     only unsafe symlinks are transformed
           --safe-links            ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
           --munge-links           munge symlinks to make them safer
       -k, --copy-dirlinks         transform symlink to dir into referent dir
       -K, --keep-dirlinks         treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
       -H, --hard-links            preserve hard links
       -p, --perms                 preserve permissions
       -E, --executability         preserve executability
           --chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
       -A, --acls                  preserve ACLs (implies -p)
       -X, --xattrs                preserve extended attributes
       -o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)
       -g, --group                 preserve group
           --devices               preserve device files (super-user only)
           --specials              preserve special files
       -D                          same as --devices --specials
       -t, --times                 preserve modification times
       -O, --omit-dir-times        omit directories from --times
       -J, --omit-link-times       omit symlinks from --times
           --super                 receiver attempts super-user activities
           --fake-super            store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
       -S, --sparse                turn sequences of nulls into sparse blocks
           --preallocate           allocate dest files before writing
       -n, --dry-run               perform a trial run with no changes made
       -W, --whole-file            copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
           --checksum-choice=STR   choose the checksum algorithms
       -x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries
       -B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size
       -e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
           --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
           --existing              skip creating new files on receiver



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 rsync(1)                                                           rsync(1)
                                 28 Jan 2018



           --ignore-existing       skip updating files that exist on receiver
           --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
           --del                   an alias for --delete-during
           --delete                delete extraneous files from dest dirs
           --delete-before         receiver deletes before xfer, not during
           --delete-during         receiver deletes during the transfer
           --delete-delay          find deletions during, delete after
           --delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not during
           --delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from dest dirs
           --ignore-missing-args   ignore missing source args without error
           --delete-missing-args   delete missing source args from destination
           --ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
           --force                 force deletion of dirs even if not empty
           --max-delete=NUM        don't delete more than NUM files
           --max-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
           --min-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
           --partial               keep partially transferred files
           --partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
           --delay-updates         put all updated files into place at end
       -m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from file-list
           --numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
           --usermap=STRING        custom username mapping
           --groupmap=STRING       custom groupname mapping
           --chown=USER:GROUP      simple username/groupname mapping
           --timeout=SECONDS       set I/O timeout in seconds
           --contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
       -I, --ignore-times          don't skip files that match size and time
           --size-only             skip files that match in size
       -@, --modify-window=NUM     set the accuracy for mod-time comparisons
       -T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
       -y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
           --compare-dest=DIR      also compare received files relative to DIR
           --copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
           --link-dest=DIR         hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
       -z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
           --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
           --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
       -C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
       -f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
       -F                          same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
                                   repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
           --exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
           --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
           --include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN
           --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
           --files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE
       -0, --from0                 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
       -s, --protect-args          no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
           --address=ADDRESS       bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
           --port=PORT             specify double-colon alternate port number
           --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options



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 rsync(1)                                                           rsync(1)
                                 28 Jan 2018



           --blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell
           --outbuf=N|L|B          set out buffering to None, Line, or Block
           --stats                 give some file-transfer stats
       -8, --8-bit-output          leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
       -h, --human-readable        output numbers in a human-readable format
           --progress              show progress during transfer
       -P                          same as --partial --progress
       -i, --itemize-changes       output a change-summary for all updates
       -M, --remote-option=OPTION  send OPTION to the remote side only
           --out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
           --log-file=FILE         log what we're doing to the specified FILE
           --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
           --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password from FILE
           --list-only             list the files instead of copying them
           --bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
           --write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE
           --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
           --read-batch=FILE       read a batched update from FILE
           --protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used
           --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
           --checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
       -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
       -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
           --version               print version number
      (-h) --help                  show this help (see below for -h comment)


      Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options
      are accepted:

           --daemon                run as an rsync daemon
           --address=ADDRESS       bind to the specified address
           --bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
           --config=FILE           specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
       -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE       override global daemon config parameter
           --no-detach             do not detach from the parent
           --port=PORT             listen on alternate port number
           --log-file=FILE         override the log file setting
           --log-file-format=FMT   override the log format setting
           --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
       -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
       -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
       -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
       -h, --help                  show this help (if used after --daemon)


 OPTIONS
      Rsync accepts both long (double-dash + word) and short (single-dash +
      letter) options.  The full list of the available options are described
      below.  If an option can be specified in more than one way, the
      choices are comma-separated.  Some options only have a long variant,



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      not a short.  If the option takes a parameter, the parameter is only
      listed after the long variant, even though it must also be specified
      for the short.  When specifying a parameter, you can either use the
      form --option=param or replace the = with whitespace.  The parameter
      may need to be quoted in some manner for it to survive the shells
      command-line parsing.  Keep in mind that a leading tilde (~) in a
      filename is substituted by your shell, so --option=~/foo will not
      change the tilde into your home directory (remove the = for that).

      --help
           Print a short help page describing the options available in rsync
           and exit.  For backward-compatibility with older versions of
           rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h option
           without any other args.



      --version
           print the rsync version number and exit.



      -v, --verbose
           This option increases the amount of information you are given
           during the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently. A single
           -v will give you information about what files are being
           transferred and a brief summary at the end. Two -v options will
           give you information on what files are being skipped and slightly
           more information at the end. More than two -v options should only
           be used if you are debugging rsync.

           In a modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the setting of
           groups of --info and --debug options.  You can choose to use
           these newer options in addition to, or in place of using
           --verbose, as any fine-grained settings override the implied
           settings of -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for
           help that tells you exactly what flags are set for each increase
           in verbosity.

           However, do keep in mind that a daemons max verbosity setting
           will limit how high of a level the various individual flags can
           be set on the daemon side.  For instance, if the max is 2, then
           any info and/or debug flag that is set to a higher value than
           what would be set by -vv will be downgraded to the -vv level in
           the daemons logging.



      --info=FLAGS
           This option lets you have fine-grained control over the
           information output you want to see.  An individual flag name may



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           be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that
           output, 1 being the default output level, and higher numbers
           increasing the output of that flag (for those that support higher
           levels).  Use --info=help to see all the available flag names,
           what they output, and what flag names are added for each increase
           in the verbose level.  Some examples:


               rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
               rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/


           Note that --info=names output is affected by the --out-format and
           --itemize-changes (-i) options.  See those options for more
           information on what is output and when.

           This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server
           side might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one
           or more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was
           too old to understand them).  See also the max verbosity caveat
           above when dealing with a daemon.



      --debug=FLAGS
           This option lets you have fine-grained control over the debug
           output you want to see.  An individual flag name may be followed
           by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that output, 1 being
           the default output level, and higher numbers increasing the
           output of that flag (for those that support higher levels).  Use
           --debug=help to see all the available flag names, what they
           output, and what flag names are added for each increase in the
           verbose level.  Some examples:


               rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
               rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/


           Note that some debug messages will only be output when
           --msgs2stderr is specified, especially those pertaining to I/O
           and buffer debugging.

           This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server
           side might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one
           or more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was
           too old to understand them).  See also the max verbosity caveat
           above when dealing with a daemon.






                                   - 12 -       Formatted:  October 18, 2019






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                                 28 Jan 2018



      --msgs2stderr
           This option changes rsync to send all its output directly to
           stderr rather than to send messages to the client side via the
           protocol (which normally outputs info messages via stdout).  This
           is mainly intended for debugging in order to avoid changing the
           data sent via the protocol, since the extra protocol data can
           change what is being tested.  The option does not affect the
           remote side of a transfer without using --remote-option -- e.g.
           -M--msgs2stderr.  Also keep in mind that a daemon connection does
           not have a stderr channel to send messages back to the client
           side, so if you are doing any daemon-transfer debugging using
           this option, you should start up a daemon using --no-detach so
           that you can see the stderr output on the daemon side.

           This option has the side-effect of making stderr output get
           line-buffered so that the merging of the output of 3 programs
           happens in a more readable manner.



      -q, --quiet
           This option decreases the amount of information you are given
           during the transfer, notably suppressing information messages
           from the remote server. This option is useful when invoking rsync
           from cron.



      --no-motd
           This option affects the information that is output by the client
           at the start of a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the
           message-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of
           modules that the daemon sends in response to the rsync host::
           request (due to a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this
           option if you want to request the list of modules from the
           daemon.



      -I, --ignore-times
           Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the same size
           and have the same modification timestamp.  This option turns off
           this quick check behavior, causing all files to be updated.



      --size-only
           This modifies rsyncs quick check algorithm for finding files that
           need to be transferred, changing it from the default of
           transferring files with either a changed size or a changed
           last-modified time to just looking for files that have changed in



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                                 28 Jan 2018



           size.  This is useful when starting to use rsync after using
           another mirroring system which may not preserve timestamps
           exactly.



      -@, --modify-window
           When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as
           being equal if they differ by no more than the modify-window
           value.  The default is 0, which matches just integer seconds.  If
           you specify a negative value (and the receiver is at least
           version 3.1.3) then nanoseconds will also be taken into account.
           Specifying 1 is useful for copies to/from MS Windows FAT
           filesystems, because FAT represents times with a 2-second
           resolution (allowing times to differ from the original by up to 1
           second).

           If you want all your transfers to default to comparing
           nanoseconds, you can create a ~/.popt file and put these lines in
           it:


              rsync alias -a -a@-1
              rsync alias -t -t@-1


           With that as the default, youd need to specify --modify-window=0
           (aka -@0) to override it and ignore nanoseconds, e.g. if youre
           copying between ext3 and ext4, or if the receiving rsync is older
           than 3.1.3.



      -c, --checksum
           This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed
           and are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses a
           quick check that (by default) checks if each files size and time
           of last modification match between the sender and receiver.  This
           option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for each file
           that has a matching size.  Generating the checksums means that
           both sides will expend a lot of disk I/O reading all the data in
           the files in the transfer (and this is prior to any reading that
           will be done to transfer changed files), so this can slow things
           down significantly.

           The sending side generates its checksums while it is doing the
           file-system scan that builds the list of the available files.
           The receiver generates its checksums when it is scanning for
           changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same size
           as the corresponding senders file:  files with either a changed
           size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.



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           Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred file was
           correctly reconstructed on the receiving side by checking a
           whole-file checksum that is generated as the file is transferred,
           but that automatic after-the-transfer verification has nothing to
           do with this options before-the-transfer Does this file need to
           be updated? check.

           For protocol 30 and beyond (first supported in 3.0.0), the
           checksum used is MD5.  For older protocols, the checksum used is
           MD4.



      -a, --archive
           This is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you
           want recursion and want to preserve almost everything (with -H
           being a notable omission).  The only exception to the above
           equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case -r
           is not implied.

           Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding
           multiply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify
           -H.



      --no-OPTION
           You may turn off one or more implied options by prefixing the
           option name with no-.  Not all options may be prefixed with a
           no-: only options that are implied by other options (e.g. --no-D,
           --no-perms) or have different defaults in various circumstances
           (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io, --no-dirs).  You may
           specify either the short or the long option name after the no-
           prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

           For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but dont want -o
           (--owner), instead of converting -a into -rlptgD, you could
           specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

           The order of the options is important:  if you specify --no-r -a,
           the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of -a
           --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the --files-from
           option are NOT positional, as it affects the default state of
           several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see the
           --files-from option for more details).



      -r, --recursive
           This tells rsync to copy directories recursively.  See also
           --dirs (-d).



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                                 28 Jan 2018



           Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now
           an incremental scan that uses much less memory than before and
           begins the transfer after the scanning of the first few
           directories have been completed.  This incremental scan only
           affects our recursion algorithm, and does not change a
           non-recursive transfer.  It is also only possible when both ends
           of the transfer are at least version 3.0.0.

           Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so these
           options disable the incremental recursion mode.  These include:
           --delete-before, --delete-after, --prune-empty-dirs, and
           --delay-updates.  Because of this, the default delete mode when
           you specify --delete is now --delete-during when both ends of the
           connection are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during to
           request this improved deletion mode explicitly).  See also the
           --delete-delay option that is a better choice than using
           --delete-after.

           Incremental recursion can be disabled using the
           --no-inc-recursive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.



      -R, --relative
           Use relative paths. This means that the full path names specified
           on the command line are sent to the server rather than just the
           last parts of the filenames. This is particularly useful when you
           want to send several different directories at the same time. For
           example, if you used this command:


              rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/


           ... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote
           machine. If instead you used


              rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/


           then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the
           remote machine, preserving its full path.  These extra path
           elements are called implied directories (i.e. the foo and the
           foo/bar directories in the above example).

           Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync always sends these implied
           directories as real directories in the file list, even if a path
           element is really a symlink on the sending side.  This prevents
           some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full path of a
           file that you didnt realize had a symlink in its path.  If you



                                   - 16 -       Formatted:  October 18, 2019






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                                 28 Jan 2018



           want to duplicate a server-side symlink, include both the symlink
           via its path, and referent directory via its real path.  If youre
           dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you may need to
           use the --no-implied-dirs option.

           It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
           is sent as implied directories for each path you specify.  With a
           modern rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you can
           insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:


              rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/


           That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine.  (Note
           that the dot must be followed by a slash, so /foo/. would not be
           abbreviated.) For older rsync versions, you would need to use a
           chdir to limit the source path.  For example, when pushing files:


              (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)


           (Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so
           that the cd command doesnt remain in effect for future commands.)
           If youre pulling files from an older rsync, use this idiom (but
           only for a non-daemon transfer):


              rsync -avR --rsync-path=cd /foo; rsync \
                  remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/




      --no-implied-dirs
           This option affects the default behavior of the --relative
           option.  When it is specified, the attributes of the implied
           directories from the source names are not included in the
           transfer.  This means that the corresponding path elements on the
           destination system are left unchanged if they exist, and any
           missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
           This even allows these implied path elements to have big
           differences, such as being a symlink to a directory on the
           receiving side.

           For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told
           rsync to transfer the file path/foo/file, the directories path
           and path/foo are implied when --relative is used.  If path/foo is
           a symlink to bar on the destination system, the receiving rsync
           would ordinarily delete path/foo, recreate it as a directory, and



                                   - 17 -       Formatted:  October 18, 2019






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                                 28 Jan 2018



           receive the file into the new directory.  With --no-implied-dirs,
           the receiving rsync updates path/foo/file using the existing path
           elements, which means that the file ends up being created in
           path/bar.  Another way to accomplish this link preservation is to
           use the --keep-dirlinks option (which will also affect symlinks
           to directories in the rest of the transfer).

           When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need
           to use this option if the sending side has a symlink in the path
           you request and you wish the implied directories to be
           transferred as normal directories.



      -b, --backup
           With this option, preexisting destination files are renamed as
           each file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where the
           backup file goes and what (if any) suffix gets appended using the
           --backup-dir and --suffix options.

           Note that if you dont specify --backup-dir, (1) the
           --omit-dir-times option will be forced on, and (2) if --delete is
           also in effect (without --delete-excluded), rsync will add a
           protect filter-rule for the backup suffix to the end of all your
           existing excludes (e.g. -f P *~).  This will prevent previously
           backed-up files from being deleted.  Note that if you are
           supplying your own filter rules, you may need to manually insert
           your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the list so
           that it has a high enough priority to be effective (e.g., if your
           rules specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of *, the auto-added
           rule would never be reached).



      --backup-dir=DIR
           In combination with the --backup option, this tells rsync to
           store all backups in the specified directory on the receiving
           side.  This can be used for incremental backups.  You can
           additionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix option
           (otherwise the files backed up in the specified directory will
           keep their original filenames).

           Note that if you specify a relative path, the backup directory
           will be relative to the destination directory, so you probably
           want to specify either an absolute path or a path that starts
           with ../.  If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup dir
           cannot go outside the modules path hierarchy, so take extra care
           not to delete it or copy into it.






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                                 28 Jan 2018



      --suffix=SUFFIX
           This option allows you to override the default backup suffix used
           with the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is a ~ if no
           --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty string.



      -u, --update
           This forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the
           destination and have a modified time that is newer than the
           source file.  (If an existing destination file has a modification
           time equal to the source files, it will be updated if the sizes
           are different.)

           Note that this does not affect the copying of dirs, symlinks, or
           other special files.  Also, a difference of file format between
           the sender and receiver is always considered to be important
           enough for an update, no matter what date is on the objects.  In
           other words, if the source has a directory where the destination
           has a file, the transfer would occur regardless of the
           timestamps.

           This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesnt
           affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesnt
           affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the receiver
           requests to be transferred.



      --inplace
           This option changes how rsync transfers a file when its data
           needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
           new copy of the file and moving it into place when it is
           complete, rsync instead writes the updated data directly to the
           destination file.

           This has several effects:



           o    Hard links are not broken.  This means the new data will be
                visible through other hard links to the destination file.
                Moreover, attempts to copy differing source files onto a
                multiply-linked destination file will result in a tug of war
                with the destination data changing back and forth.

           o    In-use binaries cannot be updated (either the OS will
                prevent this from happening, or binaries that attempt to
                swap-in their data will misbehave or crash).





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                                 28 Jan 2018



           o    The files data will be in an inconsistent state during the
                transfer and will be left that way if the transfer is
                interrupted or if an update fails.

           o    A file that rsync cannot write to cannot be updated. While a
                super user can update any file, a normal user needs to be
                granted write permission for the open of the file for
                writing to be successful.

           o    The efficiency of rsyncs delta-transfer algorithm may be
                reduced if some data in the destination file is overwritten
                before it can be copied to a position later in the file.
                This does not apply if you use --backup, since rsync is
                smart enough to use the backup file as the basis file for
                the transfer.


           WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are
           being accessed by others, so be careful when choosing to use this
           for a copy.

           This option is useful for transferring large files with
           block-based changes or appended data, and also on systems that
           are disk bound, not network bound.  It can also help keep a
           copy-on-write filesystem snapshot from diverging the entire
           contents of a file that only has minor changes.

           The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
           not delete the file), but conflicts with --partial-dir and
           --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also
           incompatible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.



      --append
           This causes rsync to update a file by appending data onto the end
           of the file, which presumes that the data that already exists on
           the receiving side is identical with the start of the file on the
           sending side.  If a file needs to be transferred and its size on
           the receiver is the same or longer than the size on the sender,
           the file is skipped.  This does not interfere with the updating
           of a files non-content attributes (e.g. permissions, ownership,
           etc.) when the file does not need to be transferred, nor does it
           affect the updating of any non-regular files.  Implies --inplace.

           The use of --append can be dangerous if you arent 100% sure that
           the files that are longer have only grown by the appending of
           data onto the end.  You should thus use include/exclude/filter
           rules to ensure that such a transfer is only affecting files that
           you know to be growing via appended data.




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                                 28 Jan 2018





      --append-verify
           This works just like the --append option, but the existing data
           on the receiving side is included in the full-file checksum
           verification step, which will cause a file to be resent if the
           final verification step fails (rsync uses a normal, non-appending
           --inplace transfer for the resend).

           Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0, the --append option worked like
           --append-verify, so if you are interacting with an older rsync
           (or the transfer is using a protocol prior to 30), specifying
           either append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.



      -d, --dirs
           Tell the sending side to include any directories that are
           encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directorys contents are not
           copied unless the directory name specified is . or ends with a
           trailing slash (e.g. ., dir/., dir/, etc.).  Without this option
           or the --recursive option, rsync will skip all directories it
           encounters (and output a message to that effect for each one).
           If you specify both --dirs and --recursive, --recursive takes
           precedence.

           The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option or the
           --list-only option (including an implied --list-only usage) if
           --recursive wasnt specified (so that directories are seen in the
           listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn this
           off.

           There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
           (or --old-d) that tells rsync to use a hack of -r --exclude=/*/*
           to get an older rsync to list a single directory without
           recursing.



      -l, --links
           When symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the
           destination.



      -L, --copy-links
           When symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to (the
           referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions
           of rsync, this option also had the side-effect of telling the
           receiving side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks to
           directories.  In a modern rsync such as this one, youll need to



                                   - 21 -       Formatted:  October 18, 2019






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                                 28 Jan 2018



           specify --keep-dirlinks (-K) to get this extra behavior.  The
           only exception is when sending files to an rsync that is too old
           to understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will still have
           the side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.



      --copy-unsafe-links
           This tells rsync to copy the referent of symbolic links that
           point outside the copied tree.  Absolute symlinks are also
           treated like ordinary files, and so are any symlinks in the
           source path itself when --relative is used.  This option has no
           additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.



      --safe-links
           This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point outside
           the copied tree. All absolute symlinks are also ignored. Using
           this option in conjunction with --relative may give unexpected
           results.



      --munge-links
           This option tells rsync to (1) modify all symlinks on the
           receiving side in a way that makes them unusable but recoverable
           (see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on the sending side that
           had been stored in a munged state.  This is useful if you dont
           quite trust the source of the data to not try to slip in a
           symlink to a unexpected place.

           The way rsync disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one
           with the string /rsyncd-munged/.  This prevents the links from
           being used as long as that directory does not exist.  When this
           option is enabled, rsync will refuse to run if that path is a
           directory or a symlink to a directory.

           The option only affects the client side of the transfer, so if
           you need it to affect the server, specify it via --remote-option.
           (Note that in a local transfer, the client side is the sender.)

           This option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon
           configures whether it wants munged symlinks via its munge
           symlinks parameter.  See also the munge-symlinks perl script in
           the support directory of the source code.



      -k, --copy-dirlinks
           This option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to a



                                   - 22 -       Formatted:  October 18, 2019






 rsync(1)                                                           rsync(1)
                                 28 Jan 2018



           directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
           you dont want symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as they
           would be using --copy-links.

           Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a directory
           with a symlink to a directory, the receiving side will delete
           anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including a
           directory hierarchy (as long as --force or --delete is in
           effect).

           See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the
           receiving side.

           --copy-dirlinks applies to all symlinks to directories in the
           source.  If you want to follow only a few specified symlinks, a
           trick you can use is to pass them as additional source args with
           a trailing slash, using --relative to make the paths match up
           right.  For example:


           rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/


           This works because rsync calls lstat(2) on the source arg as
           given, and the trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink,
           giving rise to a directory in the file-list which overrides the
           symlink found during the scan of src/./.



      -K, --keep-dirlinks
           This option causes the receiving side to treat a symlink to a
           directory as though it were a real directory, but only if it
           matches a real directory from the sender.  Without this option,
           the receivers symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real
           directory.

           For example, suppose you transfer a directory foo that contains a
           file file, but foo is a symlink to directory bar on the receiver.
           Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver deletes symlink foo,
           recreates it as a directory, and receives the file into the new
           directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver keeps the symlink
           and file ends up in bar.

           One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust
           all the symlinks in the copy!  If it is possible for an untrusted
           user to create their own symlink to any directory, the user could
           then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink with a real
           directory and affect the content of whatever directory the
           symlink references.  For backup copies, you are better off using
           something like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify your



                                   - 23 -       Formatted:  October 18, 2019






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                                 28 Jan 2018



           receiving hierarchy.

           See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending
           side.



      -H, --hard-links
           This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and
           link together the corresponding files on the destination.
           Without this option, hard-linked files in the source are treated
           as though they were separate files.

           This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard
           links on the destination exactly matches that on the source.
           Cases in which the destination may end up with extra hard links
           include the following:



           o    If the destination contains extraneous hard-links (more
                linking than what is present in the source file list), the
                copying algorithm will not break them explicitly.  However,
                if one or more of the paths have content differences, the
                normal file-update process will break those extra links
                (unless you are using the --inplace option).

           o    If you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard
                links, the linking of the destination files against the
                --link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination to
                become linked together due to the --link-dest associations.


           Note that rsync can only detect hard links between files that are
           inside the transfer set.  If rsync updates a file that has extra
           hard-link connections to files outside the transfer, that linkage
           will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace option
           to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how your
           files are being updated so that you are certain that no
           unintended changes happen due to lingering hard links (and see
           the --inplace option for more caveats).

           If incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync may
           transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
           link for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.  This
           does not affect the accuracy of the transfer (i.e. which files
           are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying the
           data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have
           been found later in the transfer in another member of the
           hard-linked set of files).  One way to avoid this inefficiency is
           to disable incremental recursion using the --no-inc-recursive



                                   - 24 -       Formatted:  October 18, 2019






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                                 28 Jan 2018



           option.



      -p, --perms
           This option causes the receiving rsync to set the destination
           permissions to be the same as the source permissions.  (See also
           the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync considers to be
           the source permissions.)

           When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:



           o    Existing files (including updated files) retain their
                existing permissions, though the --executability option
                might change just the execute permission for the file.

           o    New files get their normal permission bits set to the source
                files permissions masked with the receiving directorys
                default permissions (either the receiving processs umask, or
                the permissions specified via the destination directorys
                default ACL), and their special permission bits disabled
                except in the case where a new directory inherits a setgid
                bit from its parent directory.


           Thus, when --perms and --executability are both disabled, rsyncs
           behavior is the same as that of other file-copy utilities, such
           as cp(1) and tar(1).

