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 WGET2(1)                   GNU Wget2 User Manual                   WGET2(1)
 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      Wget2 - a recursive metalink/file/website downloader.

      C]wget2 [options]... [URL]...R]

      GNU Wget2 is a free utility for non-interactive download of files from
      the Web.  It supports HTTP and HTTPS protocols, as well as retrieval
      through HTTP(S) proxies.

      Wget2 is non-interactive, meaning that it can work in the background,
      while the user is not logged on.  This allows you to start a retrieval
      and disconnect from the system, letting Wget2 finish the work.  By
      contrast, most of the Web browsers require constant user[cq]s pres-
      ence, which can be a great hindrance when transferring a lot of data.

      Wget2 can follow links in HTML, XHTML, CSS, RSS, Atom and sitemap
      files to create local versions of remote web sites, fully recreating
      the directory structure of the original site.  This is sometimes re-
      ferred to as I]recursive downloadingR].  While doing that, Wget2
      respects the Robot Exclusion Standard (I]/robots.txtR]).  Wget2 can be
      instructed to convert the links in downloaded files to point at the
      local files, for offline viewing.

      Wget2 has been designed for robustness over slow or unstable network
      connections; if a download fails due to a network problem, it will
      keep retrying until the whole file has been retrieved.  If the server
      supports partial downloads, it may continue the download from where it
      left off.

    Option Syntax
      Every option has a long form and sometimes also a short one.  Long op-
      tions are more convenient to remember, but take time to type.  You may
      freely mix different option styles.  Thus you may write:

             wget2 -r --tries=10 -o log

      The space between the option accepting an argument and the argument
      may be omitted.  Instead of C]-o logR] you can write C]-ologR].

      You may put several options that do not require arguments together,

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 WGET2(1)                   GNU Wget2 User Manual                   WGET2(1)
 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

             wget2 -drc <URL>

      This is equivalent to:

             wget2 -d -r -c <URL>

      Since the options can be specified after the arguments, you may ter-
      minate them with C]--R].  So the following will try to download URL
      C]-xR], reporting failure to C]logR]:

             wget2 -o log -- -x

      The options that accept comma-separated lists all respect the conven-
      tion that prepending C]--no-R] clears its value.  This can be useful
      to clear the C].wgetrcR] settings.  For instance, if your C].wgetrcR]
      sets C]exclude-directoriesR] to C]/cgi-binR], the following example
      will first reset it, and then set it to exclude C]/privR] and
      C]/trashR].  You can also clear the lists in C].wgetrcR].

             wget2 --no-exclude-directories -X /priv,/trash

      Most options that do not accept arguments are boolean options, so
      named because their state can be captured with a yes-or-no
      ([lq]boolean[rq]) variable.  A boolean option is either affirmative or
      negative (beginning with C]--no-R]).  All such options share several

      Affirmative options can be negated by prepending the C]--no-R] to the
      option name; negative options can be negated by omitting the C]--no-R]
      prefix.  This might seem superfluous - if the default for an affirma-
      tive option is to not do something, then why provide a way to expli-
      citly turn it off?  But the startup file may in fact change the de-
      fault.  For instance, using C]timestamping = onR] in C].wgetrcR] makes
      Wget2 download updated files only.  Using C]--no-timestampingR] is the
      only way to restore the factory default from the command line.

    Basic Startup Options
    C]-VR], C]--versionR]

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 WGET2(1)                   GNU Wget2 User Manual                   WGET2(1)
 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      Display the version of Wget2.

    C]-hR], C]--helpR]
      Print a help message describing all of Wget2[cq]s command-line op-

    C]-bR], C]--backgroundR]
      Go to background immediately after startup.  If no output file is
      specified via the C]-oR], output is redirected to C]wget-logR].

    C]-eR], C]--execute=commandR]
      Execute command as if it were a part of C].wgetrcR].  A command thus
      invoked will be executed after the commands in C].wgetrcR], thus tak-
      ing precedence over them.  If you need to specify more than one wgetrc
      command, use multiple instances of C]-eR].

      Hyperlink names of downloaded files so that they can opened from the
      terminal by clicking on them.  Only a few terminal emulators currently
      support hyperlinks.  Enable this option if you know your terminal sup-
      ports hyperlinks.

    Logging and Input File Options
    C]-oR], C]--output-file=logfileR]
      Log all messages to C]logfileR].  The messages are normally reported
      to standard error.

    C]-aR], C]--append-output=logfileR]
      Append to C]logfileR].  This is the same as C]-oR], only it appends to
      C]logfileR] instead of overwriting the old log file.  If C]logfileR]
      does not exist, a new file is created.

    C]-dR], C]--debugR]
      Turn on debug output, meaning various information important to the
      developers of Wget2 if it does not work properly.  Your system ad-
      ministrator may have chosen to compile Wget2 without debug support, in
      which case C]-dR] will not work.  Please note that compiling with de-
      bug support is always safe, Wget2 compiled with the debug support will
      not print any debug info unless requested with C]-dR].

    C]-qR], C]--quietR]
      Turn off Wget2[cq]s output.

    C]-vR], C]--verboseR]
      Turn on verbose output, with all the available data.  The default out-
      put is verbose.

    C]-nvR], C]--no-verboseR]
      Turn off verbose without being completely quiet (use C]-qR] for that),

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 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      which means that error messages and basic information still get print-

      Output bandwidth as C]typeR].  The only accepted values are C]bytesR]
      (which is set by default) and C]bitsR].  This option only works if
      C]--progress=barR] is also set.

    C]-iR], C]--input-file=fileR]
      Read URLs from a local or external file.  If C]-R] is specified as
      file, URLs are read from the standard input.  Use C]./-R] to read from
      a file literally named C]-R].

      If this function is used, no URLs need be present on the command line.
      If there are URLs both on the command line and in an input file, those
      on the command lines will be the first ones to be retrieved.  C]fileR]
      is expected to contain one URL per line, except one of the [en]force-
      options specifies a different format.

      If you specify C]--force-htmlR], the document will be regarded as
      HTML.  In that case you may have problems with relative links, which
      you can solve either by adding C]<base href=[dq]url[dq]>R] to the do-
      cuments or by specifying C]--base=urlR] on the command line.

      If you specify C]--force-cssR], the document will be regarded as CSS.

      If you specify C]--force-sitemapR], the document will be regarded as
      XML sitemap.

      If you specify C]--force-atomR], the document will be regarded as Atom

      If you specify C]--force-rssR], the document will be regarded as RSS

      If you specify C]--force-metalinkR], the document will be regarded as
      Metalink description.

      If you have problems with relative links, you should use C]--
      base=urlR] on the command line.

    C]-FR], C]--force-htmlR]
      When input is read from a file, force it to be treated as an HTML
      file.  This enables you to retrieve relative links from existing HTML
      files on your local disk, by adding [lq][rq] to HTML, or using the
      [en]base command-line option.

      Read and parse the input file as CSS.  This enables you to retrieve

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 WGET2(1)                   GNU Wget2 User Manual                   WGET2(1)
 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      links from existing CSS files on your local disk.  You will need
      [en]base to handle relative links correctly.

      Read and parse the input file as sitemap XML.  This enables you to re-
      trieve links from existing sitemap files on your local disk.  You will
      need [en]base to handle relative links correctly.

      Read and parse the input file as Atom Feed XML.  This enables you to
      retrieve links from existing sitemap files on your local disk.  You
      will need [en]base to handle relative links correctly.

      Read and parse the input file as RSS Feed XML.  This enables you to
      retrieve links from existing sitemap files on your local disk.  You
      will need [en]base to handle relative links correctly.

      Read and parse the input file as Metalink.  This enables you to re-
      trieve links from existing Metalink files on your local disk.  You
      will need [en]base to handle relative links correctly.

    C]-BR], C]--base=URLR]
      Resolves relative links using URL as the point of reference, when
      reading links from an HTML file specified via the -i/[en]input-file
      option (together with a [en]force... option, or when the input file
      was fetched remotely from a server describing it as HTML, CSS, Atom or
      RSS).  This is equivalent to the presence of a [lq]BASE[rq] tag in the
      HTML input file, with URL as the value for the [lq]href[rq] attribute.

      For instance, if you specify C]] for
      URL, and Wget2 reads C]../baz/b.htmlR] from the input file, it would
      be resolved to C]].

      Specify the location of configuration files you wish to use.  If you
      specify more than one file, either by using a comma-separated list or
      several C]--configR] options, these files are read in left-to-right
      order.  The files given in C]$SYSTEM_WGET2RCR] and (C]$WGET2RCR] or
      C][ti]/.wget2rcR]) are read in that order and then the user-provided
      config file(s).  If set, C]$WGET2RCR] replaces C][ti]/.wget2rcR].

      C]--no-configR] empties the internal list of config files.  So if you
      want to prevent reading any config files, give [en]no-config on the
      command line.

      C]--no-configR] followed by C]--config=fileR] just reads C]fileR] and
      skips reading the default config files.

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 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      Wget will attempt to tilde-expand filenames written in the configura-
      tion file on supported platforms.  To use a file that starts with the
      character literal `[ti]', use [lq]./[ti][rq] or an absolute path.

    C]--rejected-log=logfileR] [Not implemented yet]
      Logs all URL rejections to logfile as comma separated values.  The
      values include the reason of rejection, the URL and the parent URL it
      was found in.

      Enables reading/writing to local database files (default: on).

      These are the files for C]--hstsR], C]--hpkpR], C]--ocspR], etc.

      With C]--no-local-dbR] you can switch reading/writing off, e.g. useful
      for testing.

      This option does not influence the reading of config files.

      Save DNS stats in format C]FORMATR], in file C]FILER].

      C]FORMATR] can be C]humanR] or C]csvR].  C]-R] is shorthand for
      C]stdoutR] and C]hR] is shorthand for C]humanR].

      The CSV output format is


           [ga]Duration[ga] is given in milliseconds.

      Save TLS stats in format C]FORMATR], in file C]FILER].

      C]FORMATR] can be C]humanR] or C]csvR].  C]-R] is shorthand for
      C]stdoutR] and C]hR] is shorthand for C]humanR].

      The CSV output format is


           [ga]TLSVersion[ga] can be 1,2,3,4,5 for SSL3, TLS1.0, TLS1.1, TLS1.2 and TLS1.3. -1 means [aq]None[aq].

           [ga]FalseStart[ga] whether the connection used TLS False Start. -1 if not applicable.

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 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

           [ga]TFO[ga] whether the connection used TCP Fast Open. -1 is TFO was disabled.

           [ga]Resumed[ga] whether the TLS session was resumed or not.

           [ga]ALPN[ga] is the ALPN negotiation string.

           [ga]HTTPVersion[ga] is 0 for HTTP 1.1 and 1 is for HTTP 2.0.

           [ga]Certificates[ga] is the size of the server[aq]s certificate chain.

           [ga]Duration[ga] is given in milliseconds.

      Save OCSP stats in format C]FORMATR], in file C]FILER].

      C]FORMATR] can be C]humanR] or C]csvR].  C]-R] is shorthand for
      C]stdoutR] and C]hR] is shorthand for C]humanR].

      The CSV output format is


           [ga]Stapling[ga] whether an OCSP response was stapled or not.

           [ga]Valid[ga] how many server certificates were valid regarding OCSP.

           [ga]Revoked[ga] how many server certificates were revoked regarding OCSP.

           [ga]Ignored[ga] how many server certificates had been ignored or OCSP responses missing.

      Save Server stats in format C]FORMATR], in file C]FILER].

      C]FORMATR] can be C]humanR] or C]csvR].  C]-R] is shorthand for
      C]stdoutR] and C]hR] is shorthand for C]humanR].

