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 GLOBAL(1)                       GNU Project                       GLOBAL(1)
                                  May 2015



 NAME
      global - print locations of given symbols

 SYNOPSIS
      global [-adEFGilMnNqrstTvx][-S dir][-e] pattern
      global -c[dFiIMoOPrsT] prefix
      global -f[adlnqrstvx][-L file-list][-S dir] files
      global -g[aEGilMnoOqtvVx][-L file-list][-S dir][-e] pattern [files]
      global -I[ailMnqtvx][-S dir][-e] pattern
      global -P[aEGilMnoOqtvVx][-S dir][-e] pattern
      global -p[qrv]
      global -u[qv]

 DESCRIPTION
      Global finds locations of given symbols in C, C++, Yacc, Java, PHP and
      Assembly source files, and prints the path name, line number and line
      image of the locations.  Global can locate not only definitions but
      also references and other symbols.

      Global can treat a source tree, that is, a directory that has sub-
      directories and source files, as a project.  In advance of using this
      command, you must execute gtags(1) at the root directory of the
      project which you want to investigate to make tag files.  Then you can
      use global command anywhere in the project.  You need not specify
      where the tag file is.  Instead, global locates it by itself.

      You can specify a regular expression for pattern.  Global understands
      two different versions of regular expression syntax: basic and
      extended (default).

 COMMANDS
      The following commands are available:

      <no command> pattern
           No command means tag search command.  Print tags which match to
           pattern.  By default, print definition tags.

      -c, --completion [prefix]
           Print symbols which start with prefix.  If prefix is not given,
           print all symbols.

      -f, --file files
           Print all tags in the files.  This command implies the -x option.

      -g, --grep pattern [files]
           Print all lines which match to the pattern.  If files are given,
           this command searches in those files.

      --help
           Print a usage message.




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 GLOBAL(1)                       GNU Project                       GLOBAL(1)
                                  May 2015



      -I, --idutils pattern
           Print all lines which match to pattern.  This function uses
           idutils(1) as a search engine.  To use this command, you need to
           install idutils(1) in your system and execute gtags(1) with the
           -I option.

      -P, --path [pattern]
           Print path names which match to pattern.  If no pattern is given,
           print all paths in the project.

      -p, --print-dbpath
           Print location of 'GTAGS'.

      --print name
           Print location of name, which may be one of: 'root', 'dbpath' or
           'conf'.  'root' means project's root directory. 'dbpath' means a
           directory where tag databases exist. 'conf' means configuration
           file.

      -u, --update
           Update tag files incrementally.  This command internally invokes
           gtags(1).  You can execute this command anywhere in the project,
           differing from gtags(1).

      --version
           Show version number.

 OPTIONS
      The following options are available:

      -a, --absolute
           Print absolute path names. By default, print relative path names.

      --color when
           Use color to highlight the pattern within the line; when may be
           one of: never, always or auto (default).  The default color is
           bold red text on current background; the environment variable
           GREP_COLORS (only mt and ms are effective at present) or
           GREP_COLOR defines it.  This option is effective to the following
           commands: <no command>, -f, -g, -I, -P.

      -d, --definition
           Print locations of definitions.

      -e, --regexp pattern
           Use pattern as the pattern; useful to protect patterns starting
           with '-'.

      -E, --extended-regexp
           Interpret pattern as a extended regular expression.  This is the
           default.



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 GLOBAL(1)                       GNU Project                       GLOBAL(1)
                                  May 2015



      --encode-path chars
           Convert path characters in chars into a '%' symbol, followed by
           the two-digit hexadecimal representation of the character.  A
           blank will be converted to '%20'.

      -F, --first-match
           End the search without going through all the tag files listed in
           GTAGSLIBPATH when tags are found in a tag file. This is the
           default.

      --from-here context
           Decide tag type by context. Its syntax should be 'lineno:path'.
           If the context is a definition of the pattern then use -r, else
           if there is at least one definition of the pattern then use -d,
           else use -s.  If this option is specified then -d, -r and -s on
           the command line are ignored.  Regular expression is not allowed
           for pattern.  This option assumes use in conversational
           environments such as editors and IDEs.

      -G, --basic-regexp
           Interpret pattern as a basic regular expression.  The default is
           an extended regular expression.

      --gtagsconf file
           Set environment variable GTAGSCONF to file.

      --gtagslabel label
           Set environment variable GTAGSLABEL to label.

      -i, --ignore-case
           Ignore case distinctions in the pattern.

      -L, --file-list file
           Obtain files from file in addition to the arguments.  The
           argument file can be set to '-' to accept a list of files from
           the standard input. File names must be separated by newline.

      -l, --local
           Print only tags which exist under the current directory.

      --literal
           Execute literal search instead of regular expression search.
           This option works with the tag search command, -g command, -P
           command and -I command.