           In summary: to give destination files (both old and new) the
           source permissions, use --perms.  To give new files the
           destination-default permissions (while leaving existing files
           unchanged), make sure that the --perms option is off and use
           --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures that all non-masked bits get
           enabled).  If youd care to make this latter behavior easier to
           type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
           line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the -Z option,
           and includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination
           dir):


              rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX


           You could then use this new option in a command such as this one:


              rsync -avZ src/ dest/




                                   - 25 -       Formatted:  October 18, 2019






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                                 28 Jan 2018



           (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or it will
           re-enable the two --no-* options mentioned above.)

           The preservation of the destinations setgid bit on newly-created
           directories when --perms is off was added in rsync 2.6.7.  Older
           rsync versions erroneously preserved the three special permission
           bits for newly-created files when --perms was off, while
           overriding the destinations setgid bit setting on a newly-created
           directory.  Default ACL observance was added to the ACL patch for
           rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled) rsyncs use the umask
           even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in mind that it is the
           version of the receiving rsync that affects these behaviors.)



      -E, --executability
           This option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or
           non-executability) of regular files when --perms is not enabled.
           A regular file is considered to be executable if at least one x
           is turned on in its permissions.  When an existing destination
           files executability differs from that of the corresponding source
           file, rsync modifies the destination files permissions as
           follows:



           o    To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its x
                permissions.

           o    To make a file executable, rsync turns on each x permission
                that has a corresponding r permission enabled.


           If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.



      -A, --acls
           This option causes rsync to update the destination ACLs to be the
           same as the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

           The source and destination systems must have compatible ACL
           entries for this option to work properly.  See the --fake-super
           option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not
           compatible.



      -X, --xattrs
           This option causes rsync to update the destination extended
           attributes to be the same as the source ones.



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           For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy
           being done by a super-user copies all namespaces except system.*.
           A normal user only copies the user.* namespace.  To be able to
           backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal user, see the
           --fake-super option.

           The above name filtering can be overridden by using one or more
           filter options with the x modifier. When you specify an
           xattr-affecting filter rule, rsync requires that you do your own
           system/user filtering, as well as any additional filtering for
           what xattr names are copied and what names are allowed to be
           deleted.  For example, to skip the system namespace, you could
           specify:


           --filter=-x system.*


           To skip all namespaces except the user namespace, you could
           specify a negated-user match:


           --filter=-x! user.*


           To prevent any attributes from being deleted, you could specify a
           receiver-only rule that excludes all names:


           --filter=-xr *


           Note that the -X option does not copy rsyncs special xattr values
           (e.g.  those used by --fake-super) unless you repeat the option
           (e.g. -XX).  This copy all xattrs mode cannot be used with
           --fake-super.



      --chmod
           This option tells rsync to apply one or more comma-separated
           chmod modes to the permission of the files in the transfer.  The
           resulting value is treated as though it were the permissions that
           the sending side supplied for the file, which means that this
           option can seem to have no effect on existing files if --perms is
           not enabled.

           In addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the chmod(1)
           manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply to a
           directory by prefixing it with a D, or specify an item that
           should only apply to a file by prefixing it with a F.  For



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           example, the following will ensure that all directories get
           marked set-gid, that no files are other-writable, that both are
           user-writable and group-writable, and that both have consistent
           executability across all bits:


           --chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X


           Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:


           --chmod=D2775,F664


           It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each
           additional option is just appended to the list of changes to
           make.

           See the --perms and --executability options for how the resulting
           permission value can be applied to the files in the transfer.



      -o, --owner
           This option causes rsync to set the owner of the destination file
           to be the same as the source file, but only if the receiving
           rsync is being run as the super-user (see also the --super and
           --fake-super options).  Without this option, the owner of new
           and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the
           receiving side.

           The preservation of ownership will associate matching names by
           default, but may fall back to using the ID number in some
           circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full
           discussion).



      -g, --group
           This option causes rsync to set the group of the destination file
           to be the same as the source file.  If the receiving program is
           not running as the super-user (or if --no-super was specified),
           only groups that the invoking user on the receiving side is a
           member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the group is
           set to the default group of the invoking user on the receiving
           side.

           The preservation of group information will associate matching
           names by default, but may fall back to using the ID number in
           some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full



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           discussion).



      --devices
           This option causes rsync to transfer character and block device
           files to the remote system to recreate these devices.  This
           option has no effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the
           super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).



      --specials
           This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
           sockets and fifos.



      -D   The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.



      -t, --times
           This tells rsync to transfer modification times along with the
           files and update them on the remote system.  Note that if this
           option is not used, the optimization that excludes files that
           have not been modified cannot be effective; in other words, a
           missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
           used -I, causing all files to be updated (though rsyncs
           delta-transfer algorithm will make the update fairly efficient if
           the files havent actually changed, youre much better off using
           -t).



      -O, --omit-dir-times
           This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving
           modification times (see --times).  If NFS is sharing the
           directories on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.
           This option is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

           This option also has the side-effect of avoiding early creation
           of directories in incremental recursion copies.  The default
           --inc-recursive copying normally does an early-create pass of all
           the sub-directories in a parent directory in order for it to be
           able to then set the modify time of the parent directory right
           away (without having to delay that until a bunch of recursive
           copying has finished).  This early-create idiom is not necessary
           if directory modify times are not being preserved, so it is
           skipped.  Since early-create directories dont have accurate mode,
           mtime, or ownership, the use of this option can help when someone



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           wants to avoid these partially-finished directories.



      -J, --omit-link-times
           This tells rsync to omit symlinks when it is preserving
           modification times (see --times).



      --super
           This tells the receiving side to attempt super-user activities
           even if the receiving rsync wasnt run by the super-user.  These
           activities include: preserving users via the --owner option,
           preserving all groups (not just the current users groups) via the
           --groups option, and copying devices via the --devices option.
           This is useful for systems that allow such activities without
           being the super-user, and also for ensuring that you will get
           errors if the receiving side isnt being run as the super-user.
           To turn off super-user activities, the super-user can use
           --no-super.



      --fake-super
           When this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user
           activities by saving/restoring the privileged attributes via
           special extended attributes that are attached to each file (as
           needed).  This includes the files owner and group (if it is not
           the default), the files device info (device & special files are
           created as empty text files), and any permission bits that we
           wont allow to be set on the real file (e.g.  the real file gets
           u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the owners access
           (since the real super-user can always access/change a file, the
           files we create can always be accessed/changed by the creating
           user).  This option also handles ACLs (if --acls was specified)
           and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

           This is a good way to backup data without using a super-user, and
           to store ACLs from incompatible systems.

           The --fake-super option only affects the side where the option is
           used.  To affect the remote side of a remote-shell connection,
           use the --remote-option (-M) option:


             rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/


           For a local copy, this option affects both the source and the
           destination.  If you wish a local copy to enable this option just



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           for the destination files, specify -M--fake-super.  If you wish a
           local copy to enable this option just for the source files,
           combine --fake-super with -M--super.

           This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

           See also the fake super setting in the daemons rsyncd.conf file.



      -S, --sparse
           Try to handle sparse files efficiently so they take up less space
           on the destination.  If combined with --inplace the file created
           might not end up with sparse blocks with some combinations of
           kernel version and/or filesystem type.  If --whole-file is in
           effect (e.g. for a local copy) then it will always work because
           rsync truncates the file prior to writing out the updated
           version.

           Note that versions of rsync older than 3.1.3 will reject the
           combination of --sparse and --inplace.



      --preallocate
           This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file to its
           eventual size before writing data to the file.  Rsync will only
           use the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided by
           Linuxs fallocate(2) system call or Cygwins posix_fallocate(3),
           not the slow glibc implementation that writes a null byte into
           each block.

           Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous
           on the filesystem, but with this option rsync will probably copy
           more slowly.  If the destination is not an extent-supporting
           filesystem (such as ext4, xfs, NTFS, etc.), this option may have
           no positive effect at all.

           If combined with --sparse, the file will only have sparse blocks
           (as opposed to allocated sequences of null bytes) if the kernel
           version and filesystem type support creating holes in the
           allocated data.



      -n, --dry-run
           This makes rsync perform a trial run that doesnt make any changes
           (and produces mostly the same output as a real run).  It is most
           commonly used in combination with the -v, --verbose and/or -i,
           --itemize-changes options to see what an rsync command is going
           to do before one actually runs it.



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           The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to be exactly the
           same on a dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
           trickery and system call failures); if it isnt, thats a bug.
           Other output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in some
           areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send the actual data for file
           transfers, so --progress has no effect, the bytes sent, bytes
           received, literal data, and matched data statistics are too
           small, and the speedup value is equivalent to a run where no file
           transfers were needed.



      -W, --whole-file
           This option disables rsyncs delta-transfer algorithm, which
           causes all transferred files to be sent whole.  The transfer may
           be faster if this option is used when the bandwidth between the
           source and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
           disk (especially when the disk is actually a networked
           filesystem).  This is the default when both the source and
           destination are specified as local paths, but only if no
           batch-writing option is in effect.



      --checksum-choice=STR
           This option overrides the checksum algoriths.  If one algorithm
           name is specified, it is used for both the transfer checksums and
           (assuming --checksum is specifed) the pre-transfer checksumming.
           If two comma-separated names are supplied, the first name affects
           the transfer checksums, and the second name affects the
           pre-transfer checksumming.

           The algorithm choices are auto, md4, md5, and none.  If none is
           specified for the first name, the --whole-file option is forced
           on and no checksum verification is performed on the transferred
           data.  If none is specified for the second name, the --checksum
           option cannot be used. The auto option is the default, where
           rsync bases its algorithm choice on the protocol version (for
           backward compatibility with older rsync versions).



      -x, --one-file-system
           This tells rsync to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when
           recursing.  This does not limit the users ability to specify
           items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsyncs recursion
           through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
           and also the analogous recursion on the receiving side during
           deletion.  Also keep in mind that rsync treats a bind mount to
           the same device as being on the same filesystem.




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           If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point
           directories from the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an empty
           directory at each mount-point it encounters (using the attributes
           of the mounted directory because those of the underlying
           mount-point directory are inaccessible).

           If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
           --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device
           is treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are
           unaffected by this option.



      --existing, --ignore-non-existing
           This tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories)
           that do not exist yet on the destination.  If this option is
           combined with the --ignore-existing option, no files will be
           updated (which can be useful if all you want to do is delete
           extraneous files).

           This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesnt
           affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesnt
           affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the receiver
           requests to be transferred.



      --ignore-existing
           This tells rsync to skip updating files that already exist on the
           destination (this does not ignore existing directories, or
           nothing would get done).  See also --existing.

           This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesnt
           affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesnt
           affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the receiver
           requests to be transferred.

           This option can be useful for those doing backups using the
           --link-dest option when they need to continue a backup run that
           got interrupted.  Since a --link-dest run is copied into a new
           directory hierarchy (when it is used properly), using --ignore
           existing will ensure that the already-handled files dont get
           tweaked (which avoids a change in permissions on the hard-linked
           files).  This does mean that this option is only looking at the
           existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.



      --remove-source-files
           This tells rsync to remove from the sending side the files
           (meaning non-directories) that are a part of the transfer and



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           have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

           Note that you should only use this option on source files that
           are quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show up
           in a particular directory over to another host, make sure that
           the finished files get renamed into the source directory, not
           directly written into it, so that rsync cant possibly transfer a
           file that is not yet fully written.  If you cant first write the
           files into a different directory, you should use a naming idiom
           that lets rsync avoid transferring files that are not yet
           finished (e.g. name the file foo.new when it is written, rename
           it to foo when it is done, and then use the option
           --exclude='*.new' for the rsync transfer).

           Starting with 3.1.0, rsync will skip the sender-side removal (and
           output an error) if the files size or modify time has not stayed
           unchanged.



      --delete
           This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
           side (ones that arent on the sending side), but only for the
           directories that are being synchronized.  You must have asked
           rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. dir or dir/) without
           using a wildcard for the directorys contents (e.g. dir/*) since
           the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets a
           request to transfer individual files, not the files parent
           directory.  Files that are excluded from the transfer are also
           excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
           option or mark the rules as only matching on the sending side
           (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

           Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless
           --recursive was enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7, deletions will
           also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
           whose contents are being copied.

           This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a very
           good idea to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n) to
           see what files are going to be deleted.

           If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
           any files at the destination will be automatically disabled. This
           is to prevent temporary filesystem failures (such as NFS errors)
           on the sending side from causing a massive deletion of files on
           the destination.  You can override this with the --ignore-errors
           option.