      The CSV output format is


           [ga]Scheme[ga] 0,1,2 mean [ga]None[ga], [ga]http[ga], [ga]https[ga].

            [ga]HPKP[ga] values 0,1,2,3 mean [aq]No HPKP[aq], [aq]HPKP matched[aq], [aq]HPKP doesn[aq]t match[aq], [aq]HPKP error[aq].

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 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

           [ga]NewHPKP[ga] whether server sent HPKP (Public-Key-Pins) header.

           [ga]HSTS[ga] whether server sent HSTS (Strict-Transport-Security) header.

           [ga]CSP[ga] whether server sent CSP (Content-Security-Policy) header.

      Save Site stats in format C]FORMATR], in file C]FILER].

      C]FORMATR] can be C]humanR] or C]csvR].  C]-R] is shorthand for
      C]stdoutR] and C]hR] is shorthand for C]humanR].

      The CSV output format is


           [ga]ID[ga] unique ID for a stats record.

           [ga]ParentID[ga] ID of the parent document, relevant for [ga]--recursive[ga] mode.

           [ga]URL[ga] URL of the document.

           [ga]Status[ga] HTTP response code or 0 if not applicable.

           [ga]Link[ga] 1 means [aq]direkt link[aq], 0 means [aq]redirection link[aq].

           [ga]Method[ga] 1,2,3 mean GET, HEAD, POST request type.

           [ga]Size[ga] size of downloaded body (theoretical value for HEAD requests).

           [ga]SizeDecompressed[ga] size of decompressed body (0 for HEAD requests).

           [ga]TransferTime[ga] ms between start of request and completed download.

           [ga]ResponseTime[ga] ms between start of request and first response packet.

           [ga]Encoding[ga] 0,1,2,3,4,5 mean server side compression was [aq]identity[aq], [aq]gzip[aq], [aq]deflate[aq], [aq]lzma/xz[aq], [aq]bzip2[aq], [aq]brotli[aq], [aq]zstd[aq], [aq]lzip[aq]

           [ga]Verification[ga] PGP verification status. 0,1,2,3 mean [aq]none[aq],  [aq]valid[aq], [aq]invalid[aq], [aq]bad[aq], [aq]missing[aq].

    Download Options
      When making client TCP/IP connections, bind to ADDRESS on the local
      machine.  ADDRESS may be specified as a hostname or IP address.  This
      option can be useful if your machine is bound to multiple IPs.

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 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      When making client TCP/IP connections, bind to INTERFACE on the local
      machine.  INTERFACE may be specified as the name for a Network Inter-
      face.  This option can be useful if your machine has multiple Network
      Interfaces.  However, the option works only when wget2 is run with
      elevated privileges (On GNU/Linux: root / sudo or C]sudo setcap
      cap_net_raw+ep <path to wget|wget2>R]).

    C]-tR], C]--tries=numberR]
      Set number of tries to number.  Specify 0 or inf for infinite retry-
      ing.  The default is to retry 20 times, with the exception of fatal
      errors like [lq]connection refused[rq] or [lq]not found[rq] (404),
      which are not retried.

      Specify a comma-separated list of HTTP codes in which Wget2 will retry
      the download.  The elements of the list may contain wildcards.  If an
      HTTP code starts with the character `!' it won[cq]t be downloaded.
      This is useful when trying to download something with exceptions.  For
      example, retry every failed download if error code is not 404:

             wget2 --retry-on-http-error=*,[rs]!404

      Please keep in mind that [lq]200[rq] is the only forbidden code.  If
      it is included on the status list Wget2 will ignore it.  The max.
      number of download attempts is given by the C]--triesR] option.

    C]-OR], C]--output-document=fileR]
      The documents will not be written to the appropriate files, but all
      will be concatenated together and written to file.  If C]-R] is used
      as file, documents will be printed to standard output, disabling link
      conversion.  Use C]./-R] to print to a file literally named C]-R].  To
      not get Wget2 status messages mixed with file content, use C]-qR] in
      combination with C]-O-R] (This is different to how Wget 1.x behaves).

      Using -r or -p with -O may not work as you expect: Wget2 won[cq]t just
      download the first file to file and then download the rest to their
      normal names: all downloaded content will be placed in file.

      A combination with -nc is only accepted if the given output file does
      not exist.

      When used along with the -c option, Wget2 will attempt to continue
      downloading the file whose name is passed to the option, irrespective
      of whether the actual file already exists on disk or not.  This allows
      users to download a file with a temporary name alongside the actual

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 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0


      Note that a combination with -k is only permitted when downloading a
      single document, as in that case it will just convert all relative
      URIs to external ones; -k makes no sense for multiple URIs when
      they[cq]re all being downloaded to a single file; -k can be used only
      when the output is a regular file.

      Compatibility-Note: Wget 1.x used to treat -O as analogous to shell
      redirection.  Wget2 does not handle the option similarly.  Hence, the
      file will not always be newly created.  The file[cq]s timestamps will
      not be affected unless it is actually written to.  As a result, both
      -c and -N options are now supported in conjunction with this option.

    C]-ncR], C]--no-clobberR]
      If a file is downloaded more than once in the same directory,
      Wget2[cq]s behavior depends on a few options, including C]-ncR].  In
      certain cases, the local file will be clobbered, or overwritten, upon
      repeated download.  In other cases it will be preserved.

      When running Wget2 without C]-NR], C]-ncR], C]-rR], or C]-pR], down-
      loading the same file in the same directory will result in the origi-
      nal copy of file being preserved and the second copy being named
      file.1.  If that file is downloaded yet again, the third copy will be
      named file.2, and so on.  (This is also the behavior with C]-ndR],
      even if C]-rR] or C]-pR] are in effect.) Use C]--keep-extensionR] to
      use an alternative file naming pattern.

      When C]-ncR] is specified, this behavior is suppressed, and Wget2 will
      refuse to download newer copies of file.  Therefore, [dq][lq]no-
      clobber[rq][dq] is actually a misnomer in this mode - it[cq]s not
      clobbering that[cq]s prevented (as the numeric suffixes were already
      preventing clobbering), but rather the multiple version saving
      that[cq]s prevented.

      When running Wget2 with C]-rR] or C]-pR], but without C]-NR], C]-ndR],
      or C]-ncR], re-downloading a file will result in the new copy simply
      overwriting the old.  Adding -nc will prevent this behavior, instead
      causing the original version to be preserved and any newer copies on
      the server to be ignored.

      When running Wget2 with C]-NR], with or without C]-rR] or C]-pR], the
      decision as to whether or not to download a newer copy of a file
      depends on the local and remote timestamp and size of the file.  -nc
      may not be specified at the same time as -N.

      A combination with C]-OR]/C]--output-documentR] is only accepted if
      the given output file does not exist.

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 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      Note that when -nc is specified, files with the suffixes .html or .htm
      will be loaded from the local disk and parsed as if they had been re-
      trieved from the Web.

      Before (over)writing a file, back up an existing file by adding a .1
      suffix to the file name.  Such backup files are rotated to .2, .3, and
      so on, up to C]backupsR] (and lost beyond that).

    C]-cR], C]--continueR]
      Continue getting a partially-downloaded file.  This is useful when you
      want to finish up a download started by a previous instance of Wget2,
      or by another program.  For instance:

             wget2 -c

      If there is a file named C]tarball.gzR] in the current directory,
      Wget2 will assume that it is the first portion of the remote file, and
      will ask the server to continue the retrieval from an offset equal to
      the length of the local file.

      Note that you don[cq]t need to specify this option if you just want
      the current invocation of Wget2 to retry downloading a file should the
      connection be lost midway through.  This is the default behavior.  -c
      only affects resumption of downloads started prior to this invocation
      of Wget2, and whose local files are still sitting around.

      Without -c, the previous example would just download the remote file
      to C]tarball.gz.1R], leaving the truncated C]tarball.gzR] file alone.

      If you use -c on a non-empty file, and it turns out that the server
      does not support continued downloading, Wget2 will refuse to start the
      download from scratch, which would effectively ruin existing contents.
      If you really want the download to start from scratch, remove the

      If you use -c on a file which is of equal size as the one on the
      server, Wget2 will refuse to download the file and print an explanato-
      ry message.  The same happens when the file is smaller on the server
      than locally (presumably because it was changed on the server since
      your last download attempt).  Because [lq]continuing[rq] is not mean-
      ingful, no download occurs.

      On the other side of the coin, while using -c, any file that[cq]s
      bigger on the server than locally will be considered an incomplete
      download and only [lq](length(remote) - length(local))[rq] bytes will

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 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      be downloaded and tacked onto the end of the local file.  This
      behavior can be desirable in certain cases.  For instance, you can use
      C]wget2 -cR] to download just the new portion that[cq]s been appended
      to a data collection or log file.

      However, if the file is bigger on the server because it[cq]s been
      changed, as opposed to just appended to, you[cq]ll end up with a gar-
      bled file.  Wget2 has no way of verifying that the local file is real-
      ly a valid prefix of the remote file.  You need to be especially care-
      ful of this when using -c in conjunction with -r, since every file
      will be considered as an [lq]incomplete download[rq] candidate.

      Another instance where you[cq]ll get a garbled file if you try to use
      -c is if you have a lame HTTP proxy that inserts a [lq]transfer
      interrupted[rq] string into the local file.  In the future a
      [lq]rollback[rq] option may be added to deal with this case.

      Note that C]-cR] only works with HTTP servers that support the
      [lq]Range[rq] header.

      Start downloading at zero-based position C]OFFSETR].  Offset may be
      expressed in bytes, kilobytes with the C]k[aq]   suffix, or megabytes
      with theR]m[cq] suffix, etc.

      C]--start-posR] has higher precedence over C]--continueR].  When C]--
      start-posR] and C]--continueR] are both specified, Wget2 will emit a
      warning then proceed as if C]--continueR] was absent.

      Server support for continued download is required, otherwise
      [en]start-pos cannot help.  See -c for details.

      Select the type of the progress indicator you wish to use.  Legal in-
      dicators are [lq]dot[rq] and [lq]bar[rq].

      It draws an ASCII progress bar graphics (a.k.a [lq]thermometer[rq]
      display) indicating the status of retrieval.  If the output is not a
      TTY, the [lq]dot[rq] bar will be used by default.

      Use C]--progress=dotR] to switch to the [lq]dot[rq] display.  It
      traces the retrieval by printing dots on the screen, each dot
      representing a fixed amount of downloaded data.

      The progress type can also take one or more parameters.  The parame-
      ters vary based on the type selected.  Parameters to type are passed
      by appending them to the type separated by a colon (C]:R]) like this:

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 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      When using the dotted retrieval, you may set the style by specifying
      the type as dot:style.  Different styles assign different meaning to
      one dot.  With the [lq]default[rq] style each dot represents 1K, there
      are ten dots in a cluster and 50 dots in a line.  The [lq]binary[rq]
      style has a more [lq]computer[rq]-like orientation: 8K dots, 16-dots
      clusters and 48 dots per line (which makes for 384K lines).  The
      [lq]mega[rq] style is suitable for downloading large files, each dot
      represents 64K retrieved, there are eight dots in a cluster, and 48
      dots on each line (so each line contains 3M).  If [lq]mega[rq] is not
      enough then you can use the [lq]giga[rq] style.  Each dot represents
      1M retrieved, there are eight dots in a cluster, and 32 dots on each
      line (so each line contains 32M).

      With C]--progress=barR], there are currently two possible parameters,
      C]forceR] and C]noscrollR].

      When the output is not a TTY, the progress bar always falls back to
      [lq]dot[rq], even if C]--progress=barR] was passed to Wget2 during in-
      vocation.  This behaviour can be overridden and the [lq]bar[rq] output
      forced by using the [lq]force[rq] parameter as C]--

      By default, the bar style progress bar scroll the name of the file
      from left to right for the file being downloaded if the filename
      exceeds the maximum length allotted for its display.  In certain
      cases, such as with [en]progress=bar:force, one may not want the
      scrolling filename in the progress bar.  By passing the
      [lq]noscroll[rq] parameter, Wget2 can be forced to display as much of
      the filename as possible without scrolling through it.

      Note that you can set the default style using the [lq]progress[rq]
      command in .wgetrc.  That setting may be overridden from the command
      line.  For example, to force the bar output without scrolling, use

      Force Wget2 to display the progress bar in any verbosity.

      By default, Wget2 only displays the progress bar in verbose mode.  One
      may however, want Wget2 to display the progress bar on screen in con-
      junction with any other verbosity modes like [en]no-verbose or
      [en]quiet.  This is often a desired a property when invoking Wget2 to
      download several small/large files.  In such a case, Wget2 could sim-
      ply be invoked with this parameter to get a much cleaner output on the

      This option will also force the progress bar to be printed to stderr
      when used alongside the C]--output-fileR] option.

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    C]-NR], C]--timestampingR]
      Turn on time-stamping.

      Do not send If-Modified-Since header in -N mode.  Send preliminary
      HEAD request instead.  This has only effect in -N mode.

      Don[cq]t set the local file[cq]s timestamp by the one on the server.

      By default, when a file is downloaded, its timestamps are set to match
      those from the remote file.  This allows the use of [en]timestamping
      on subsequent invocations of Wget2.  However, it is sometimes useful
      to base the local file[cq]s timestamp on when it was actually down-
      loaded; for that purpose, the [en]no-use-server-timestamps option has
      been provided.

    C]-SR], C]--server-responseR]
      Print the response headers sent by HTTP servers.

      When invoked with this option, Wget2 will behave as a Web spider,
      which means that it will not download the pages, just check that they
      are there.  For example, you can use Wget2 to check your bookmarks:

             wget2 --spider --force-html -i bookmarks.html

      This feature needs much more work for Wget2 to get close to the func-
      tionality of real web spiders.

    C]-T secondsR], C]--timeout=secondsR]
      Set the network timeout to seconds seconds.  This is equivalent to
      specifying C]--dns-timeoutR], C]--connect-timeoutR], and C]--read-
      timeoutR], all at the same time.

      When interacting with the network, Wget2 can check for timeout and
      abort the operation if it takes too long.  This prevents anomalies
      like hanging reads and infinite connects.  The only timeout enabled by
      default is a 900-second read timeout.  Setting a timeout to 0 disables
      it altogether.  Unless you know what you are doing, it is best not to
      change the default timeout settings.

      All timeout-related options accept decimal values, as well as sub-
      second values.  For example, 0.1 seconds is a legal (though unwise)
      choice of timeout.  Subsecond timeouts are useful for checking server
      response times or for testing network latency.

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      Set the DNS lookup timeout to seconds seconds.  DNS lookups that
      don[cq]t complete within the specified time will fail.  By default,
      there is no timeout on DNS lookups, other than that implemented by
      system libraries.

      Set the connect timeout to seconds seconds.  TCP connections that take
      longer to establish will be aborted.  By default, there is no connect
      timeout, other than that implemented by system libraries.

      Set the read (and write) timeout to seconds seconds.  The [lq]time[rq]
      of this timeout refers to idle time: if, at any point in the download,
      no data is received for more than the specified number of seconds,
      reading fails and the download is restarted.  This option does not
      directly affect the duration of the entire download.

      Of course, the remote server may choose to terminate the connection
      sooner than this option requires.  The default read timeout is 900

      Limit the download speed to amount bytes per second.  Amount may be
      expressed in bytes, kilobytes with the k suffix, or megabytes with the
      m suffix.  For example, [en]limit-rate=20k will limit the retrieval
      rate to 20KB/s.  This is useful when, for whatever reason, you
      don[cq]t want Wget2 to consume the entire available bandwidth.

      This option allows the use of decimal numbers, usually in conjunction
      with power suffixes; for example, [en]limit-rate=2.5k is a legal

      Note that Wget2 implements the limiting by sleeping the appropriate
      amount of time after a network read that took less time than specified
      by the rate.  Eventually this strategy causes the TCP transfer to slow
      down to approximately the specified rate.  However, it may take some
      time for this balance to be achieved, so don[cq]t be surprised if lim-
      iting the rate doesn[cq]t work well with very small files.

    C]-w secondsR], C]--wait=secondsR]
      Wait the specified number of seconds between the retrievals.  Use of
      this option is recommended, as it lightens the server load by making
      the requests less frequent.  Instead of in seconds, the time can be
      specified in minutes using the [lq]m[rq] suffix, in hours using
      [lq]h[rq] suffix, or in days using [lq]d[rq] suffix.

      Specifying a large value for this option is useful if the network or
      the destination host is down, so that Wget2 can wait long enough to

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      reasonably expect the network error to be fixed before the retry.  The
      waiting interval specified by this function is influenced by
      [lq][en]random-wait[rq], which see.

      If you don[cq]t want Wget2 to wait between every retrieval, but only
      between retries of failed downloads, you can use this option.  Wget2
      will use linear backoff, waiting 1 second after the first failure on a
      given file, then waiting 2 seconds after the second failure on that
      file, up to the maximum number of seconds you specify.

      By default, Wget2 will assume a value of 10 seconds.

      Some web sites may perform log analysis to identify retrieval programs
      such as Wget2 by looking for statistically significant similarities in
      the time between requests.  This option causes the time between re-
      quests to vary between 0.5 and 1.5 ### wait seconds, where wait was
      specified using the [en]wait option, in order to mask Wget2[cq]s pres-
      ence from such analysis.

      A 2001 article in a publication devoted to development on a popular
      consumer platform provided code to perform this analysis on the fly.
      Its author suggested blocking at the class C address level to ensure
      automated retrieval programs were blocked despite changing DHCP-
      supplied addresses.

      The C]--random-waitR] option was inspired by this ill-advised recom-
      mendation to block many unrelated users from a web site due to the ac-
      tions of one.

      If no argument is given, we try to stay backward compatible with
      Wget1.x and don[cq]t use proxies, even if the appropriate *_proxy en-
      vironment variable is defined.

      If a comma-separated list of exceptions (domains/IPs) is given, these
      exceptions are accessed without using a proxy.  It overrides the
      `no_proxy' environment variable.

    C]-Q quotaR], C]--quota=quotaR]
      Specify download quota for automatic retrievals.  The value can be
      specified in bytes (default), kilobytes (with k suffix), or megabytes
      (with m suffix).

      Note that quota will never affect downloading a single file.  So if
      you specify

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             wget2 -Q10k

      all of the C]bigfile.gzR] will be downloaded.  The same goes even when
      several URLs are specified on the command-line.  However, quota is
      respected when retrieving either recursively, or from an input file.
      Thus you may safely type

             wget2 -Q2m -i sites

      download will be aborted when the quota is exceeded.

      Setting quota to C]0R] or to C]infR] unlimits the download quota.

      Change which characters found in remote URLs must be escaped during
      generation of local filenames.  Characters that are restricted by this
      option are escaped, i.e. replaced with %HH, where HH is the hexade-
      cimal number that corresponds to the restricted character.  This op-
      tion may also be used to force all alphabetical cases to be either
      lower- or uppercase.

      By default, Wget2 escapes the characters that are not valid or safe as
      part of file names on your operating system, as well as control char-
      acters that are typically unprintable.  This option is useful for
      changing these defaults, perhaps because you are downloading to a
      non-native partition, or because you want to disable escaping of the
      control characters, or you want to further restrict characters to only
      those in the ASCII range of values.

      The modes are a comma-separated set of text values.  The acceptable
      values are unix, windows, nocontrol, ascii, lowercase, and uppercase.
      The values unix and windows are mutually exclusive (one will override
      the other), as are lowercase and uppercase.  Those last are special
      cases, as they do not change the set of characters that would be es-
      caped, but rather force local file paths to be converted either to
      lower- or uppercase.

      When [lq]unix[rq] is specified, Wget2 escapes the character / and the
      control characters in the ranges 0[en]31 and 128[en]159.  This is the
      default on Unix-like operating systems.

      When [lq]windows[rq] is given, Wget2 escapes the characters , |, /, :,
      ?, [dq], *, <, >, and the control characters in the ranges 0[en]31 and
      128[en]159.  In addition to this, Wget2 in Windows mode uses + instead

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 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      of : to separate host and port in local file names, and uses [at] in-
      stead of ?  to separate the query portion of the file name from the
      rest.  Therefore, a URL that would be saved as
      C]] in Unix mode would be
      saved as C][at]input=blahR] in Windows
      mode.  This mode is the default on Windows.

      If you specify nocontrol, then the escaping of the control characters
      is also switched off.  This option may make sense when you are down-
      loading URLs whose names contain UTF-8 characters, on a system which
      can save and display filenames in UTF-8 (some possible byte values
      used in UTF-8 byte sequences fall in the range of values designated by
      Wget2 as [lq]controls[rq]).

      The ascii mode is used to specify that any bytes whose values are out-
      side the range of ASCII characters (that is, greater than 127) shall
      be escaped.  This can be useful when saving filenames whose encoding
      does not match the one used locally.

    C]-4R], C]--inet4-onlyR], C]-6R], C]--inet6-onlyR]
      Force connecting to IPv4 or IPv6 addresses.  With [en]inet4-only or
      -4, Wget2 will only connect to IPv4 hosts, ignoring AAAA records in
      DNS, and refusing to connect to IPv6 addresses specified in URLs.
      Conversely, with [en]inet6-only or -6, Wget2 will only connect to IPv6
      hosts and ignore A records and IPv4 addresses.

      Neither options should be needed normally.  By default, an IPv6-aware
      Wget2 will use the address family specified by the host[cq]s DNS
      record.  If the DNS responds with both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, Wget2
      will try them in sequence until it finds one it can connect to.  (Also
      see [lq][en]prefer-family[rq] option described below.)

      These options can be used to deliberately force the use of IPv4 or
      IPv6 address families on dual family systems, usually to aid debugging
      or to deal with broken network configuration.  Only one of [en]inet6-
      only and [en]inet4-only may be specified at the same time.  Neither
      option is available in Wget2 compiled without IPv6 support.

      When given a choice of several addresses, connect to the addresses
      with specified address family first.  The address order returned by
      DNS is used without change by default.

      This avoids spurious errors and connect attempts when accessing hosts
      that resolve to both IPv6 and IPv4 addresses from IPv4 networks.  For
      example, resolves to 2001:200:0:8002:203:47ff:fea5:3085
      and to  When the preferred family is [lq]IPv4[rq],
      the IPv4 address is used first; when the preferred family is
      [lq]IPv6[rq], the IPv6 address is used first; if the specified value

                                   - 18 -           Formatted:  May 21, 2022

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      is [lq]none[rq], the address order returned by DNS is used without

      Unlike -4 and -6, this option doesn[cq]t inhibit access to any address
      family, it only changes the order in which the addresses are accessed.
      Also note that the reordering performed by this option is stable.  It
      doesn[cq]t affect order of addresses of the same family.  That is, the
      relative order of all IPv4 addresses and of all IPv6 addresses remains
      intact in all cases.

      Enable support for TCP Fast Open (TFO) (default: on).