           The --delete option may be combined with one of the --delete-WHEN
           options without conflict, as well as --delete-excluded.  However,



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           if none of the --delete-WHEN options are specified, rsync will
           choose the --delete-during algorithm when talking to rsync 3.0.0
           or newer, and the --delete-before algorithm when talking to an
           older rsync.  See also --delete-delay and --delete-after.



      --delete-before
           Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done
           before the transfer starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for
           more details on file-deletion.

           Deleting before the transfer is helpful if the filesystem is
           tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make
           the transfer possible.  However, it does introduce a delay before
           the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the
           transfer to timeout (if --timeout was specified).  It also forces
           rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm that
           requires rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into memory
           at once (see --recursive).



      --delete-during, --del
           Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done
           incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory delete
           scan is done right before each directory is checked for updates,
           so it behaves like a more efficient --delete-before, including
           doing the deletions prior to any per-directory filter files being
           updated.  This option was first added in rsync version 2.6.4.
           See --delete (which is implied) for more details on
           file-deletion.



      --delete-delay
           Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be computed
           during the transfer (like --delete-during), and then removed
           after the transfer completes.  This is useful when combined with
           --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more efficient than using
           --delete-after (but can behave differently, since --delete-after
           computes the deletions in a separate pass after all updates are
           done).  If the number of removed files overflows an internal
           buffer, a temporary file will be created on the receiving side to
           hold the names (it is removed while open, so you shouldnt see it
           during the transfer).  If the creation of the temporary file
           fails, rsync will try to fall back to using --delete-after (which
           it cannot do if --recursive is doing an incremental scan).  See
           --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.





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      --delete-after
           Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done
           after the transfer has completed.  This is useful if you are
           sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the transfer
           and you want their exclusions to take effect for the delete phase
           of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use the old,
           non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to scan
           all the files in the transfer into memory at once (see
           --recursive).  See --delete (which is implied) for more details
           on file-deletion.



      --delete-excluded
           In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
           not on the sending side, this tells rsync to also delete any
           files on the receiving side that are excluded (see --exclude).
           See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual
           exclusions behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to
           protect files from --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is
           implied) for more details on file-deletion.



      --ignore-missing-args
           When rsync is first processing the explicitly requested source
           files (e.g. command-line arguments or --files-from entries), it
           is normally an error if the file cannot be found.  This option
           suppresses that error, and does not try to transfer the file.
           This does not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if a file
           was initially found to be present and later is no longer there.



      --delete-missing-args
           This option takes the behavior of (the implied)
           --ignore-missing-args option a step farther:  each missing arg
           will become a deletion request of the corresponding destination
           file on the receiving side (should it exist).  If the destination
           file is a non-empty directory, it will only be successfully
           deleted if --force or --delete are in effect.  Other than that,
           this option is independent of any other type of delete
           processing.

           The missing source files are represented by special file-list
           entries which display as a *missing entry in the --list-only
           output.





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      --ignore-errors
           Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are
           I/O errors.



      --force
           This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it
           is to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant if
           deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

           Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
           when using --delete-after, and it used to be non-functional
           unless the --recursive option was also enabled.



      --max-delete=NUM
           This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files or
           directories.  If that limit is exceeded, all further deletions
           are skipped through the end of the transfer.  At the end, rsync
           outputs a warning (including a count of the skipped deletions)
           and exits with an error code of 25 (unless some more important
           error condition also occurred).

           Beginning with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to
           be warned about any extraneous files in the destination without
           removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as
           unlimited, so if you dont know what version the client is, you
           can use the less obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-compatible
           way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though really old
           versions didnt warn when the limit was exceeded).



      --max-size=SIZE
           This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger
           than the specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be suffixed with a
           string to indicate a size multiplier, and may be a fractional
           value (e.g. --max-size=1.5m).

           This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesnt
           affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesnt
           affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the receiver
           requests to be transferred.

           The suffixes are as follows: K (or KiB) is a kibibyte (1024), M
           (or MiB) is a mebibyte (1024*1024), and G (or GiB) is a gibibyte
           (1024*1024*1024).  If you want the multiplier to be 1000 instead



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           of 1024, use KB, MB, or GB.  (Note: lower-case is also accepted
           for all values.) Finally, if the suffix ends in either +1 or -1,
           the value will be offset by one byte in the indicated direction.

           Examples: --max-size=1.5mb-1 is 1499999 bytes, and
           --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

           Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow
           --max-size=0.



      --min-size=SIZE
           This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller
           than the specified SIZE, which can help in not transferring
           small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for a description
           of SIZE and other information.

           Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow
           --min-size=0.



      -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
           This forces the block size used in rsyncs delta-transfer
           algorithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected based on the
           size of each file being updated.  See the technical report for
           details.



      -e, --rsh=COMMAND
           This option allows you to choose an alternative remote shell
           program to use for communication between the local and remote
           copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to use ssh by
           default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

           If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
           remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on the
           remote host, and all data will be transmitted through that remote
           shell connection, rather than through a direct socket connection
           to a running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See the section
           USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION above.

           Command-line arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that
           COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single argument.  You must use
           spaces (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate the command and
           args from each other, and you can use single- and/or
           double-quotes to preserve spaces in an argument (but not
           backslashes).  Note that doubling a single-quote inside a
           single-quoted string gives you a single-quote; likewise for



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           double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to which quotes
           your shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some
           examples:


               -e 'ssh -p 2234'
               -e 'ssh -o ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p'


           (Note that ssh users can alternately customize site-specific
           connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

           You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
           environment variable, which accepts the same range of values as
           -e.

           See also the --blocking-io option which is affected by this
           option.



      --rsync-path=PROGRAM
           Use this to specify what program is to be run on the remote
           machine to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in the
           default remote-shells path (e.g.
           --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).  Note that PROGRAM is run
           with the help of a shell, so it can be any program, script, or
           command sequence youd care to run, so long as it does not corrupt
           the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to
           communicate.

           One tricky example is to set a different default directory on the
           remote machine for use with the --relative option.  For instance:


               rsync -avR --rsync-path=cd /a/b && rsync host:c/d /e/




      -M, --remote-option=OPTION
           This option is used for more advanced situations where you want
           certain effects to be limited to one side of the transfer only.
           For instance, if you want to pass --log-file=FILE and
           --fake-super to the remote system, specify it like this:


               rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/






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           If you want to have an option affect only the local side of a
           transfer when it normally affects both sides, send its negation
           to the remote side.  Like this:


               rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/


           Be cautious using this, as it is possible to toggle an option
           that will cause rsync to have a different idea about what data to
           expect next over the socket, and that will make it fail in a
           cryptic fashion.

           Note that it is best to use a separate --remote-option for each
           option you want to pass.  This makes your useage compatible with
           the --protect-args option.  If that option is off, any spaces in
           your remote options will be split by the remote shell unless you
           take steps to protect them.

           When performing a local transfer, the local side is the sender
           and the remote side is the receiver.

           Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library have a bug
           in them that prevents you from using an adjacent arg with an
           equal in it next to a short option letter (e.g.
           -M--log-file=/tmp/foo).  If this bug affects your version of
           popt, you can use the version of popt that is included with
           rsync.



      -C, --cvs-exclude
           This is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files
           that you often dont want to transfer between systems. It uses a
           similar algorithm to CVS to determine if a file should be
           ignored.

           The exclude list is initialized to exclude the following items
           (these initial items are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER
           RULES section):


                RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.* tags TAGS .make.state
                .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak *.BAK *.orig
                *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln
                core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/


           then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list
           and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all
           cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace).



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           Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a
           .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed therein.
           Unlike rsyncs filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
           whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

           If youre combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should
           note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own
           rules, regardless of where the -C was placed on the command-line.
           This makes them a lower priority than any rules you specified
           explicitly.  If you want to control where these CVS excludes get
           inserted into your filter rules, you should omit the -C as a
           command-line option and use a combination of --filter=:C and
           --filter=-C (either on your command-line or by putting the :C and
           -C rules into a filter file with your other rules).  The first
           option turns on the per-directory scanning for the .cvsignore
           file.  The second option does a one-time import of the CVS
           excludes mentioned above.



      -f, --filter=RULE
           This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude
           certain files from the list of files to be transferred. This is
           most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

           You may use as many --filter options on the command line as you
           like to build up the list of files to exclude.  If the filter
           contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
           the rule to rsync as a single argument.  The text below also
           mentions that you can use an underscore to replace the space that
           separates a rule from its arg.

           See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this
           option.



      -F   The -F option is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to
           your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this
           rule:


              --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'


           This tells rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
           that have been sprinkled through the hierarchy and use their
           rules to filter the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated, it
           is a shorthand for this rule:





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              --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'


           This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the
           transfer.

           See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how
           these options work.



      --exclude=PATTERN
           This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that
           defaults to an exclude rule and does not allow the full
           rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

           See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this
           option.



      --exclude-from=FILE
           This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies
           a FILE that contains exclude patterns (one per line).  Blank
           lines in the file and lines starting with ; or # are ignored.  If
           FILE is -, the list will be read from standard input.



      --include=PATTERN
           This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that
           defaults to an include rule and does not allow the full
           rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

           See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this
           option.



      --include-from=FILE
           This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies
           a FILE that contains include patterns (one per line).  Blank
           lines in the file and lines starting with ; or # are ignored.  If
           FILE is -, the list will be read from standard input.



      --files-from=FILE
           Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of files
           to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or - for standard



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           input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make
           transferring just the specified files and directories easier:



           o    The --relative (-R) option is implied, which preserves the
                path information that is specified for each item in the file
                (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn that off).

           o    The --dirs (-d) option is implied, which will create
                directories specified in the list on the destination rather
                than noisily skipping them (use --no-dirs or --no-d if you
                want to turn that off).

           o    The --archive (-a) options behavior does not imply
                --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if you want it.

           o    These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so the
                position of the --files-from option on the command-line has
                no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g. -a works
                the same before or after --files-from, as does --no-R and
                all other options).


           The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to the
           source dir -- any leading slashes are removed and no ..
           references are allowed to go higher than the source dir.  For
           example, take this command:


              rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup


           If /tmp/foo contains the string bin (or even /bin), the /usr/bin
           directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote host.  If
           it contains bin/ (note the trailing slash), the immediate
           contents of the directory would also be sent (without needing to
           be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in version
           2.6.4).  In both cases, if the -r option was enabled, that dirs
           entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in mind that -r
           needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from, since it is
           not implied by -a).  Also note that the effect of the (enabled by
           default) --relative option is to duplicate only the path info
           that is read from the file -- it does not force the duplication
           of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

           In addition, the --files-from file can be read from the remote
           host instead of the local host if you specify a host: in front of
           the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
           short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of : to mean use the
           remote end of the transfer.  For example:



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              rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy


           This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list
           file that was located on the remote src host.

           If the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the
           --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to another,
           the filenames will be translated from the sending hosts charset
           to the receiving hosts charset.

           NOTE: sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps
           rsync to be more efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the path
           elements that are shared between adjacent entries.  If the input
           is not sorted, some path elements (implied directories) may end
           up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will eventually
           unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list elements.



      -0, --from0
           This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file
           are terminated by a null (\0) character, not a NL, CR, or CR+LF.
           This affects --exclude-from, --include-from, --files-from, and
           any merged files specified in a --filter rule.  It does not
           affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a .cvsignore file
           are split on whitespace).



      -s, --protect-args
           This option sends all filenames and most options to the remote
           rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them.  This
           means that spaces are not split in names, and any non-wildcard
           special characters are not translated (such as ~, $, ;, &, etc.).
           Wildcards are expanded on the remote host by rsync (instead of
           the shell doing it).

           If you use this option with --iconv, the args related to the
           remote side will also be translated from the local to the remote
           character-set.  The translation happens before wild-cards are
           expanded.  See also the --files-from option.

           You may also control this option via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
           environment variable.  If this variable has a non-zero value,
           this option will be enabled by default, otherwise it will be
           disabled by default.  Either state is overridden by a manually
           specified positive or negative version of this option (note that
           --no-s and --no-protect-args are the negative versions).  Since
           this option was first introduced in 3.0.0, youll need to make



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           sure its disabled if you ever need to interact with a remote
           rsync that is older than that.

           Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this option
           enabled by default (with is overridden by both the environment
           and the command-line).  This option will eventually become a new
           default setting at some as-yet-undetermined point in the future.



      -T, --temp-dir=DIR
           This option instructs rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory
           when creating temporary copies of the files transferred on the
           receiving side.  The default behavior is to create each temporary
           file in the same directory as the associated destination file.
           Beginning with rsync 3.1.1, the temp-file names inside the
           specified DIR will not be prefixed with an extra dot (though they
           will still have a random suffix added).