      TFO reduces connection latency by 1 RT on [lq]hot[rq] connections
      (2nd+ connection to the same host in a certain amount of time).

      Currently this works on recent Linux and OSX kernels, on HTTP and

      Load a list of IP / Name tuples into the DNS cache.

      The format of C]fileR] is like C]/etc/hostsR]: IP-address whitespace

      This allows to save domain name lookup time, which is a bottleneck in
      some use cases.  Also, the use of HOSTALIASES (which is not portable)
      can be mimiced by this option.

      Enable DNS caching (default: on).

      Normally, Wget2 remembers the IP addresses it looked up from DNS so it
      doesn[cq]t have to repeatedly contact the DNS server for the same
      (typically small) set of hosts it retrieves from.  This cache exists
      in memory only; a new Wget2 run will contact DNS again.

      However, it has been reported that in some situations it is not desir-
      able to cache host names, even for the duration of a short-running ap-
      plication like Wget2.  With C]--no-dns-cacheR] Wget2 issues a new DNS
      lookup (more precisely, a new call to [lq]gethostbyname[rq] or
      [lq]getaddrinfo[rq]) each time it makes a new connection.  Please note
      that this option will not affect caching that might be performed by
      the resolving library or by an external caching layer, such as NSCD.

      Consider [lq]connection refused[rq] a transient error and try again.
      Normally Wget2 gives up on a URL when it is unable to connect to the
      site because failure to connect is taken as a sign that the server is

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      not running at all and that retries would not help.  This option is
      for mirroring unreliable sites whose servers tend to disappear for
      short periods of time.

    C]--user=userR], C]--password=passwordR]
      Specify the username user and password password for HTTP file re-
      trieval.  This overrides the lookup of credentials in the .netrc file
      ([en]netrc is enabled by default).  These parameters can be overridden
      using the [en]http-user and [en]http-password options for HTTP(S) con-

      If neither [en]http-proxy-user nor [en]http-proxy-password is given
      these settings are also taken for proxy authentication.

      Prompt for a password on the command line.  Overrides the password set
      by [en]password (if any).

      Prompt for a user and password using the specified command.  Overrides
      the user and/or password set by [en]user/[en]password (if any).

      Turn off internationalized URI (IRI) support.  Use [en]iri to turn it
      on.  IRI support is activated by default.

      You can set the default state of IRI support using the [lq]iri[rq]
      command in .wgetrc.  That setting may be overridden from the command

      Force Wget2 to use encoding as the default system encoding.  That af-
      fects how Wget2 converts URLs specified as arguments from locale to
      UTF-8 for IRI support.

      Wget2 use the function [lq]nl_langinfo()[rq] and then the
      [lq]CHARSET[rq] environment variable to get the locale.  If it fails,
      ASCII is used.

      Force Wget2 to use encoding as the default remote server encoding.
      That affects how Wget2 converts URIs found in files from remote encod-
      ing to UTF-8 during a recursive fetch.  This options is only useful
      for IRI support, for the interpretation of non-ASCII characters.

      For HTTP, remote encoding can be found in HTTP [lq]Content-Type[rq]
      header and in HTML [lq]Content-Type http-equiv[rq] meta tag.


                                   - 20 -           Formatted:  May 21, 2022

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 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      Use the specified encoding for the URLs read from C]--input-fileR].
      The default is the local encoding.

      Force Wget2 to unlink file instead of clobbering existing file.  This
      option is useful for downloading to the directory with hardlinks.

      Remove HTTP GET Variables from URLs.  For example
      [lq]main.css?v=123[rq] will be changed to [lq]main.css[rq].  Be aware
      that this may have unintended side effects, for example
      [lq]image.php?name=sun[rq] will be changed to [lq]image.php[rq].  The
      cutting happens before adding the URL to the download queue.

      Remove HTTP GET Variables from filenames.  For example
      [lq]main.css?v=123[rq] will be changed to [lq]main.css[rq].

      Be aware that this may have unintended side effects, for example
      [lq]image.php?name=sun[rq] will be changed to [lq]image.php[rq].  The
      cutting happens when saving the file, after downloading.

      File names obtained from a [lq]Content-Disposition[rq] header are not
      affected by this setting (see [en]content-disposition), and can be a
      solution for this problem.

      When [lq][en]trust-server-names[rq] is used, the redirection URL is
      affected by this setting.

      Download large files in multithreaded chunks.  This switch specifies
      the size of the chunks, given in bytes if no other byte multiple unit
      is specified.  By default it[cq]s set on 0/off.

      Specifies the maximum number of concurrent download threads for a
      resource.  The default is 5 but if you want to allow more or fewer
      this is the option to use.

    C]-sR], C]--verify-sig[=fail|no-fail]R]
      Enable PGP signature verification (when not prefixed with C]no-R]).
      When enabled Wget2 will attempt to download and verify PGP signatures
      against their corresponding files.  Any file downloaded that has a
      content type beginning with C]application/R] will cause Wget2 to re-
      quest the signature for that file.

      The name of the signature file is computed by appending the extension
      to the full path of the file that was just downloaded.  The extension
      used is defined by the C]--signature-extensionsR] option.  If the con-

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      tent type for the signature request is C]application/pgp-signatureR],
      Wget2 will attempt to verify the signature against the original file.
      By default, if a signature file cannot be found (I.E.  the request for
      it gets a 404 status code) Wget2 will exit with an error code.

      This behavior can be tuned using the following arguments: * C]failR]:
      This is the default, meaning that this is the value when you supply
      the flag without an argument.  Indicates that missing signature files
      will cause Wget2 to exit with an error code.  * C]no-failR]: This
      value allows missing signature files.  A 404 message will still be is-
      sued, but the program will exit normally (assuming no unrelated er-

      Additionally, C]--no-verify-sigR] disables signature checking alto-
      gether C]--no-verify-sigR] does not allow any arguments.

      Specify the file extensions for signature files, without the leading
      [lq].[rq].  You may specify multiple extensions as a comma separated
      list.  All the provided extensions will be tried simultaneously when
      looking for the signature file.  The default is [lq]sig[rq].

      Specifies the gnupg home directory to use when verifying PGP signa-
      tures on downloaded files.  The default for this is your system[cq]s
      default home directory.

      Instructs Wget2 to keep files that don[cq]t pass PGP signature valida-
      tion.  The default is to delete files that fail validation.

      Saves documents metadata as [lq]user POSIX Extended Attributes[rq]
      (default: on).  This feature only works if the file system supports
      it.  More info on

      Wget2 currently sets * user.xdg.origin.url * user.xdg.referrer.url *
      user.mime_type * user.charset

      To display the extended attributes of a file (Linux): C]getfattr -d

      Follow/process metalink URLs without saving them (default: on).

      Metalink files describe downloads incl. mirrors, files, checksums,
      signatures.  This allows chunked downloads, automatically taking the
      nearest mirrors, preferring the fastest mirrors and checking the down-

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 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      load for integrity.

      Enables disk syncing after each write (default: off).

      Set max.  number of parallel streams per HTTP/2 connection (default:

      This option changes the behavior for creating a unique filename if a
      file already exists.

      The standard (default) pattern for file names is C]<filename>.<N>R],
      the new pattern is C]<basename>_<N>.<ext>R].

      The idea is to use such files without renaming when the use depends on
      the extension, like on Windows.

      This option doesn not change the behavior of C]--backupsR].

    Directory Options
    C]-ndR], C]--no-directoriesR]
      Do not create a hierarchy of directories when retrieving recursively.
      With this option turned on, all files will get saved to the current
      directory, without clobbering (if a name shows up more than once, the
      filenames will get extensions .n).

    C]-xR], C]--force-directoriesR]
      The opposite of C]-ndR]: create a hierarchy of directories, even if
      one would not have been created otherwise.  E.g.  C]wget2 -x] will save the downloaded file to

    C]-nHR], C]--no-host-directoriesR]
      Disable generation of host-prefixed directories.  By default, invoking
      Wget2 with C]-r] will create a structure of
      directories beginning with C]].  This option disables
      such behavior.

      Use the protocol name as a directory component of local file names.
      For example, with this option, C]wget2 -r   https://example.comR] will
      save to C]https/] rather than just to

      Ignore a number of directory components.  This is useful for getting a
      fine-grained control over the directory where recursive retrieval will

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      be saved.

      Take, for example, the directory at  If
      you retrieve it with C]-rR], it will be saved locally under
      C]].  While the C]-nHR] option can remove the
      C]] part, you are still stuck with C]pub/sub/R].  This is
      where C]--cut-dirsR] comes in handy; it makes Wget2 not [lq]see[rq] a
      number of remote directory components.  Here are several examples of
      how C]--cut-dirsR] option works.  C]No options        ->      --cut-dirs=1      ->
      --cut-dirs=2      ->      -nH               -> pub/sub/
      -nH --cut-dirs=1  -> sub/      -nH --cut-dirs=2  -> .R] If you just
      want to get rid of the directory structure, this option is similar to
      a combination of C]-ndR] and C]-PR].  However, unlike C]-ndR], C]--
      cut-dirsR] does not lose with subdirectories.  For instance, with C]-
      nH --cut-dirs=1R], a C]beta/R] subdirectory will be placed to
      C]sub/beta/R], as one would expect.

    C]-P prefixR], C]--directory-prefix=prefixR]
      Set directory prefix to prefix.  The directory prefix is the directory
      where all other files and subdirectories will be saved to, i.e. the
      top of the retrieval tree.  The default is C].R], the current directo-
      ry.  If the directory C]prefixR] doesn[cq]t exist, it will be created.

    HTTP Options
      Use name as the default file name when it isn[cq]t known (i.e., for
      URLs that end in a slash), instead of C]index.htmlR].

      Set the default port for HTTP URLs (default: 80).

      This is mainly for testing purposes.

      Set the default port for HTTPS URLs (default: 443).

      This is mainly for testing purposes.

    C]-ER], C]--adjust-extensionR]
      If a file of type C]application/xhtml+xmlR] or C]text/htmlR] is down-
      loaded and the URL does not end with the regexp
      C][rs].[Hh][Tt][Mm][Ll]?R], this option will cause the suffix
      C].htmlR] to be appended to the local filename.  This is useful, for
      instance, when you[cq]re mirroring a remote site that uses .asp pages,
      but you want the mirrored pages to be viewable on your stock Apache
      server.  Another good use for this is when you[cq]re downloading CGI-
      generated materials.  A URL like
      C]] will be saved as

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 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0


      Note that filenames changed in this way will be re-downloaded every
      time you re-mirror a site, because Wget2 can[cq]t tell that the local
      C]X.htmlR] file corresponds to remote URL X (since it doesn[cq]t yet
      know that the URL produces output of type C]text/htmlR] or

      Wget2 will also ensure that any downloaded files of type C]text/cssR]
      end in the suffix C].cssR].

      At some point in the future, this option may well be expanded to in-
      clude suffixes for other types of content, including content types
      that are not parsed by Wget.

    C]--http-user=userR], C]--http-password=passwordR]
      Specify the user and password for HTTP authentication.  According to
      the type of the challenge, Wget will encode them using either the
      [lq]basic[rq] (insecure), the [lq]digest[rq], or the Windows
      [lq]NTLM[rq] authentication scheme.

      If possible, put your credentials into C][ti]/.netrcR] (see also C]--
      netrcR] and C]--netrc-fileR] options) or into C][ti]/.wgetrcR].  This
      is far more secure than using the command line which can be seen by
      any other user.  If the passwords are really important, do not leave
      them lying in those files either.  Edit the files and delete them
      after Wget2 has started the download.

      Also see C]--use-askpassR] and C]--ask-passwordR] for an interactive
      method to provide your password.