           This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition
           does not have enough free space to hold a copy of the largest
           file in the transfer.  In this case (i.e. when the scratch
           directory is on a different disk partition), rsync will not be
           able to rename each received temporary file over the top of the
           associated destination file, but instead must copy it into place.
           Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the
           destination file, which means that the destination file will
           contain truncated data during this copy.  If this were not done
           this way (even if the destination file were first removed, the
           data locally copied to a temporary file in the destination
           directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
           the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it
           open), and thus there might not be enough room to fit the new
           version on the disk at the same time.

           If you are using this option for reasons other than a shortage of
           disk space, you may wish to combine it with the --delay-updates
           option, which will ensure that all copied files get put into
           subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, awaiting the end of
           the transfer.  If you dont have enough room to duplicate all the
           arriving files on the destination partition, another way to tell
           rsync that you arent overly concerned about disk space is to use
           the --partial-dir option with a relative path; because this tells
           rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy of a single file in a
           subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync will use the
           partial-dir as a staging area to bring over the copied file, and
           then rename it into place from there. (Specifying a --partial-dir
           with an absolute path does not have this side-effect.)






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      -y, --fuzzy
           This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for
           any destination file that is missing.  The current algorithm
           looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a
           file that has an identical size and modified-time, or a
           similarly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file
           to try to speed up the transfer.

           If the option is repeated, the fuzzy scan will also be done in
           any matching alternate destination directories that are specified
           via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest.

           Note that the use of the --delete option might get rid of any
           potential fuzzy-match files, so either use --delete-after or
           specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.



      --compare-dest=DIR
           This option instructs rsync to use DIR on the destination machine
           as an additional hierarchy to compare destination files against
           doing transfers (if the files are missing in the destination
           directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is identical to the
           senders file, the file will NOT be transferred to the destination
           directory.  This is useful for creating a sparse backup of just
           files that have changed from an earlier backup.  This option is
           typically used to copy into an empty (or newly created)
           directory.

           Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories
           may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the
           order specified for an exact match.  If a match is found that
           differs only in attributes, a local copy is made and the
           attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
           one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

           If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination
           directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

           NOTE: beginning with version 3.1.0, rsync will remove a file from
           a non-empty destination hierarchy if an exact match is found in
           one of the compare-dest hierarchies (making the end result more
           closely match a fresh copy).



      --copy-dest=DIR
           This option behaves like --compare-dest, but rsync will also copy
           unchanged files found in DIR to the destination directory using a
           local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
           destination while leaving existing files intact, and then doing a



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           flash-cutover when all files have been successfully transferred.

           Multiple --copy-dest directories may be provided, which will
           cause rsync to search the list in the order specified for an
           unchanged file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from one
           of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

           If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination
           directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.



      --link-dest=DIR
           This option behaves like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are
           hard linked from DIR to the destination directory.  The files
           must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
           possibly ownership) in order for the files to be linked together.
           An example:


             rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/


           If files arent linking, double-check their attributes.  Also
           check if some attributes are getting forced outside of rsyncs
           control, such a mount option that squishes root to a single user,
           or mounts a removable drive with generic ownership (such as OS Xs
           Ignore ownership on this volume option).

           Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
           be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the
           order specified for an exact match (there is a limit of 20 such
           directories).  If a match is found that differs only in
           attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated.  If
           a match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be
           selected to try to speed up the transfer.

           This option works best when copying into an empty destination
           hierarchy, as existing files may get their attributes tweaked,
           and that can affect alternate destination files via hard-links.
           Also, itemizing of changes can get a bit muddled.  Note that
           prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would
           never be found (nor linked into the destination) when a
           destination file already exists.

           Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync
           will not link any files together because it only links identical
           files together as a substitute for transferring the file, never
           as an additional check after the file is updated.





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           If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination
           directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

           Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could
           prevent --link-dest from working properly for a non-super-user
           when -o was specified (or implied by -a).  You can work-around
           this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync.



      -z, --compress
           With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent to
           the destination machine, which reduces the amount of data being
           transmitted -- something that is useful over a slow connection.

           Note that this option typically achieves better compression
           ratios than can be achieved by using a compressing remote shell
           or a compressing transport because it takes advantage of the
           implicit information in the matching data blocks that are not
           explicitly sent over the connection.  This matching-data
           compression comes at a cost of CPU, though, and can be disabled
           by repeating the -z option, but only if both sides are at least
           version 3.1.1.

           Note that if your version of rsync was compiled with an external
           zlib (instead of the zlib that comes packaged with rsync) then it
           will not support the old-style compression, only the new-style
           (repeated-option) compression.  In the future this new-style
           compression will likely become the default.

           The client rsync requests new-style compression on the server via
           the --new-compress option, so if you see that option rejected it
           means that the server is not new enough to support -zz.  Rsync
           also accepts the --old-compress option for a future time when
           new-style compression becomes the default.

           See the --skip-compress option for the default list of file
           suffixes that will not be compressed.



      --compress-level=NUM
           Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress)
           instead of letting it default.  If NUM is non-zero, the
           --compress option is implied.



      --skip-compress=LIST
           Override the list of file suffixes that will not be compressed.
           The LIST should be one or more file suffixes (without the dot)



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           separated by slashes (/).

           You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file should
           be skipped.

           Simple character-class matching is supported: each must consist
           of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
           classes, such as [:alpha:], are supported, and - has no special
           meaning).

           The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no special
           meaning.

           Heres an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of
           the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):


               --skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2


           The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this
           (in this version of rsync):

           7z ace avi bz2 deb gpg gz iso jpeg jpg lz lzma lzo mov mp3 mp4
           ogg png rar rpm rzip tbz tgz tlz txz xz z zip

           This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all
           but one situation: a copy from a daemon rsync will add your
           skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files (and its
           list may be configured to a different default).



      --numeric-ids
           With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs
           rather than using user and group names and mapping them at both
           ends.

           By default rsync will use the username and groupname to determine
           what ownership to give files. The special uid 0 and the special
           group 0 are never mapped via user/group names even if the
           --numeric-ids option is not specified.

           If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no
           match on the destination system, then the numeric ID from the
           source system is used instead.  See also the comments on the use
           chroot setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information on how
           the chroot setting affects rsyncs ability to look up the names of
           the users and groups and what you can do about it.





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      --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
           These options allow you to specify users and groups that should
           be mapped to other values by the receiving side.  The STRING is
           one or more FROM:TO pairs of values separated by commas.  Any
           matching FROM value from the sender is replaced with a TO value
           from the receiver.  You may specify usernames or user IDs for the
           FROM and TO values, and the FROM value may also be a wild-card
           string, which will be matched against the senders names
           (wild-cards do NOT match against ID numbers, though see below for
           why a * matches everything).  You may instead specify a range of
           ID numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH.  For example:


             --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr


           The first match in the list is the one that is used.  You should
           specify all your user mappings using a single --usermap option,
           and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option.

           Note that the senders name for the 0 user and group are not
           transmitted to the receiver, so you should either match these
           values using a 0, or use the names in effect on the receiving
           side (typically root).  All other FROM names match those in use
           on the sending side.  All TO names match those in use on the
           receiving side.

           Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are treated
           as having an empty name for the purpose of matching.  This allows
           them to be matched via a * or using an empty name.  For instance:


             --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody


           When the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not send
           any names, so all the IDs are treated as having an empty name.
           This means that you will need to specify numeric FROM values if
           you want to map these nameless IDs to different values.

           For the --usermap option to have any effect, the -o (--owner)
           option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to
           be running as a super-user (see also the --fake-super option).
           For the --groupmap option to have any effect, the -g (--groups)
           option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to
           have permissions to set that group.






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      --chown=USER:GROUP
           This option forces all files to be owned by USER with group
           GROUP.  This is a simpler interface than using --usermap and
           --groupmap directly, but it is implemented using those options
           internally, so you cannot mix them.  If either the USER or GROUP
           is empty, no mapping for the omitted user/group will occur.  If
           GROUP is empty, the trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER is
           empty, a leading colon must be supplied.

           If you specify --chown=foo:bar, this is exactly the same as
           specifying --usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar, only easier.



      --timeout=TIMEOUT
           This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds.
           If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will
           exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.



      --contimeout
           This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will
           wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.  If the
           timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.



      --address
           By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when
           connecting to an rsync daemon.  The --address option allows you
           to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.  See
           also this option in the --daemon mode section.



      --port=PORT
           This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than
           the default of 873.  This is only needed if you are using the
           double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since
           the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a part of the
           URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.



      --sockopts
           This option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune
           their systems to the utmost degree. You can set all sorts of
           socket options which may make transfers faster (or slower!). Read
           the man page for the setsockopt() system call for details on some
           of the options you may be able to set. By default no special



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           socket options are set. This only affects direct socket
           connections to a remote rsync daemon.  This option also exists in
           the --daemon mode section.



      --blocking-io
           This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a remote
           shell transport.  If the remote shell is either rsh or remsh,
           rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to
           using non-blocking I/O.  (Note that ssh prefers non-blocking
           I/O.)



      --outbuf=MODE
           This sets the output buffering mode.  The mode can be None (aka
           Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full).  You may specify as
           little as a single letter for the mode, and use upper or lower
           case.

           The main use of this option is to change Full buffering to Line
           buffering when rsyncs output is going to a file or pipe.



      -i, --itemize-changes
           Requests a simple itemized list of the changes that are being
           made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
           the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.  If you repeat the
           option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the
           receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with
           older versions of rsync, but that also turns on the output of
           other verbose messages).

           The %i escape has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long.  The
           general format is like the string YXcstpoguax, where Y is
           replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by the
           file-type, and the other letters represent attributes that may be
           output if they are being modified.

           The update types that replace the Y are as follows:



           o    A < means that a file is being transferred to the remote
                host (sent).

           o    A > means that a file is being transferred to the local host
                (received).




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           o    A c means that a local change/creation is occurring for the
                item (such as the creation of a directory or the changing of
                a symlink, etc.).

           o    A h means that the item is a hard link to another item
                (requires --hard-links).

           o    A . means that the item is not being updated (though it
                might have attributes that are being modified).

           o    A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area contains
                a message (e.g. deleting).


           The file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a
           directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a
           special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

           The other letters in the string above are the actual letters that
           will be output if the associated attribute for the item is being
           updated or a . for no change.  Three exceptions to this are: (1)
           a newly created item replaces each letter with a +, (2) an
           identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3) an unknown
           attribute replaces each letter with a ? (this can happen when
           talking to an older rsync).

           The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:



           o    A c means either that a regular file has a different
                checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device, or
                special file has a changed value.  Note that if you are
                sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change flag
                will be present only for checksum-differing regular files.

           o    A s means the size of a regular file is different and will
                be updated by the file transfer.

           o    A t means the modification time is different and is being
                updated to the senders value (requires --times).  An
                alternate value of T means that the modification time will
                be set to the transfer time, which happens when a
                file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a
                symlink is changed and the receiver cant set its time.
                (Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see the s
                flag combined with t instead of the proper T flag for this
                time-setting failure.)

           o    A p means the permissions are different and are being
                updated to the senders value (requires --perms).



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           o    An o means the owner is different and is being updated to
                the senders value (requires --owner and super-user
                privileges).

           o    A g means the group is different and is being updated to the
                senders value (requires --group and the authority to set the
                group).

           o    The u slot is reserved for future use.

           o    The a means that the ACL information changed.

           o    The x means that the extended attribute information changed.


           One other output is possible:  when deleting files, the %i will
           output the string *deleting for each item that is being removed
           (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync that it
           logs deletions instead of outputting them as a verbose message).



      --out-format=FORMAT
           This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs
           to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a text string
           containing embedded single-character escape sequences prefixed
           with a percent (%) character.   A default format of %n%L is
           assumed if either --info=name or -v is specified (this tells you
           just the name of the file and, if the item is a link, where it
           points).  For a full list of the possible escape characters, see
           the log format setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

           Specifying the --out-format option implies the --info=name
           option, which will mention each file, dir, etc. that gets updated
           in a significant way (a transferred file, a recreated
           symlink/device, or a touched directory).  In addition, if the
           itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in the string (e.g. if
           the --itemize-changes option was used), the logging of names
           increases to mention any item that is changed in any way (as long
           as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).  See the
           --itemize-changes option for a description of the output of %i.

           Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a files transfer
           unless one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested, in
           which case the logging is done at the end of the files transfer.
           When this late logging is in effect and --progress is also
           specified, rsync will also output the name of the file being
           transferred prior to its progress information (followed, of
           course, by the out-format output).





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      --log-file=FILE
           This option causes rsync to log what it is doing to a file.  This
           is similar to the logging that a daemon does, but can be
           requested for the client side and/or the server side of a
           non-daemon transfer.  If specified as a client option, transfer
           logging will be enabled with a default format of %i %n%L.  See
           the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

           Heres a example command that requests the remote side to log what
           is happening:


             rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/


           This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is
           closing unexpectedly.



      --log-file-format=FORMAT
           This allows you to specify exactly what per-update logging is put
           into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must also
           be specified for this option to have any effect).  If you specify
           an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in the log
           file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see the log
           format setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

           The default FORMAT used if --log-file is specified and this
           option is not is %i %n%L.



      --stats
           This tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics on the file
           transfer, allowing you to tell how effective rsyncs
           delta-transfer algorithm is for your data.  This option is
           equivalent to --info=stats2 if combined with 0 or 1 -v options,
           or --info=stats3 if combined with 2 or more -v options.

           The current statistics are as follows:

           o    Number of files is the count of all files (in the generic
                sense), which includes directories, symlinks, etc.  The
                total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype
                (if the total is non-zero).  For example: (reg: 5, dir: 3,
                link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1) lists the totals for regular
                files, directories, symlinks, devices, and special files.
                If any of value is 0, it is completely omitted from the



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                list.

           o    Number of created files is the count of how many files
                (generic sense) were created (as opposed to updated).  The
                total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype
                (if the total is non-zero).

           o    Number of deleted files is the count of how many files
                (generic sense) were created (as opposed to updated).  The
                total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype
                (if the total is non-zero).  Note that this line is only
                output if deletions are in effect, and only if protocol 31
                is being used (the default for rsync 3.1.x).

           o    Number of regular files transferred is the count of normal
                files that were updated via rsyncs delta-transfer algorithm,
                which does not include dirs, symlinks, etc.  Note that rsync
                3.1.0 added the word regular into this heading.

           o    Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the
                transfer.  This does not count any size for directories or
                special files, but does include the size of symlinks.

           o    Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files
                sizes for just the transferred files.

           o    Literal data is how much unmatched file-update data we had
                to send to the receiver for it to recreate the updated
                files.

           o    Matched data is how much data the receiver got locally when
                recreating the updated files.

           o    File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
                sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
                in-memory size for the file list due to some compressing of
                duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

           o    File list generation time is the number of seconds that the
                sender spent creating the file list.  This requires a modern
                rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

           o    File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the
                sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

           o    Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
                sent from the client side to the server side.

           o    Total bytes received is the count of all non-message bytes
                that rsync received by the client side from the server side.
                Non-message bytes means that we dont count the bytes for a



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                verbose message that the server sent to us, which makes the
                stats more consistent.




      -8, --8-bit-output
           This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in
           the output instead of trying to test them to see if theyre valid
           in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.  All control
           characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regardless of
           this options setting.

           The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal
           backslash (\) and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal digits.
           For example, a newline would output as \#012.  A literal
           backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is
           followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).



      -h, --human-readable
           Output numbers in a more human-readable format.  There are 3
           possible levels:  (1) output numbers with a separator between
           each set of 3 digits (either a comma or a period, depending on if
           the decimal point is represented by a period or a comma); (2)
           output numbers in units of 1000 (with a character suffix for
           larger units -- see below); (3) output numbers in units of 1024.

           The default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option increases
           the level by one.  You can take the level down to 0 (to output
           numbers as pure digits) by specifing the --no-human-readable
           (--no-h) option.

           The unit letters that are appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K
           (kilo), M (mega), G (giga), or T (tera).  For example, a
           1234567-byte file would output as 1.23M in level-2 (assuming that
           a period is your local decimal point).

           Backward compatibility note:  versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0 do
           not support human-readable level 1, and they default to level 0.
           Thus, specifying one or two -h options will behave in a
           comparable manner in old and new versions as long as you didnt
           specify a --no-h option prior to one or more -h options.  See the
           --list-only option for one difference.



      --partial
           By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if
           the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances it is more



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           desirable to keep partially transferred files. Using the
           --partial option tells rsync to keep the partial file which
           should make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much
           faster.



      --partial-dir=DIR
           A better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is
           to specify a DIR that will be used to hold the partial data
           (instead of writing it out to the destination file).  On the next
           transfer, rsync will use a file found in this dir as data to
           speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it after
           it has served its purpose.

           Note that if --whole-file is specified (or implied), any
           partial-dir file that is found for a file that is being updated
           will simply be removed (since rsync is sending files without
           using rsyncs delta-transfer algorithm).

           Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir --
           not the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a relative path
           (such as --partial-dir=.rsync-partial) to have rsync create the
           partial-directory in the destination files directory when needed,
           and then remove it again when the partial file is deleted.

           If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add
           an exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.  This
           will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist
           on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
           of partial-dir items on the receiving side.  An example: the
           above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of -f '-p
           .rsync-partial/' at the end of any other filter rules.

           If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add
           your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because
           (1) the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the end of your
           other rules, or (2) you may wish to override rsyncs exclude
           choice.  For instance, if you want to make rsync clean-up any
           left-over partial-dirs that may be lying around, you should
           specify --delete-after and add a risk filter rule, e.g.  -f 'R
           .rsync-partial/'.  (Avoid using --delete-before or
           --delete-during unless you dont need rsync to use any of the
           left-over partial-dir data during the current run.)

           IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not be writable by other
           users or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID /tmp.

           You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
           environment variable.  Setting this in the environment does not
           force --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where



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           partial files go when --partial is specified.  For instance,
           instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress,
           you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment
           and then just use the -P option to turn on the use of the
           .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only times that the
           --partial option does not look for this environment value are (1)
           when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with
           --partial-dir), and (2) when --delay-updates was specified (see
           below).

           For the purposes of the daemon-configs refuse options setting,
           --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so that a
           refusal of the --partial option can be used to disallow the
           overwriting of destination files with a partial transfer, while
           still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.



      --delay-updates
           This option puts the temporary file from each updated file into a
           holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time
           all the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.  This
           attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
           By default the files are placed into a directory named .~tmp~ in
           each files destination directory, but if youve specified the
           --partial-dir option, that directory will be used instead.  See
           the comments in the --partial-dir section for a discussion of how
           this .~tmp~ dir will be excluded from the transfer, and what you
           can do if you want rsync to cleanup old .~tmp~ dirs that might be
           lying around.  Conflicts with --inplace and --append.

           This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
           file transferred) and also requires enough free disk space on the
           receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
           files.  Note also that you should not use an absolute path to
           --partial-dir unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files
           in the transfer having the same name (since all the updated files
           will be put into a single directory if the path is absolute) and
           (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy (since the delayed
           updates will fail if they cant be renamed into place).

           See also the atomic-rsync perl script in the support subdir for
           an update algorithm that is even more atomic (it uses --link-dest
           and a parallel hierarchy of files).



      -m, --prune-empty-dirs
           This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty
           directories from the file-list, including nested directories that
           have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the



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           creation of a bunch of useless directories when the sending rsync
           is recursively scanning a hierarchy of files using
           include/exclude/filter rules.

           Note that the use of transfer rules, such as the --min-size
           option, does not affect what goes into the file list, and thus
           does not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in a
           directory match the transfer rule.

           Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also
           affects what directories get deleted when a delete is active.
           However, keep in mind that excluded files and directories can
           prevent existing items from being deleted due to an exclude both
           hiding source files and protecting destination files.  See the
           perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

           You can prevent the pruning of certain empty directories from the
           file-list by using a global protect filter.  For instance, this
           option would ensure that the directory emptydir was kept in the
           file-list:


           --filter protect emptydir/


           Heres an example that copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy, only
           creating the necessary destination directories to hold the .pdf
           files, and ensures that any superfluous files and directories in
           the destination are removed (note the hide filter of
           non-directories being used instead of an exclude):


           rsync -avm --del --include=*.pdf -f hide,! */ src/ dest


           If you didnt want to remove superfluous destination files, the
           more time-honored options of --include='*/' --exclude='*' would
           work fine in place of the hide-filter (if that is more natural to
           you).



      --progress
           This option tells rsync to print information showing the progress
           of the transfer. This gives a bored user something to watch.
           With a modern rsync this is the same as specifying
           --info=flist2,name,progress, but any user-supplied settings for
           those info flags takes precedence (e.g. --info=flist0
           --progress).





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           While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a progress
           line that looks like this:


                 782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04


           In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or
           63% of the senders file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
           of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish in 4
           seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

           These statistics can be misleading if rsyncs delta-transfer
           algorithm is in use.  For example, if the senders file consists
           of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate
           will probably drop dramatically when the receiver gets to the
           literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to
           finish than the receiver estimated as it was finishing the
           matched part of the file.

           When the file transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress line
           with a summary line that looks like this:


                 1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)


           In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the
           average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
           per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete, it was
           the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync
           session, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check
           (to see if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396
           total files in the file-list.

           In an incremental recursion scan, rsync wont know the total
           number of files in the file-list until it reaches the ends of the
           scan, but since it starts to transfer files during the scan, it
           will display a line with the text ir-chk (for incremental
           recursion check) instead of to-chk until the point that it knows
           the full size of the list, at which point it will switch to using
           to-chk.  Thus, seeing ir-chk lets you know that the total count
           of files in the file list is still going to increase (and each
           time it does, the count of files left to check  will increase by
           the number of the files added to the list).



      -P   The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.  Its purpose
           is to make it much easier to specify these two options for a long
           transfer that may be interrupted.



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           There is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs statistics
           based on the whole transfer, rather than individual files.  Use
           this flag without outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or specify
           --info=name0) if you want to see how the transfer is doing
           without scrolling the screen with a lot of names.  (You dont need
           to specify the --progress option in order to use
           --info=progress2.)



      --password-file=FILE
           This option allows you to provide a password for accessing an
           rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -.  The
           file should contain just the password on the first line (all
           other lines are ignored).  Rsync will exit with an error if FILE
           is world readable or if a root-run rsync command finds a
           non-root-owned file.

           This option does not supply a password to a remote shell
           transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the
           remote shells documentation.  When accessing an rsync daemon
           using a remote shell as the transport, this option only comes
           into effect after the remote shell finishes its authentication
           (i.e. if you have also specified a password in the daemons config
           file).



      --list-only
           This option will cause the source files to be listed instead of
           transferred.  This option is inferred if there is a single source
           arg and no destination specified, so its main uses are: (1) to
           turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into a
           file-listing command, or (2) to be able to specify more than one
           source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).  Caution:
           keep in mind that a source arg with a wild-card is expanded by
           the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to try to list
           such an arg without using this option.  For example:


               rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/


           Starting with rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by --list-only are
           affected by the --human-readable option.  By default they will
           contain digit separators, but higher levels of readability will
           output the sizes with unit suffixes.  Note also that the column
           width for the size output has increased from 11 to 14 characters
           for all human-readable levels.  Use --no-h if you want just
           digits in the sizes, and the old column width of 11 characters.




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           Compatibility note:  when requesting a remote listing of files
           from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter
           an error if you ask for a non-recursive listing.  This is because
           a file listing implies the --dirs option w/o --recursive, and
           older rsyncs dont have that option.  To avoid this problem,
           either specify the --no-dirs option (if you dont need to expand a
           directorys content), or turn on recursion and exclude the content
           of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.



      --bwlimit=RATE
           This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
           the data sent over the socket, specified in units per second.
           The RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a size
           multiplier, and may be a fractional value (e.g.  --bwlimit=1.5m).
           If no suffix is specified, the value will be assumed to be in
           units of 1024 bytes (as if K or KiB had been appended).  See the
           --max-size option for a description of all the available
           suffixes. A value of zero specifies no limit.

           For backward-compatibility reasons, the rate limit will be
           rounded to the nearest KiB unit, so no rate smaller than 1024
           bytes per second is possible.

           Rsync writes data over the socket in blocks, and this option both
           limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries to
           keep the average transfer rate at the requested limit.  Some
           burstiness may be seen where rsync writes out a block of data and
           then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance.

           Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may
           not be an accurate reflection on how fast the data is being sent.
           This is because some files can show up as being rapidly sent when
           the data is quickly buffered, while other can show up as very
           slow when the flushing of the output buffer occurs.  This may be
           fixed in a future version.



      --write-batch=FILE
           Record a file that can later be applied to another identical
           destination with --read-batch. See the BATCH MODE section for
           details, and also the --only-write-batch option.