    C]--http-proxy-user=userR], C]--http-proxy-password=passwordR]
      Specify the user and password for HTTP proxy authentication.  See C]-
      -http-userR] for details.

      Set comma-separated list of HTTP proxies.  The environment variable
      `http_proxy' will be overridden.

      Exceptions can be set via the environment variable `no_proxy' or via

      Set comma-separated list of HTTPS proxies.  The environment variable
      `https_proxy' will be overridden.

      Exceptions can be set via the environment variable `no_proxy' or via

                                   - 25 -           Formatted:  May 21, 2022

 WGET2(1)                   GNU Wget2 User Manual                   WGET2(1)
 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      Turn off the [lq]keep-alive[rq] feature for HTTP(S) downloads.  Nor-
      mally, Wget2 asks the server to keep the connection open so that, when
      you download more than one document from the same server, they get
      transferred over the same TCP connection.  This saves time and at the
      same time reduces the load on the server.

      This option is useful when, for some reason, persistent (keep-alive)
      connections don[cq]t work for you, for example due to a server bug or
      due to the inability of server-side scripts to cope with the connec-

      Disable server-side cache.  In this case, Wget2 will send the remote
      server appropriate directives (Cache-Control: no- cache and Pragma:
      no-cache) to get the file from the remote service, rather than return-
      ing the cached version.  This is especially useful for retrieving and
      flushing out-of-date documents on proxy servers.

      Caching is allowed by default.

      Disable the use of cookies.  Cookies are a mechanism for maintaining
      server-side state.  The server sends the client a cookie using the
      [lq]Set-Cookie[rq] header, and the client responds with the same cook-
      ie upon further requests.  Since cookies allow the server owners to
      keep track of visitors and for sites to exchange this information,
      some consider them a breach of privacy.  The default is to use cook-
      ies; however, storing cookies is not on by default.

    C]--load-cookies fileR]
      Load cookies from C]fileR] before the first HTTP(S) retrieval.  file
      is a textual file in the format originally used by Netscape[cq]s
      cookies.txt file.

      You will typically use this option when mirroring sites that require
      that you be logged in to access some or all of their content.  The lo-
      gin process typically works by the web server issuing an HTTP cookie
      upon receiving and verifying your credentials.  The cookie is then
      resent by the browser when accessing that part of the site, and so
      proves your identity.

      Mirroring such a site requires Wget2 to send the same cookies your
      browser sends when communicating with the site.  This is achieved by
      [en]load-cookies: simply point Wget2 to the location of the
      cookies.txt file, and it will send the same cookies your browser would
      send in the same situation.  Different browsers keep textual cookie
      files in different locations:

                                   - 26 -           Formatted:  May 21, 2022

 WGET2(1)                   GNU Wget2 User Manual                   WGET2(1)
 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      [lq]Netscape 4.x.[rq] The cookies are in [ti]/.netscape/cookies.txt.

      [lq]Mozilla and Netscape 6.x.[rq] Mozilla[cq]s cookie file is also
      named cookies.txt, located somewhere under [ti]/.mozilla, in the
      directory of your profile.  The full path usually ends up looking
      somewhat like [ti]/.mozilla/default/some-weird- string/cookies.txt.

      [lq]Internet Explorer.[rq] You can produce a cookie file Wget2 can use
      by using the File menu, Import and Export, Export Cookies.  This has
      been tested with Internet Explorer 5; it is not guaranteed to work
      with earlier versions.

      [lq]Other browsers.[rq] If you are using a different browser to create
      your cookies, [en]load-cookies will only work if you can locate or
      produce a cookie file in the Netscape format that Wget2 expects.

      If you cannot use C]--load-cookiesR], there might still be an alterna-
      tive.  If your browser supports a [lq]cookie manager[rq], you can use
      it to view the cookies used when accessing the site you[cq]re mirror-
      ing.  Write down the name and value of the cookie, and manually in-
      struct Wget2 to send those cookies, bypassing the [lq]official[rq]
      cookie support:

             wget2 --no-cookies --header [dq]Cookie: <name>=<value>[dq]

    C]--save-cookies fileR]
      Save cookies to C]fileR] before exiting.  This will not save cookies
      that have expired or that have no expiry time (so-called [lq]session
      cookies[rq]), but also see [en]keep-session-cookies.

      When specified, causes [en]save-cookies to also save session cookies.
      Session cookies are normally not saved because they are meant to be
      kept in memory and forgotten when you exit the browser.  Saving them
      is useful on sites that require you to log in or to visit the home
      page before you can access some pages.  With this option, multiple
      Wget2 runs are considered a single browser session as far as the site
      is concerned.

      Since the cookie file format does not normally carry session cookies,
      Wget2 marks them with an expiry timestamp of 0.  Wget2[cq]s [en]load-
      cookies recognizes those as session cookies, but it might confuse oth-
      er browsers.  Also note that cookies so loaded will be treated as oth-
      er session cookies, which means that if you want [en]save-cookies to
      preserve them again, you must use [en]keep-session-cookies again.

                                   - 27 -           Formatted:  May 21, 2022

 WGET2(1)                   GNU Wget2 User Manual                   WGET2(1)
 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      Load the public suffixes used for cookie checking from the given file.

      Normally, the underlying libpsl loads this data from a system file or
      it has the data built in.  In some cases you might want to load an up-
      dated PSL, e.g. from

      The PSL allows to prevent setting of [lq]super-cookies[rq] that lead
      to cookie privacy leakage.  More details can be found on

      Unfortunately, some HTTP servers (CGI programs, to be more precise)
      send out bogus [lq]Content-Length[rq] headers, which makes Wget2 go
      wild, as it thinks not all the document was retrieved.  You can spot
      this syndrome if Wget retries getting the same document again and
      again, each time claiming that the (otherwise normal) connection has
      closed on the very same byte.

      With this option, Wget2 will ignore the [lq]Content-Length[rq] header
      as if it never existed.

      Send header-line along with the rest of the headers in each HTTP re-
      quest.  The supplied header is sent as-is, which means it must contain
      name and value separated by colon, and must not contain newlines.

      You may define more than one additional header by specifying
      [en]header more than once.

             wget2 --header=[aq]Accept-Charset: iso-8859-2[aq] [rs]
                  --header=[aq]Accept-Language: hr[aq]        [rs]

      Specification of an empty string as the header value will clear all
      previous user-defined headers.

      This option can be used to override headers otherwise generated au-
      tomatically.  This example instructs Wget2 to connect to localhost,
      but to specify C]example.comR] in the [lq]Host[rq] header:

             wget2 --header=[dq]Host:[dq] http://localhost/

                                   - 28 -           Formatted:  May 21, 2022

 WGET2(1)                   GNU Wget2 User Manual                   WGET2(1)
 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      Specifies the maximum number of redirections to follow for a resource.
      The default is 20, which is usually far more than necessary.  However,
      on those occasions where you want to allow more (or fewer), this is
      the option to use.

    C]--proxy-user=userR], C]--proxy-password=passwordR] [Not implemented,
      use C]--http-proxy-passwordR]]
      Specify the username user and password password for authentication on
      a proxy server.  Wget2 will encode them using the [lq]basic[rq] au-
      thentication scheme.

      Security considerations similar to those with C]--http-passwordR] per-
      tain here as well.

      Include [ga]Referer: url[cq] header in HTTP request.  Useful for re-
      trieving documents with server-side processing that assume they are
      always being retrieved by interactive web browsers and only come out
      properly when Referer is set to one of the pages that point to them.

      Save the headers sent by the HTTP server to the file, preceding the
      actual contents, with an empty line as the separator.

    C]-U agent-stringR], C]--user-agent=agent-stringR]
      Identify as agent-string to the HTTP server.

      The HTTP protocol allows the clients to identify themselves using a
      [lq]User-Agent[rq] header field.  This enables distinguishing the WWW
      software, usually for statistical purposes or for tracing of protocol
      violations.  Wget normally identifies as Wget/version, version being
      the current version number of Wget.

      However, some sites have been known to impose the policy of tailoring
      the output according to the [lq]User-Agent[rq]-supplied information.
      While this is not such a bad idea in theory, it has been abused by
      servers denying information to clients other than (historically)
      Netscape or, more frequently, Microsoft Internet Explorer.  This op-
      tion allows you to change the [lq]User-Agent[rq] line issued by Wget.
      Use of this option is discouraged, unless you really know what you are

      Specifying empty user agent with [en]user-agent=[dq][dq] instructs
      Wget2 not to send the [lq]User-Agent[rq] header in HTTP requests.

    C]--post-data=stringR], C]--post-file=fileR]
      Use POST as the method for all HTTP requests and send the specified
      data in the request body.  [en]post-data sends string as data, whereas

                                   - 29 -           Formatted:  May 21, 2022

 WGET2(1)                   GNU Wget2 User Manual                   WGET2(1)
 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      [en]post-file sends the contents of file.  Other than that, they work
      in exactly the same way.  In particular, they both expect content of
      the form [lq]key1=value1&key2=value2[rq], with percent-encoding for
      special characters; the only difference is that one expects its con-
      tent as a command-line parameter and the other accepts its content
      from a file.  In particular, [en]post-file is not for transmitting
      files as form attachments: those must appear as [lq]key=value[rq] data
      (with appropriate percent-coding) just like everything else.  Wget2
      does not currently support [lq]multipart/form-data[rq] for transmit-
      ting POST data; only [lq]application/x-www-form-urlencoded[rq].  Only
      one of [en]post-data and [en]post-file should be specified.

      Please note that wget2 does not require the content to be of the form
      [lq]key1=value1&key2=value2[rq], and neither does it test for it.
      Wget2 will simply transmit whatever data is provided to it.  Most
      servers however expect the POST data to be in the above format when
      processing HTML Forms.

      When sending a POST request using the C]--post-fileR] option, Wget2
      treats the file as a binary file and will send every character in the
      POST request without stripping trailing newline or formfeed charac-
      ters.  Any other control characters in the text will also be sent as-
      is in the POST request.

      Please be aware that Wget2 needs to know the size of the POST data in
      advance.  Therefore the argument to [lq][en]post-file[rq] must be a
      regular file; specifying a FIFO or something like /dev/stdin won[cq]t
      work.  It[cq]s not quite clear how to work around this limitation in-
      herent in HTTP/1.0.  Although HTTP/1.1 introduces chunked transfer
      that doesn[cq]t require knowing the request length in advance, a
      client can[cq]t use chunked unless it knows it[cq]s talking to an
      HTTP/1.1 server.  And it can[cq]t know that until it receives a
      response, which in turn requires the request to have been completed
      [en] a chicken-and-egg problem.

      If Wget2 is redirected after the POST request is completed, its
      behaviour depends on the response code returned by the server.  In
      case of a 301 Moved Permanently, 302 Moved Temporarily or 307 Tem-
      porary Redirect, Wget2 will, in accordance with RFC2616, continue to
      send a POST request.  In case a server wants the client to change the
      Request method upon redirection, it should send a 303 See Other
      response code.

      This example shows how to log in to a server using POST and then
      proceed to download the desired pages, presumably only accessible to
      authorized users:


                                   - 30 -           Formatted:  May 21, 2022

 WGET2(1)                   GNU Wget2 User Manual                   WGET2(1)
 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

             # Log in to the server.  This can be done only once.
             wget2 --save-cookies cookies.txt [rs]
                  --post-data  [aq]user=foo&password=bar[aq] [rs]

             # Now grab the page or pages we care about.
             wget2 --load-cookies cookies.txt [rs]

      If the server is using session cookies to track user authentication,
      the above will not work because C]--save-cookiesR] will not save them
      (and neither will browsers) and the cookies.txt file will be empty.
      In that case use [en]keep-session-cookies along with [en]save-cookies
      to force saving of session cookies.