      --only-write-batch=FILE
           Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the
           destination system when creating the batch.  This lets you
           transport the changes to the destination system via some other



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           means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

           Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some
           portable media: if this media fills to capacity before the end of
           the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the
           destination and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the
           changes (as long as you dont mind a partially updated destination
           system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

           Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
           remote system because this allows the batched data to be diverted
           from the sender into the batch file without having to flow over
           the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender is remote, and
           thus cant write the batch).



      --read-batch=FILE
           Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously
           generated by --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch data will be
           read from standard input.  See the BATCH MODE section for
           details.



      --protocol=NUM
           Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful for
           creating a batch file that is compatible with an older version of
           rsync.  For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used with the
           --write-batch option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to run
           the --read-batch option, you should use --protocol=28 when
           creating the batch file to force the older protocol version to be
           used in the batch file (assuming you cant upgrade the rsync on
           the reading system).



      --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC
           Rsync can convert filenames between character sets using this
           option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of . tells rsync to look up the
           default character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately, you
           can fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and a
           remote charset separated by a comma in the order
           --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g.  --iconv=utf8,iso88591.  This order
           ensures that the option will stay the same whether youre pushing
           or pulling files.  Finally, you can specify either --no-iconv or
           a CONVERT_SPEC of - to turn off any conversion.  The default
           setting of this option is site-specific, and can also be affected
           via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.





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           For a list of what charset names your local iconv library
           supports, you can run iconv --list.

           If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will
           translate the filenames you specify on the command-line that are
           being sent to the remote host.  See also the --files-from option.

           Note that rsync does not do any conversion of names in filter
           files (including include/exclude files).  It is up to you to
           ensure that youre specifying matching rules that can match on
           both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
           include/exclude rules if there are filename differences on the
           two sides that need to be accounted for.

           When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon that allows
           it, the daemon uses the charset specified in its charset
           configuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you
           actually pass.  Thus, you may feel free to specify just the local
           charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).



      -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
           Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets.  This only
           affects sockets that rsync has direct control over, such as the
           outgoing socket when directly contacting an rsync daemon.  See
           also these options in the --daemon mode section.

           If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option
           will have no effect.  The --version output will tell you if this
           is the case.



      --checksum-seed=NUM
           Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte checksum
           seed is included in each block and MD4 file checksum calculation
           (the more modern MD5 file checksums dont use a seed).  By default
           the checksum seed is generated by the server and defaults to the
           current time() .  This option is used to set a specific checksum
           seed, which is useful for applications that want repeatable block
           checksums, or in the case where the user wants a more random
           checksum seed.  Setting NUM to 0 causes rsync to use the default
           of time() for checksum seed.



 DAEMON OPTIONS
      The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:





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      --daemon
           This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon you
           start running may be accessed using an rsync client using the
           host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

           If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is
           being run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current
           terminal and become a background daemon.  The daemon will read
           the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client
           and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man
           page for more details.



      --address
           By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a
           daemon with the --daemon option.  The --address option allows you
           to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.  This
           makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction with the --config
           option.  See also the address global option in the rsyncd.conf
           manpage.



      --bwlimit=RATE
           This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
           the data the daemon sends over the socket.  The client can still
           specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but no larger value will be
           allowed.  See the client version of this option (above) for some
           extra details.



      --config=FILE
           This specifies an alternate config file than the default.  This
           is only relevant when --daemon is specified.  The default is
           /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is running over a remote shell
           program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that case
           the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typically
           $HOME).



      -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE
           This option can be used to set a daemon-config parameter when
           starting up rsync in daemon mode.  It is equivalent to adding the
           parameter at the end of the global settings prior to the first
           modules definition.  The parameter names can be specified without
           spaces, if you so desire.  For instance:





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               rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/rsync.pid




      --no-detach
           When running as a daemon, this option instructs rsync to not
           detach itself and become a background process.  This option is
           required when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also be
           useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools
           or AIXs System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also
           recommended when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has
           no effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.



      --port=PORT
           This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the daemon to
           listen on rather than the default of 873.  See also the port
           global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.



      --log-file=FILE
           This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given log-file name
           instead of using the log file setting in the config file.



      --log-file-format=FORMAT
           This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT string
           instead of using the log format setting in the config file.  It
           also enables transfer logging unless the string is empty, in
           which case transfer logging is turned off.



      --sockopts
           This overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf file
           and has the same syntax.



      -v, --verbose
           This option increases the amount of information the daemon logs
           during its startup phase.  After the client connects, the daemons
           verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the client
           used and the max verbosity setting in the modules config section.





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      -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
           Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming
           sockets that the rsync daemon will use to listen for connections.
           One of these options may be required in older versions of Linux
           to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an address
           already in use error when nothing else is using the port, try
           specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

           If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option
           will have no effect.  The --version output will tell you if this
           is the case.



      -h, --help
           When specified after --daemon, print a short help page describing
           the options available for starting an rsync daemon.



 FILTER RULES
      The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to
      transfer (include) and which files to skip (exclude).  The rules
      either directly specify include/exclude patterns or they specify a way
      to acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a
      file).

      As the list of files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks
      each name to be transferred against the list of include/exclude
      patterns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on:  if it
      is an exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include
      pattern then that filename is not skipped; if no matching pattern is
      found, then the filename is not skipped.

      Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the
      command-line.  Filter rules have the following syntax:

           RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]
           RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]


      You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as
      described below.  If you use a short-named rule, the , separating the
      RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that
      follows (when present) must come after either a single space or an
      underscore (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

           exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
           include, + specifies an include pattern.



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           merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
           dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
           hide, H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
           show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
           protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files from
           deletion.
           risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
           clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)


      When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are
      comment lines that start with a #.

      Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow
      the full range of rule parsing as described above -- they only allow
      the specification of include/exclude patterns plus a ! token to clear
      the list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a
      file).  If a pattern does not begin with -  (dash, space) or +  (plus,
      space), then the rule will be interpreted as if +  (for an include
      option) or -  (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A
      --filter option, on the other hand, must always contain either a short
      or long rule name at the start of the rule.

      Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one
      rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on
      the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or
      the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

 INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERN RULES
      You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the +,
      -, etc. filter rules (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section
      above).  The include/exclude rules each specify a pattern that is
      matched against the names of the files that are going to be
      transferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

      o    if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a
           particular spot in the hierarchy of files, otherwise it is
           matched against the end of the pathname.  This is similar to a
           leading ^ in regular expressions.  Thus /foo would match a name
           of foo at either the root of the transfer (for a global rule) or
           in the merge-files directory (for a per-directory rule).  An
           unqualified foo would match a name of foo anywhere in the tree
           because the algorithm is applied recursively from the top down;
           it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at being the end
           of the filename.  Even the unanchored sub/foo would match at any
           point in the hierarchy where a foo was found within a directory
           named sub.  See the section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS
           for a full discussion of how to specify a pattern that matches at
           the root of the transfer.





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      o    if the pattern ends with a / then it will only match a directory,
           not a regular file, symlink, or device.

      o    rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard
           matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these three
           wildcard characters: *, ?, and [ .

      o    a * matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

      o    use ** to match anything, including slashes.

      o    a ? matches any character except a slash (/).

      o    a [ introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or [[:alpha:]].

      o    in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a
           wildcard character, but it is matched literally when no wildcards
           are present.  This means that there is an extra level of
           backslash removal when a pattern contains wildcard characters
           compared to a pattern that has none.  e.g. if you add a wildcard
           to foo\bar (which matches the backslash) you would need to use
           foo\\bar* to avoid the \b becoming just b.

      o    if the pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing /) or a **,
           then it is matched against the full pathname, including any
           leading directories. If the pattern doesnt contain a / or a **,
           then it is matched only against the final component of the
           filename.  (Remember that the algorithm is applied recursively so
           full filename can actually be any portion of a path from the
           starting directory on down.)

      o    a trailing dir_name/*** will match both the directory (as if
           dir_name/ had been specified) and everything in the directory (as
           if dir_name/** had been specified).  This behavior was added in
           version 2.6.7.


      Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by
      -a), every subdir component of every path is visited left to right,
      with each directory having a chance for exclusion before its content.
      In this way include/exclude patterns are applied recursively to the
      pathname of each node in the filesystems tree (those inside the
      transfer).  The exclude patterns short-circuit the directory traversal
      stage as rsync finds the files to send.

      For instance, to include /foo/bar/baz, the directories /foo and
      /foo/bar must not be excluded.  Excluding one of those parent
      directories prevents the examination of its content, cutting off
      rsyncs recursion into those paths and rendering the include for
      /foo/bar/baz ineffectual (since rsync cant match something it never
      sees in the cut-off section of the directory hierarchy).



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      The concept path exclusion is particularly important when using a
      trailing * rule.  For instance, this wont work:

           + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
           + /file-is-included
           - *


      This fails because the parent directory some is excluded by the *
      rule, so rsync never visits any of the files in the some or some/path
      directories.  One solution is to ask for all directories in the
      hierarchy to be included by using a single rule: + */ (put it
      somewhere before the - * rule), and perhaps use the --prune-empty-dirs
      option.  Another solution is to add specific include rules for all the
      parent dirs that need to be visited.  For instance, this set of rules
      works fine:

           + /some/
           + /some/path/
           + /some/path/this-file-is-found
           + /file-also-included
           - *


      Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

      o    - *.o would exclude all names matching *.o

      o    - /foo would exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the
           transfer-root directory

      o    - foo/ would exclude any directory named foo

      o    - /foo/*/bar would exclude any file named bar which is at two
           levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root directory

      o    - /foo/**/bar would exclude any file named bar two or more levels
           below a directory named foo in the transfer-root directory

      o    The combination of + */, + *.c, and - * would include all
           directories and C source files but nothing else (see also the
           --prune-empty-dirs option)

      o    The combination of + foo/, + foo/bar.c, and - * would include
           only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory must be
           explicitly included or it would be excluded by the *)


      The following modifiers are accepted after a + or -:





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      o    A / specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched
           against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
           -/ /etc/passwd would exclude the passwd file any time the
           transfer was sending files from the /etc directory, and -/
           subdir/foo would always exclude foo when it is in a dir named
           subdir, even if foo is at the root of the current transfer.

      o    A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the
           pattern fails to match.  For instance, -! */ would exclude all
           non-directories.

      o    A C is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
           should be inserted as excludes in place of the -C.  No arg should
           follow.

      o    An s is used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending
           side.  When a rule affects the sending side, it prevents files
           from being transferred.  The default is for a rule to affect both
           sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case
           default rules become sender-side only.  See also the hide (H) and
           show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify
           sending-side includes/excludes.

      o    An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving
           side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files
           from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
           the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way to
           specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

      o    A p indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it is
           ignored in directories that are being deleted.  For instance, the
           -C options default rules that exclude things like CVS and *.o are
           marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory that was
           removed on the source from being deleted on the destination.

      o    An x indicates that a rule affects xattr names in xattr
           copy/delete operations (and is thus ignored when matching
           file/dir names). If no xattr-matching rules are specified, a
           default xattr filtering rule is used (see the --xattrs option).


 MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES
      You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either
      a merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the
      FILTER RULES section above).

      There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance (.) and
      per-directory (:).  A single-instance merge file is read one time, and
      its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the .
      rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every directory
      that it traverses for the named file, merging its contents when the



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      file exists into the current list of inherited rules.  These
      per-directory rule files must be created on the sending side because
      it is the sending side that is being scanned for the available files
      to transfer.  These rule files may also need to be transferred to the
      receiving side if you want them to affect what files dont get deleted
      (see PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE below).

      Some examples:

           merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
           dir-merge .per-dir-filter
           dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
           :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes


      The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

      o    A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude
           patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

      o    A + specifies that the file should consist of only include
           patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

      o    A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in a
           CVS-compatible manner.  This turns on n, w, and -, but also
           allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no
           filename is provided, .cvsignore is assumed.

      o    A e will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.
           dir-merge,e .rules is like dir-merge .rules and - .rules.

      o    An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by
           subdirectories.

      o    A w specifies that the rules are word-split on whitespace instead
           of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off comments.
           Note: the space that separates the prefix from the rule is
           treated specially, so - foo + bar is parsed as two rules
           (assuming that prefix-parsing wasnt also disabled).

      o    You may also specify any of the modifiers for the + or - rules
           (above) in order to have the rules that are read in from the file
           default to having that modifier set (except for the ! modifier,
           which would not be useful).  For instance, merge,-/ .excl would
           treat the contents of .excl as absolute-path excludes, while
           dir-merge,s .filt and :sC would each make all their per-directory
           rules apply only on the sending side.  If the merge rule
           specifies sides to affect (via the s or r modifier or both), then
           the rules in the file must not specify sides (via a modifier or a
           rule prefix such as hide).




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      Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of the
      directory where the merge-file was found unless the n modifier was
      used.  Each subdirectorys rules are prefixed to the inherited
      per-directory rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a
      higher priority than the inherited rules.  The entire set of dir-merge
      rules are grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was
      specified, so it is possible to override dir-merge rules via a rule
      that got specified earlier in the list of global rules.  When the
      list-clearing rule (!) is read from a per-directory file, it only
      clears the inherited rules for the current merge file.

      Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being
      inherited is to anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a
      per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-files directory, so
      a pattern /foo would only match the file foo in the directory where
      the dir-merge filter file was found.

      Heres an example filter file which youd specify via --filter=. file:

           merge /home/user/.global-filter
           - *.gz
           dir-merge .rules
           + *.[ch]
           - *.o


      This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at
      the start of the list and also turns the .rules filename into a
      per-directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to the start of
      the directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading
      slash matches at the root of the transfer).

      If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a
      parent directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all
      the parent dirs from that starting point to the transfer directory for
      the indicated per-directory file.  For instance, here is a common
      filter (see -F):

           --filter=': /.rsync-filter'


      That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all
      directories from the root down through the parent directory of the
      transfer prior to the start of the normal directory scan of the file
      in the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer.  (Note:
      for an rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the modules path.)

      Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

           rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
           rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir



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           rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir


      The first two commands above will look for .rsync-filter in / and /src
      before the normal scan begins looking for the file in /src/path and
      its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the parent-dir scan and
      only looks for the .rsync-filter files in each directory that is a
      part of the transfer.

      If you want to include the contents of a .cvsignore in your patterns,
      you should use the rule :C, which creates a dir-merge of the
      .cvsignore file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use
      this to affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C) options inclusion of the
      per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by putting
      the :C wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync
      would add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all
      your other rules (giving it a lower priority than your command-line
      rules).  For example:

           cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
           + foo.o
           :C
           - *.old
           EOT
           rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b


      Both of the above rsync commands are identical.  Each one will merge
      all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list
      rather than at the end.  This allows their dir-specific rules to
      supersede the rules that follow the :C instead of being subservient to
      all your rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the
      default list of exclusions, the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the
      value of $CVSIGNORE) you should omit the -C command-line option and
      instead insert a -C rule into your filter rules; e.g. --filter=-C.

 LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE
      You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the ! filter
      rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The current
      list is either the global list of rules (if the rule is encountered
      while parsing the filter options) or a set of per-directory rules
      (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use
      this to clear out the parents rules).

 ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS
      As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at
      the root of the transfer (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
      are anchored at the merge-files directory).  If you think of the
      transfer as a subtree of names that are being sent from sender to
      receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated
      in the destination directory.  This root governs where patterns that



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      start with a / match.

      Because the matching is relative to the transfer-root, changing the
      trailing slash on a source path or changing your use of the --relative
      option affects the path you need to use in your matching (in addition
      to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination
      host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

      Lets say that we want to match two source files, one with an absolute
      path of /home/me/foo/bar, and one with a path of /home/you/bar/baz.
      Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source
      transfer:

           Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
           +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
           +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
           Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz


           Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
           +/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing me)
           +/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing you)
           Target file: /dest/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/bar/baz


           Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
           +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
           +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
           Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz


           Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
           +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
           +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
           Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz


      The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just look at
      the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the name (use
      the --dry-run option if youre not yet ready to copy any files).

 PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE
      Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the
      sending side, so you can feel free to exclude the merge files
      themselves without affecting the transfer.  To make this easy, the e
      modifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent
      commands:



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           rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest


      However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want
      some files to be excluded from being deleted, youll need to be sure
      that the receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The easiest way
      is to include the per-directory merge files in the transfer and use
      --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side gets all
      the same exclude rules as the sending side before it tries to delete
      anything:

           rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest


      However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, youll need
      to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the
      command line), or youll need to maintain your own per-directory merge
      files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is this (assume
      that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

      rsync -av --filter=: .rules --filter=. /my/extra.rules
         --delete host:src/dir /dest


      In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the
      transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are subservient to the
      rules merged from the .rules files because they were specified after
      the per-directory merge rule.

      In one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter
      files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter
      files to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this
      we must specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so that
      they dont get deleted) and then put rules into the local files to
      control what else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

          rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
              host:src/dir /dest
          rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest


 BATCH MODE
      Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many
      identical systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a
      number of hosts.  Now suppose some changes have been made to this
      source tree and those changes need to be propagated to the other
      hosts. In order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the
      write-batch option to apply the changes made to the source tree to one
      of the destination trees.  The write-batch option causes the rsync
      client to store in a batch file all the information needed to repeat



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      this operation against other, identical destination trees.

      Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file
      status, checksum, and data block generation more than once when
      updating multiple destination trees. Multicast transport protocols can
      be used to transfer the batch update files in parallel to many hosts
      at once, instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

      To apply the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync
      with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch
      file, and the destination tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree
      using the information stored in the batch file.

      For your convenience, a script file is also created when the
      write-batch option is used:  it will be named the same as the batch
      file with .sh appended.  This script file contains a command-line
      suitable for updating a destination tree using the associated batch
      file. It can be executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell,
      optionally passing in an alternate destination tree pathname which is
      then used instead of the original destination path.  This is useful
      when the destination tree path on the current host differs from the
      one used to create the batch file.

      Examples:

           $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
           $ scp foo* remote:
           $ ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/


           $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
           $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo


      In these examples, rsync is used to update /adest/dir/ from
      /source/dir/ and the information to repeat this operation is stored in
      foo and foo.sh.  The host remote is then updated with the batched data
      going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between the two
      examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal with
      batches:

      o    The first example shows that the initial copy doesnt have to be
           local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote host using
           either the remote-shell syntax or rsync daemon syntax, as
           desired.

      o    The first example uses the created foo.sh file to get the right
           rsync options when running the read-batch command on the remote
           host.





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      o    The second example reads the batch data via standard input so
           that the batch file doesnt need to be copied to the remote
           machine first.  This example avoids the foo.sh script because it
           needed to use a modified --read-batch option, but you could edit
           the script file if you wished to make use of it (just be sure
           that no other option is trying to use standard input, such as the
           --exclude-from=- option).


      Caveats:

      The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating
      to be identical to the destination tree that was used to create the
      batch update fileset.  When a difference between the destination trees
      is encountered the update might be discarded with a warning (if the
      file appears to be up-to-date already) or the file-update may be
      attempted and then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded
      with an error.  This means that it should be safe to re-run a
      read-batch operation if the command got interrupted.  If you wish to
      force the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the
      files size and date, use the -I option (when reading the batch).  If
      an error occurs, the destination tree will probably be in a partially
      updated state. In that case, rsync can be used in its regular
      (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the destination tree.

      The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as new as
      the one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an error
      if the protocol version in the batch file is too new for the
      batch-reading rsync to handle.  See also the --protocol option for a
      way to have the creating rsync generate a batch file that an older
      rsync can understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in
      version 2.6.3, so mixing versions older than that with newer versions
      will not work.)

      When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain
      options to match the data in the batch file if you didnt set them to
      the same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and should)
      be changed.  For instance --write-batch changes to --read-batch,
      --files-from is dropped, and the --filter/--include/--exclude options
      are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified.

      The code that creates the BATCH.sh file transforms any
      filter/include/exclude options into a single list that is appended as
      a here document to the shell script file.  An advanced user can use
      this to modify the exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by
      --delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just
      use the shell script as an easy way to run the appropriate
      --read-batch command for the batched data.

      The original batch mode in rsync was based on rsync+, but the latest
      version uses a new implementation.



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 SYMBOLIC LINKS
      Three basic behaviors are possible when rsync encounters a symbolic
      link in the source directory.

      By default, symbolic links are not transferred at all.  A message
      skipping non-regular file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

      If --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same
      target on the destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

      If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are collapsed by copying
      their referent, rather than the symlink.

      Rsync can also distinguish safe and unsafe symbolic links.  An example
      where this might be used is a web site mirror that wishes to ensure
      that the rsync module that is copied does not include symbolic links
      to /etc/passwd in the public section of the site.  Using
      --copy-unsafe-links will cause any links to be copied as the file they
      point to on the destination.  Using --safe-links will cause unsafe
      links to be omitted altogether.  (Note that you must specify --links
      for --safe-links to have any effect.)

      Symbolic links are considered unsafe if they are absolute symlinks
      (start with /), empty, or if they contain enough .. components to
      ascend from the directory being copied.

      Heres a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The list
      is in order of precedence, so if your combination of options isnt
      mentioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your
      options:

      --copy-links
           Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
           other options to affect).

      --links --copy-unsafe-links
           Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe
           symlinks.

      --copy-unsafe-links
           Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe
           symlinks.

      --links --safe-links
           Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

      --links
           Duplicate all symlinks.

 DIAGNOSTICS




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      rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little
      cryptic. The one that seems to cause the most confusion is protocol
      version mismatch -- is your shell clean?.

      This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell
      facility producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using
      for its transport. The way to diagnose this problem is to run your
      remote shell like this:

           ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat


      then look at out.dat. If everything is working correctly then out.dat
      should be a zero length file. If you are getting the above error from
      rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
      data. Look at the contents and try to work out what is producing it.
      The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
      (such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output statements for
      non-interactive logins.

      If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try
      specifying the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity rsync will show
      why each individual file is included or excluded.

 EXIT VALUES
      0    Success

      1    Syntax or usage error

      2    Protocol incompatibility

      3    Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

      4    Requested action not supported: an attempt was made to manipulate
           64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them; or an option
           was specified that is supported by the client and not by the
           server.

      5    Error starting client-server protocol

      6    Daemon unable to append to log-file

      10   Error in socket I/O

      11   Error in file I/O

      12   Error in rsync protocol data stream

      13   Errors with program diagnostics





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      14   Error in IPC code

      20   Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

      21   Some error returned by waitpid()

      22   Error allocating core memory buffers

      23   Partial transfer due to error

      24   Partial transfer due to vanished source files

      25   The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

      30   Timeout in data send/receive

      35   Timeout waiting for daemon connection


 ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
      CVSIGNORE
           The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any ignore
           patterns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for
           more details.

      RSYNC_ICONV
           Specify a default --iconv setting using this environment
           variable. (First supported in 3.0.0.)

      RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
           Specify a non-zero numeric value if you want the --protect-args
           option to be enabled by default, or a zero value to make sure
           that it is disabled by default. (First supported in 3.1.0.)

      RSYNC_RSH
           The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to override the
           default shell used as the transport for rsync.  Command line
           options are permitted after the command name, just as in the -e
           option.

      RSYNC_PROXY
           The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
           rsync client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync
           daemon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

      RSYNC_PASSWORD
           Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required password allows you to run
           authenticated rsync connections to an rsync daemon without user
           intervention. Note that this does not supply a password to a
           remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that,
           consult the remote shells documentation.



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 rsync(1)                                                           rsync(1)
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      USER or LOGNAME
           The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine
           the default username sent to an rsync daemon.  If neither is set,
           the username defaults to nobody.

      HOME The HOME environment variable is used to find the users default
           .cvsignore file.


 FILES
      /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf

 SEE ALSO
      rsyncd.conf(5)

 BUGS
      times are transferred as *nix time_t values

      When transferring to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync unmodified
      files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

      file permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native numerical
      values

      see also the comments on the --delete option

      Please report bugs! See the web site at http://rsync.samba.org/

 VERSION
      This man page is current for version 3.1.3 of rsync.

 INTERNAL OPTIONS
      The options --server and --sender are used internally by rsync, and
      should never be typed by a user under normal circumstances.  Some
      awareness of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as
      when setting up a login that can only run an rsync command.  For
      instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an
      example script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used
      with a restricted ssh login.

 CREDITS
      rsync is distributed under the GNU General Public License.  See the
      file COPYING for details.

      A WEB site is available at http://rsync.samba.org/.  The site includes
      an FAQ-O-Matic which may cover questions unanswered by this manual
      page.

      The primary ftp site for rsync is ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync.





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      We would be delighted to hear from you if you like this program.
      Please contact the mailing-list at rsync@lists.samba.org.

      This program uses the excellent zlib compression library written by
      Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.

 THANKS
      Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W.
      Terpstra, David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool,
      and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.

      Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen
      Rothwell and David Bell.  Ive probably missed some people, my
      apologies if I have.

 AUTHOR
      rsync was originally written by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.
      Many people have later contributed to it.  It is currently maintained
      by Wayne Davison.

      Mailing lists for support and development are available at
      http://lists.samba.org
































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