      For the purpose of RESTful scripting, Wget2 allows sending of other
      HTTP Methods without the need to explicitly set them using
      [en]header=Header-Line.  Wget2 will use whatever string is passed to
      it after [en]method as the HTTP Method to the server.

    C]--body-data=Data-StringR], C]--body-file=Data-FileR]
      Must be set when additional data needs to be sent to the server along
      with the Method specified using C]--methodR].  C]--body-dataR] sends
      string as data, whereas [en]body-file sends the contents of file.
      Other than that, they work in exactly the same way.

      Currently, C]--body-fileR] is not for transmitting files as a whole.
      Wget2 does not currently support [lq]multipart/form-data[rq] for
      transmitting data; only [lq]application/x-www-form-urlencoded[rq].  In
      the future, this may be changed so that wget2 sends the [en]body-file
      as a complete file instead of sending its contents to the server.
      Please be aware that Wget2 needs to know the contents of BODY Data in
      advance, and hence the argument to [en]body-file should be a regular
      file.  See [en]post-file for a more detailed explanation.  Only one of
      [en]body-data and [en]body-file should be specified.

      If Wget2 is redirected after the request is completed, Wget2 will
      suspend the current method and send a GET request till the redirection
      is completed.  This is true for all redirection response codes except
      307 Temporary Redirect which is used to explicitly specify that the
      request method should not change.  Another exception is when the
      method is set to [lq]POST[rq], in which case the redirection rules
      specified under C]--post-dataR] are followed.

      If this is set to on, experimental (not fully-functional) support for
      [lq]Content-Disposition[rq] headers is enabled.  This can currently

                                   - 31 -           Formatted:  May 21, 2022

 WGET2(1)                   GNU Wget2 User Manual                   WGET2(1)
 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      result in extra round-trips to the server for a [lq]HEAD[rq] request,
      and is known to suffer from a few bugs, which is why it is not
      currently enabled by default.

      This option is useful for some file-downloading CGI programs that use
      [lq]Content-Disposition[rq] headers to describe what the name of a
      downloaded file should be.

      If this is set to on, wget2 will not skip the content when the server
      responds with a http status code that indicates error.

      This takes a comma-separated list of HTTP status codes to save the
      content for.

      You can use [cq]*[cq] for ANY.  An exclamation mark (!) in front of a
      code means `exception'.

      Example 1: C]--save-content-on=[dq]*,!404[dq]R] would save the content
      on any HTTP status, except for 404.

      Example 2: C]--save-content-on=404R] would save the content only on
      HTTP status 404.

      The older C]--content-on-errorR] behaves like C]--save-content-on=*R].

      If this is set to on, on a redirect the last component of the redirec-
      tion URL will be used as the local file name.  By default it is used
      the last component in the original URL.

      If this option is given, Wget2 will send Basic HTTP authentication in-
      formation (plaintext username and password) for all requests.

      Use of this option is not recommended, and is intended only to support
      some few obscure servers, which never send HTTP authentication chal-
      lenges, but accept unsolicited auth info, say, in addition to form-
      based authentication.

      If this TYPE(C]identityR], C]gzipR], C]deflateR], C]xzR], C]lzmaR],
      C]brR], C]bzip2R], C]zstdR], C]lzipR] or any combination of it) is
      given, Wget2 will set [lq]Accept-Encoding[rq] header accordingly.
      C]--no-compressionR] means no [lq]Accept-Encoding[rq] header at all.
      To set [lq]Accept-Encoding[rq] to a custom value, use C]--no-
      compressionR] in combination with C]--header=[dq]Accept-Encoding:

                                   - 32 -           Formatted:  May 21, 2022

 WGET2(1)                   GNU Wget2 User Manual                   WGET2(1)
 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      Compatibility-Note: C]noneR] type in Wget 1.X has the same meaning as
      C]identityR] type in Wget2.

      The C]downloadR] HTML5 attribute may specify (or better: suggest) a
      file name for the C]hrefR] URL in C]aR] and C]areaR] tags.  This op-
      tion tells Wget2 to make use of this file name when saving.  The two
      possible values are `strippath' to strip the path from the file name.
      This is the default.

      The value `usepath' takes the file name as as including the directory.
      This is very dangerous and we can[cq]t stress enough not to use it on
      untrusted input or servers ! Only use this if you really trust the in-
      put or the server.

    HTTPS (SSL/TLS) Options
      To support encrypted HTTP (HTTPS) downloads, Wget2 must be compiled
      with an external SSL library.  The current default is GnuTLS.  In ad-
      dition, Wget2 also supports HSTS (HTTP Strict Transport Security).  If
      Wget2 is compiled without SSL support, none of these options are

      Choose the secure protocol to be used (default: C]autoR]).

      Legal values are C]autoR], C]SSLv3R], C]TLSv1R], C]TLSv1_1R],
      C]TLSv1_2R], C]TLSv1_3R] and C]PFSR].

      If C]autoR] is used, the TLS library[cq]s default is used.

      Specifying C]SSLv3R] forces the use of the SSL3.  This is useful when
      talking to old and buggy SSL server implementations that make it hard
      for the underlying TLS library to choose the correct protocol version.

      Specifying C]PFSR] enforces the use of the so-called Perfect Forward
      Security cipher suites.  In short, PFS adds security by creating a
      one-time key for each TLS connection.  It has a bit more CPU impact on
      client and server.  We use known to be secure ciphers (e.g. no MD4)
      and the TLS protocol.

      C]TLSv1R] enables TLS1.0 or higher.  C]TLSv1_1R] enables TLS1.1 or
      higher.  C]TLSv1_2R] enables TLS1.2 or higher.  C]TLSv1_3R] enables
      TLS1.3 or higher.

      Any other protocol string is directly given to the TLS library,
      currently GnuTLS, as a [lq]priority[rq] or [lq]cipher[rq] string.
      This is for users who know what they are doing.


                                   - 33 -           Formatted:  May 21, 2022

 WGET2(1)                   GNU Wget2 User Manual                   WGET2(1)
 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      When in recursive mode, only HTTPS links are followed.

      Don[cq]t check the server certificate against the available certifi-
      cate authorities.  Also don[cq]t require the URL host name to match
      the common name presented by the certificate.

      The default is to verify the server[cq]s certificate against the
      recognized certificate authorities, breaking the SSL handshake and
      aborting the download if the verification fails.  Although this pro-
      vides more secure downloads, it does break interoperability with some
      sites that worked with previous Wget versions, particularly those us-
      ing self-signed, expired, or otherwise invalid certificates.  This op-
      tion forces an [lq]insecure[rq] mode of operation that turns the cer-
      tificate verification errors into warnings and allows you to proceed.

      If you encounter [lq]certificate verification[rq] errors or ones say-
      ing that [lq]common name doesn[cq]t match requested host name[rq], you
      can use this option to bypass the verification and proceed with the
      download.  Only use this option if you are otherwise convinced of the
      site[cq]s authenticity, or if you really don[cq]t care about the vali-
      dity of its certificate.  It is almost always a bad idea not to check
      the certificates when transmitting confidential or important data.
      For self-signed/internal certificates, you should download the certi-
      ficate and verify against that instead of forcing this insecure mode.
      If you are really sure of not desiring any certificate verification,
      you can specify [en]check-certificate=quiet to tell Wget2 to not print
      any warning about invalid certificates, albeit in most cases this is
      the wrong thing to do.

      Use the client certificate stored in file.  This is needed for servers
      that are configured to require certificates from the clients that con-
      nect to them.  Normally a certificate is not required and this switch
      is optional.

      Specify the type of the client certificate.  Legal values are PEM (as-
      sumed by default) and DER, also known as ASN1.

      Read the private key from file.  This allows you to provide the
      private key in a file separate from the certificate.

      Specify the type of the private key.  Accepted values are PEM (the de-
      fault) and DER.


                                   - 34 -           Formatted:  May 21, 2022

 WGET2(1)                   GNU Wget2 User Manual                   WGET2(1)
 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      Use file as the file with the bundle of certificate authorities
      ([lq]CA[rq]) to verify the peers.  The certificates must be in PEM

      Without this option Wget2 looks for CA certificates at the system-
      specified locations, chosen at OpenSSL installation time.

      Specifies directory containing CA certificates in PEM format.  Each
      file contains one CA certificate, and the file name is based on a hash
      value derived from the certificate.  This is achieved by processing a
      certificate directory with the [lq]c_rehash[rq] utility supplied with
      OpenSSL.  Using C]--ca-directoryR] is more efficient than C]--ca-
      certificateR] when many certificates are installed because it allows
      Wget2 to fetch certificates on demand.

      Without this option Wget2 looks for CA certificates at the system-
      specified locations, chosen at OpenSSL installation time.

      Specifies a CRL file in file.  This is needed for certificates that
      have been revocated by the CAs.

      [OpenSSL and LibreSSL only] Use file as the source of random data for
      seeding the pseudo-random number generator on systems without

      On such systems the SSL library needs an external source of randomness
      to initialize.  Randomness may be provided by EGD (see [en]egd-file
      below) or read from an external source specified by the user.  If this
      option is not specified, Wget2 looks for random data in $RANDFILE or,
      if that is unset, in $HOME/.rnd.

      If you[cq]re getting the [lq]Could not seed OpenSSL PRNG; disabling
      SSL.[rq] error, you should provide random data using some of the
      methods described above.

      [OpenSSL only] Use file as the EGD socket.  EGD stands for Entropy
      Gathering Daemon, a user-space program that collects data from various
      unpredictable system sources and makes it available to other programs
      that might need it.  Encryption software, such as the SSL library,
      needs sources of non-repeating randomness to seed the random number
      generator used to produce cryptographically strong keys.

      OpenSSL allows the user to specify his own source of entropy using the
      [lq]RAND_FILE[rq] environment variable.  If this variable is unset, or
      if the specified file does not produce enough randomness, OpenSSL will

                                   - 35 -           Formatted:  May 21, 2022

 WGET2(1)                   GNU Wget2 User Manual                   WGET2(1)
 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      read random data from EGD socket specified using this option.

      If this option is not specified (and the equivalent startup command is
      not used), EGD is never contacted.  EGD is not needed on modern Unix
      systems that support /dev/urandom.

      Wget2 supports HSTS (HTTP Strict Transport Security, RFC 6797) by de-
      fault.  Use C]--no-hstsR] to make Wget2 act as a non-HSTS-compliant
      UA.  As a consequence, Wget2 would ignore all the [lq]Strict-
      Transport-Security[rq] headers, and would not enforce any existing
      HSTS policy.

      By default, Wget2 stores its HSTS database in [ti]/.wget-hsts.  You
      can use [en]hsts-file to override this.  Wget2 will use the supplied
      file as the HSTS database.  Such file must conform to the correct HSTS
      database format used by Wget.  If Wget2 cannot parse the provided
      file, the behaviour is unspecified.

      The Wget2[cq]s HSTS database is a plain text file.  Each line contains
      an HSTS entry (ie.  a site that has issued a [lq]Strict-Transport-
      Security[rq] header and that therefore has specified a concrete HSTS
      policy to be applied).  Lines starting with a dash ([lq]#[rq]) are ig-
      nored by Wget.  Please note that in spite of this convenient human-
      readability hand-hacking the HSTS database is generally not a good

      An HSTS entry line consists of several fields separated by one or more

             <hostname> SP [<port>] SP <include subdomains> SP <created> SP <max-age>

      The hostname and port fields indicate the hostname and port to which
      the given HSTS policy applies.  The port field may be zero, and it
      will, in most of the cases.  That means that the port number will not
      be taken into account when deciding whether such HSTS policy should be
      applied on a given request (only the hostname will be evaluated).
      When port is different to zero, both the target hostname and the port
      will be evaluated and the HSTS policy will only be applied if both of
      them match.  This feature has been included for testing/development
      purposes only.  The Wget2 testsuite (in testenv/) creates HSTS data-
      bases with explicit ports with the purpose of ensuring Wget2[cq]s
      correct behaviour.  Applying HSTS policies to ports other than the de-
      fault ones is discouraged by RFC 6797 (see Appendix B [lq]Differences
      between HSTS Policy and Same-Origin Policy[rq]).  Thus, this func-

                                   - 36 -           Formatted:  May 21, 2022

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      tionality should not be used in production environments and port will
      typically be zero.  The last three fields do what they are expected
      to.  The field include_subdomains can either be 1 or 0 and it signals
      whether the subdomains of the target domain should be part of the
      given HSTS policy as well.  The created and max-age fields hold the
      timestamp values of when such entry was created (first seen by Wget)
      and the HSTS-defined value `max-age', which states how long should
      that HSTS policy remain active, measured in seconds elapsed since the
      timestamp stored in created.  Once that time has passed, that HSTS
      policy will no longer be valid and will eventually be removed from the

      If you supply your own HSTS database via [en]hsts-file, be aware that
      Wget2 may modify the provided file if any change occurs between the
      HSTS policies requested by the remote servers and those in the file.
      When Wget2 exits, it effectively updates the HSTS database by rewrit-
      ing the database file with the new entries.

      If the supplied file does not exist, Wget2 will create one.  This file
      will contain the new HSTS entries.  If no HSTS entries were generated
      (no [lq]Strict-Transport-Security[rq] headers were sent by any of the
      servers) then no file will be created, not even an empty one.  This
      behaviour applies to the default database file ([ti]/.wget-hsts) as
      well: it will not be created until some server enforces an HSTS poli-

      Care is taken not to override possible changes made by other Wget2
      processes at the same time over the HSTS database.  Before dumping the
      updated HSTS entries on the file, Wget2 will re-read it and merge the

      Using a custom HSTS database and/or modifying an existing one is
      discouraged.  For more information about the potential security
      threats arose from such practice, see section 14 [lq]Security
      Considerations[rq] of RFC 6797, specially section 14.9 [lq]Creative
      Manipulation of HSTS Policy Store[rq].

      Enable loading of a HSTS Preload List as supported by libhsts.  (de-
      fault: on, if built with libhsts).

      If built with libhsts, Wget2 uses the HSTS data provided by the dis-
      tribution.  If there is no such support by the distribution or if you
      want to load your own file, use this option.

      The data file must be in DAFSA format as generated by libhsts[cq] tool

                                   - 37 -           Formatted:  May 21, 2022

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      Enable HTTP Public Key Pinning (HPKP) (default: on).

      This is a Trust On First Use (TOFU) mechanism to add another security
      layer to HTTPS (RFC 7469).  It persistently stores the data into
      C][ti]/.wget-hpkpR] which can be changed via the C]--hpkp-

      For HPKP (C]--hpkpR]) you need the certificate key data of a previous-
      ly established TLS session.  Wget2 persistently stores this data in
      the given file (default: [ti]/.wget-hpkp).

      To disable persistent storage use C]--no-hpkp-fileR].

      Enable TLS Session Resumption which is disabled as default.

      There are several security flaws related to TLS 1.2 session resumption
      which are explained in detail at:

      For TLS Session Resumption (C]--tls-resumeR]) you need the session
      data of a previously established TLS session.  Wget2 persistently
      stores this data in the given file (default: [ti]/.wget-session).

      To disable persistent storage use C]--no-tls-session-fileR].

      Enable TLS False start (default: on).

      This reduces TLS negotiation by one RT and thus speeds up HTTPS con-

      More details at

      Enable TLS SNI verification (default: on).

      Enable OCSP server access to check the possible revocation the HTTPS
      server certificate(s) (default: on).

      This procedure is pretty slow (connect to server, HTTP request,
      response) and thus we support OSCP stapling (server sends OCSP
      response within TLS handshake) and persistent OCSP caching.

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      Check if OCSP response is too old.  (default: on)

      Allow nonce checking when verifying OCSP response.  (default: on)

      Set OCSP server address (default: OCSP server given in certificate).

      Enable support for OCSP stapling (default: on).

      Set the file for persistent OCSP response caching (default:

      To disable persistent OCSP caching use C]--no-ocsp-fileR].

      Enable HTTP/2 protocol (default: on).

      Wget2 requests HTTP/2 via ALPN.  If available it is preferred over
      HTTP/1.1.  Up to 30 streams are used in parallel within a single con-

      Resist on using HTTP/2 and error if a server doesn[cq]t accept it.
      This is mainly for testing.

      Sets how to deal with URLs that are not explicitly HTTPS (where scheme
      isn[cq]t https://) (default: none)

      Use HTTP for URLs without scheme.  In recursive operation the scheme
      of the parent document is taken as default.

      Try HTTPS first when the scheme is HTTP or not given.  On failure fall
      back to HTTP.

      Only use HTTPS, no matter if a HTTP scheme is given or not.  Do not
      fall back to HTTP.

    Recursive Retrieval Options
    C]-rR], C]--recursiveR]
      Turn on recursive retrieving.  The default maximum depth is 5.

                                   - 39 -           Formatted:  May 21, 2022

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 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

    C]-l depthR], C]--level=depthR]
      Specify recursion maximum depth level depth.

      This option tells Wget2 to delete every single file it downloads,
      after having done so.  It is useful for pre- fetching popular pages
      through a proxy, e.g.:

             wget2 -r -nd --delete-after[ti]popular/page/

      The -r option is to retrieve recursively, and -nd to not create direc-

      Note that when [en]delete-after is specified, [en]convert-links is ig-
      nored, so .orig files are simply not created in the first place.

    C]-kR], C]--convert-linksR]
      After the download is complete, convert the links in the document to
      make them suitable for local viewing.  This affects not only the visi-
      ble hyperlinks, but any part of the document that links to external
      content, such as embedded images, links to style sheets, hyperlinks to
      non-HTML content, etc.

      Each link will be changed in one of the two ways:

      1. The links to files that have been downloaded by Wget2 will be
         changed to refer to the file they point to as a relative link.

          Example: if the downloaded file /foo/doc.html links to
          /bar/img.gif, also downloaded, then the link in doc.html will be
          modified to point to ../bar/img.gif.  This kind of transformation
          works reliably for arbitrary combinations of directories.

      2. The links to files that have not been downloaded by Wget2 will be
         changed to include host name and absolute path of the location they
         point to.

          Example: if the downloaded file /foo/doc.html links to
          /bar/img.gif (or to ../bar/img.gif), then the link in doc.html
          will be modified to point to C]].

      Because of this, local browsing works reliably: if a linked file was
      downloaded, the link will refer to its local name; if it was not down-
      loaded, the link will refer to its full Internet address rather than
      presenting a broken link.  The fact that the former links are convert-
      ed to relative links ensures that you can move the downloaded hierar-

                                   - 40 -           Formatted:  May 21, 2022

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 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      chy to another directory.

      Note that only at the end of the download can Wget2 know which links
      have been downloaded.  Because of that, the work done by C]-kR] will
      be performed at the end of all the downloads.

      This option converts only the filename part of the URLs, leaving the
      rest of the URLs untouched.  This filename part is sometimes referred
      to as the [lq]basename[rq], although we avoid that term here in order
      not to cause confusion.

      It works particularly well in conjunction with C]--adjust-extensionR],
      although this coupling is not enforced.  It proves useful to populate
      Internet caches with files downloaded from different hosts.

      Example: if some link points to // with
      [en]adjust-extension asserted and its local destination is intended to
      be ./, then the link would be converted to
      //  Note that only the filename part has been
      modified.  The rest of the URL has been left untouched, including the
      net path ([lq]//[rq]) which would otherwise be processed by Wget2 and
      converted to the effective scheme (ie.  [lq]https://[rq]).

    C]-KR], C]--backup-convertedR]
      When converting a file, back up the original version with a .orig suf-
      fix.  Affects the behavior of C]-NR].

    C]-mR], C]--mirrorR]
      Turn on options suitable for mirroring.  This option turns on recur-
      sion and time-stamping, sets infinite recursion depth.  It is current-
      ly equivalent to C]-r -N -l infR].

    C]-pR], C]--page-requisitesR]
      This option causes Wget2 to download all the files that are necessary
      to properly display a given HTML page.  This includes such things as
      inlined images, sounds, and referenced stylesheets.

      Ordinarily, when downloading a single HTML page, any requisite docu-
      ments that may be needed to display it properly are not downloaded.
      Using C]-rR] together with C]-lR] can help, but since Wget2 does not
      ordinarily distinguish between external and inlined documents, one is
      generally left with [lq]leaf documents[rq] that are missing their re-

      For instance, say document C]1.htmlR] contains an C]<IMG>R] tag re-
      ferencing C]1.gifR] and an C]<A>R] tag pointing to external document
      C]2.htmlR].  Say that C]2.htmlR] is similar but that its image is
      C]2.gifR] and it links to C]3.htmlR].  Say this continues up to some

                                   - 41 -           Formatted:  May 21, 2022

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      arbitrarily high number.

      If one executes the command:

             wget2 -r -l 2 https://<site>/1.html

      then 1.html, 1.gif, 2.html, 2.gif, and 3.html will be downloaded.  As
      you can see, 3.html is without its requisite 3.gif because Wget2 is
      simply counting the number of hops (up to 2) away from 1.html in order
      to determine where to stop the recursion.  However, with this command:

             wget2 -r -l 2 -p https://<site>/1.html

      all the above files and 3.html[cq]s requisite 3.gif will be download-
      ed.  Similarly,

             wget2 -r -l 1 -p https://<site>/1.html

      will cause 1.html, 1.gif, 2.html, and 2.gif to be downloaded.  One
      might think that:

             wget2 -r -l 0 -p https://<site>/1.html

      would download just 1.html and 1.gif, but unfortunately this is not
      the case, because -l 0 is equivalent to -l inf, that is, infinite re-
      cursion.  To download a single HTML page (or a handful of them, all
      specified on the command-line or in a -i URL input file) and its (or
      their) requisites, simply leave off -r and -l:

             wget2 -p https://<site>/1.html

      Note that Wget2 will behave as if -r had been specified, but only that
      single page and its requisites will be downloaded.  Links from that
      page to external documents will not be followed.  Actually, to down-

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 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      load a single page and all its requisites (even if they exist on
      separate websites), and make sure the lot displays properly locally,
      this author likes to use a few options in addition to -p:

             wget2 -E -H -k -K -p https://<site>/<document>

      To finish off this topic, it[cq]s worth knowing that Wget2[cq]s idea
      of an external document link is any URL specified in an C]<A>R] tag,
      an C]<AREA>R] tag, or a C]<LINK>R] tag other than C]<LINK

      Obsolete option for compatibility with Wget1.x.  Wget2 always ter-
      minates comments at the first occurrence of C]-->R], as popular
      browsers do.

      Enable the Robots Exclusion Standard (default: on).

      For each visited domain, follow rules specified in C]/robots.txtR].
      You should respect the domain owner[cq]s rules and turn this off only
      for very good reasons.

      Whether enabled or disabled, the C]robots.txtR] file is downloaded and
      scanned for sitemaps.  These are lists of pages / files available for
      download that not necessarily are available via recursive scanning.

    Recursive Accept/Reject Options
    C]-A acclistR], C]--accept=acclistR], C]-R rejlistR], C]--
      Specify comma-separated lists of file name suffixes or patterns to ac-
      cept or reject.  Note that if any of the wildcard characters, C]*, ?,
      [, ]R], appear in an element of acclist or rejlist, it will be treated
      as a pattern, rather than a suffix.  In this case, you have to enclose
      the pattern into quotes to prevent your shell from expanding it, like
      in C]-A [dq]*.mp3[dq]R] or C]-A [aq]*.mp3[aq]R].

    C]--accept-regex=urlregexR], C]--reject-regex=urlregexR]
      Specify a regular expression to accept or reject file names.

      Specify the regular expression type.  Possible types are posix or
      pcre.  Note that to be able to use pcre type, wget2 has to be compiled
      with libpcre support.


                                   - 43 -           Formatted:  May 21, 2022

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 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      Apply the accept and reject filters on the URL before starting a down-

    C]-D domain-listR], C]--domains=domain-listR]
      Set domains to be followed.  domain-list is a comma-separated list of
      domains.  Note that it does not turn on -H.

      Specify the domains that are not to be followed.

      Wget2 has an internal table of HTML tag / attribute pairs that it con-
      siders when looking for linked documents during a recursive retrieval.
      If a user wants only a subset of those tags to be considered, however,
      he or she should be specify such tags in a comma-separated list with
      this option.

      This is the opposite of the [en]follow-tags option.  To skip certain
      HTML tags when recursively looking for documents to download, specify
      them in a comma-separated list.

      In the past, this option was the best bet for downloading a single
      page and its requisites, using a command-line like:

             wget2 --ignore-tags=a,area -H -k -K -r https://<site>/<document>

      However, the author of this option came across a page with tags like
      [lq][rq] and came to the realization that specifying tags to ignore
      was not enough.  One can[cq]t just tell Wget2 to ignore [lq][rq], be-
      cause then stylesheets will not be downloaded.  Now the best bet for
      downloading a single page and its requisites is the dedicated
      [en]page-requisites option.

      Ignore case when matching files and directories.  This influences the
      behavior of -R, -A, -I, and -X options.  For example, with this op-
      tion, -A [dq]*.txt[dq] will match file1.txt, but also file2.TXT,
      file3.TxT, and so on.  The quotes in the example are to prevent the
      shell from expanding the pattern.

    C]-HR], C]--span-hostsR]
      Enable spanning across hosts when doing recursive retrieving.

    C]-LR], C]--relativeR] [Not implemented yet]
      Follow relative links only.  Useful for retrieving a specific home

                                   - 44 -           Formatted:  May 21, 2022

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 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      page without any distractions, not even those from the same hosts.

    C]-I listR], C]--include-directories=listR]
      Specify a comma-separated list of directories you wish to follow when
      downloading.  Elements of the list may contain wildcards.

             wget2 -r https://webpage.domain --include-directories=*/pub/*/

      Please keep in mind that C]*/pub/*/R] is the same as C]/*/pub/*/R] and
      that it matches directories, not strings.  This means that C]*/pubR]
      doesn[cq]t affect files contained at e.g. C]/directory/something/pubR]
      but C]/pub/*R] matches every subdir of C]/pubR].

    C]-X listR], C]--exclude-directories=listR]
      Specify a comma-separated list of directories you wish to exclude from
      download.  Elements of the list may contain wildcards.

             wget2 -r --exclude-directories=/software

    C]-IR] / C]-XR] combinations
      Please be aware that the behavior of this combination of flags works
      slightly different than in wget1.x.

      If -I is given first, the default is `exclude all'.  If -X is given
      first, the default is `include all'.

      Multiple -I/-X options are processed `first to last'.  The last match
      is relevant.

             Example: -I /pub -X /pub/trash would download all from /pub/ except from /pub/trash.
             Example: -X /pub -I /pub/important would download all except from /pub where only /pub/important would be downloaded.

      To reset the list (e.g. to ignore -I/-X from .wgetrc files) use C]--
      no-include-directoriesR] or C]--no-exclude-directoriesR].

    C]-npR], C]--no-parentR]
      Do not ever ascend to the parent directory when retrieving recursive-
      ly.  This is a useful option, since it guarantees that only the files
      below a certain hierarchy will be downloaded.

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 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      Specify a comma-separated list of MIME types that will be downloaded.
      Elements of list may contain wildcards.  If a MIME type starts with
      the character `!' it won[cq]t be downloaded, this is useful when try-
      ing to download something with exceptions.  If server doesn[cq]t
      specify the MIME type of a file it will be considered as
      `application/octet-stream'.  For example, download everything except

             wget2 -r https://<site>/<document> --filter-mime-type=*,[rs]!image/*

      It is also useful to download files that are compatible with an appli-
      cation of your system.  For instance, download every file that is com-
      patible with LibreOffice Writer from a website using the recursive

             wget2 -r https://<site>/<document> --filter-mime-type=$(sed -r [aq]/[ha]MimeType=/!d;s/[ha]MimeType=//;s/;/,/g[aq] /usr/share/applications/libreoffice-writer.desktop)

    Plugin Options
      Print a list all available plugins and exit.

      Load C]fileR] as plugin.

      Load a plugin with a given C]nameR] from the configured plugin direc-

      Set plugin directories.  C]directoriesR] is a comma-separated list of

      Print the help messages from all loaded plugins.

      Set a plugin specific command line option.

      C]optionR] is in the format C]<plugin_name>.<option>[=value]R].

      Wget2 supports proxies for both HTTP and HTTPS retrievals.  The stan-

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 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

      dard way to specify proxy location, which Wget recognizes, is using
      the following environment variables:



      If set, the C]http_proxyR] and C]https_proxyR] variables should con-
      tain the URLs of the proxies for HTTP and HTTPS connections respec-


      This variable should contain a comma-separated list of domain exten-
      sions C]proxyR] should not be used for.  For instance, if the value of
      C]no_proxyR] is C].example.comR], C]proxyR] will not be used to re-
      trieve documents from C]*.example.comR].

 Exit Status
      Wget2 may return one of several error codes if it encounters problems.

             0   No problems occurred.

             1   Generic error code.

             2   Parse error. For instance, when parsing command-line options, the .wgetrc or .netrc...

             3   File I/O error.

             4   Network failure.

             5   SSL verification failure.

             6   Username/password authentication failure.

             7   Protocol errors.

             8   Server issued an error response.

             9   Public key missing from keyring.

             10  A Signature verification failed.

      With the exceptions of 0 and 1, the lower-numbered exit codes take
      precedence over higher-numbered ones, when multiple types of errors
      are encountered.

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 GNU Wget2 2.0.0                                             GNU Wget2 2.0.0

 Startup File
      Sometimes you may wish to permanently change the default behaviour of
      GNU Wget2.  There is a better way to do this than setting an alias in
      your shell.  GNU Wget2 allows you to set all options permanently
      through its startup up, C].wget2rcR].

      While C].wget2rcR] is the I]mainR] initialization file used by GNU
      Wget2, it is not a good idea to store passwords in this file.  This is
      because the startup file maybe publicly readable or backed up in ver-
      sion control.  This is why Wget2 also reads the contents of
      C]$HOME/.netrcR] when required.

      The C].wget2rcR] file follows a very similar syntax to the C].wgetrcR]
      that is read by GNU Wget.  It varies in only those places where the
      command line options vary between Wget1.x and Wget2.

    Wget2rc Location
      When initializing, Wget2 will attempt to read the [lq]global[rq]
      startup file, which is located at `/usr/local/etc/wget2rc' by default
      (or some prefix other than `/usr/local', if Wget2 was not installed
      there).  The global startup file is useful for system administrators
      to enforce a default policy, such as setting the path to the certifi-
      cate store, preloading a HSTS list, etc.

      Then, Wget2 will look for the user[cq]s initialization file.  If the
      user has passed the C]--configR] command line option, Wget2 will try
      to load the file that it points to.  If file does not exist, or if it
      cannot be read, Wget2 will make no further attempts to read any ini-
      tialization files.

      If the environment variable C]WGET2RCR] is set, Wget2 will try to load
      the file at this location.  If the file does not exist, or if it can-
      not be read, Wget2 will make no further attempts to read an initiali-
      zation file.

      If, C]--configR] is not passed and C]WGET2RCR] is not set, Wget2 will
      attempt to load the user[cq]s initialization file from a location as
      defined by the XDG Base Directory Specification.  It will read the
      first, and only the first file it finds from the following locations:

      1. C]$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/wget/wget2rcR]

      2. C]$HOME/.config/wget/wget2rcR]

      3. C]$HOME/.wget2rcR]

      Having an initialization file at C]$HOME/.wget2rcR] is deprecated.  If
      a file is found there, Wget2 will print a warning about it.  Support
      for reading from this file will be removed in the future.

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      The fact that the user[cq]s settings are loaded after the system-wide
      ones means that in case of a collision, the user[cq]s wget2rc
      I]overridesR] the global wget2rc.

      You are welcome to submit bug reports via the GNU Wget2 bug tracker

      Before actually submitting a bug report, please try to follow a few
      simple guidelines.

      1. Please try to ascertain that the behavior you see really is a bug.
         If Wget2 crashes, it[cq]s a bug.  If Wget2 does not behave as docu-
         mented, it[cq]s a bug.  If things work strange, but you are not
         sure about the way they are supposed to work, it might well be a
         bug, but you might want to double-check the documentation and the
         mailing lists.

      2. Try to repeat the bug in as simple circumstances as possible.  E.g.
         if Wget2 crashes while downloading C]wget2 -rl0   -kKE -t5 --no-
         proxy -o /tmp/logR], you should try to see if
         the crash is repeatable, and if will occur with a simpler set of
         options.  You might even try to start the download at the page
         where the crash occurred to see if that page somehow triggered the

      Also, while I will probably be interested to know the contents of your
      C].wgetrcR] file, just dumping it into the debug message is probably a
      bad idea.  Instead, you should first try to see if the bug repeats
      with C].wgetrcR] moved out of the way.  Only if it turns out that
      C].wgetrcR] settings affect the bug, mail me the relevant parts of the

      3. Please start Wget2 with -d option and send us the resulting output
         (or relevant parts thereof).  If Wget2 was compiled without debug
         support, recompile it.  It is much easier to trace bugs with debug
         support on.

      Note: please make sure to remove any potentially sensitive information
      from the debug log before sending it to the bug address.  The C]-dR]
      won[cq]t go out of its way to collect sensitive information, but the
      log will contain a fairly complete transcript of Wget2[cq]s communica-
      tion with the server, which may include passwords and pieces of down-
      loaded data.  Since the bug address is publicly archived, you may as-
      sume that all bug reports are visible to the public.

      4. If Wget2 has crashed, try to run it in a debugger, e.g. C]gdb
         [ga]which wget[ga] coreR] and type [lq]where[rq] to get the back-
         trace.  This may not work if the system administrator has disabled

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         core files, but it is safe to try.

 See also
      This is not the complete manual for GNU Wget.  For more complete in-
      formation, including more detailed explanations of some of the op-
      tions, and a number of commands available for use with .wgetrc files
      and the -e option, see the GNU Info entry for wget.

      Wget2 written by Tim R[:u]hsen <>

      Wget 1.x originally written by Hrvoje Nik[vs]i['c]

      Copyright (C) 2012-2015 Tim R[:u]hsen

      Copyright (C) 2015-2021 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

      Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
      under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
      any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
      Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover
      Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
      [lq]GNU Free Documentation License[rq].

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