      -M, --match-case
           Search is case-sensitive. This is the default.

      --match-part part
           Specify how path name completion should match, where part is one
           of: 'first', 'last' or 'all' (default).  This option is valid



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 GLOBAL(1)                       GNU Project                       GLOBAL(1)
                                  May 2015



           only with the -c command in conjunction with -P.

      -n, --nofilter
           Suppress sort filter and path conversion filter.

      -N, --nearness[=start]
           Use Nearness sort method (sorting by closest from start) for the
           output.  By default, alphabetical sort method is used.  This
           option is effective for the tag search command, -P command and -g
           command. As an exception, -g command ignores this option when
           files are specified by arguments.  The nearness is defined by how
           many parent directories to go up to reach the target. The result
           of nearness sort is concatenation of the following ([0]-[n]) in
           this order. The default of start is the current directory.
           [0] If the start is a file, output of local search in the file.
           [1] Output of local search in the start directory except for [0].
           [2] Output of local search in the parent directory except for [0]-[1].
           [3] Output of local search in the grandparent directory except for [0]-[2].
           ... (repeat until the project root directory)
           [n] Output of local search in the project root directory except for [0]-[n-1].
           In each directory, they are sorted by alphabetical order.

      -O, --only-other
           Treat only text files other than source code, like 'README'.
           This option is valid only with the -g or -P command.  This option
           overrides the -o option.

      -o, --other
           Treat not only source files but also text files other than source
           code, like 'README'.  This option is valid only with the -g or -P
           command.

      --path-style format
           Print path names using format, which may be one of: 'relative',
           'absolute', 'shorter', 'abslib' or 'through'.  'relative' means
           relative path. 'absolute' means absolute path.  'shorter' means
           the shorter one of relative and absolute path.  'abslib' means
           absolute path for libraries (GTAGSLIBPATH) and relative path for
           the rest.  'through' means the relative path from the project
           root directory (internal format of GPATH).  The default is
           'relative'.  The --path-style option is given more priority than
           the -a option.

      --print0
           Print each record followed by a null character instead of a
           newline.

      -q, --quiet
           Quiet mode.





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 GLOBAL(1)                       GNU Project                       GLOBAL(1)
                                  May 2015



      -r, --reference, --rootdir
           Print reference tags.  Reference means the reference to a symbol
           which has definitions.  With the -p option, print the root
           directory of the project.

      --result format
           Print out using format, which may be one of: 'path' (default),
           'ctags', 'ctags-x', 'grep' or 'cscope'.  The --result=ctags and
           --result=ctags-x options are equivalent to the -t and -x options
           respectively.  The --result option is given more priority than
           the -t and -x options.

      --single-update file
           Update tag files using gtags(1) with the --single-update option.
           It is considered that file was added, updated or deleted, and
           there is no change in other files.  This option implies the -u
           option.

      -s, --symbol
           Print other symbol tags.  Other symbol means the reference to a
           symbol which has no definition.

      -S, --scope dir
           Print only tags which exist under dir directory.  It is similar
           to the -l option, but you need not change directory.

      -T, --through
           Go through all the tag files listed in GTAGSLIBPATH.  By default,
           stop searching when tag is found.  This option is ignored when
           either -s, -r or -l option is specified.

      -t, --tags
           Use standard ctags format.

      -V, --invert-match
           Invert the sense of matching, to select non-matching lines.  This
           option is valid only with the -g or -P commands.

      -v, --verbose
           Verbose mode.

      -x, --cxref
           Use standard ctags cxref (with -x) format.

 EXAMPLES
      $ ls -F
      Makefile      src/    lib/
      $ gtags
      $ ls G*
      GPATH   GRTAGS  GTAGS
      $ global main



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 GLOBAL(1)                       GNU Project                       GLOBAL(1)
                                  May 2015



      src/main.c
      $ (cd src; global main)
      main.c
      $ global -x main
      main              10 src/main.c  main (argc, argv) {
      $ global -f src/main.c
      main              10 src/main.c  main (argc, argv) {
      func1             55 src/main.c  func1() {
      func2             72 src/main.c  func2() {
      func3            120 src/main.c  func3() {
      $ global -x '^[sg]et'
      set_num           20 lib/util.c  set_num(values) {
      get_num           30 lib/util.c  get_num() {
      $ global -rx set_num
      set_num          113 src/op.c            set_num(32);
      set_num          225 src/opop.c               if (set_num(0) > 0) {
      $ global strlen
      $ (cd /usr/src/sys; gtags)
      $ export GTAGSLIBPATH=/usr/src/sys
      $ global -a strlen
      /usr/src/sys/libkern/strlen.c
      $ (cd /usr/src/lib; gtags)
      $ GTAGSLIBPATH=/usr/src/lib:/usr/src/sys
      $ global -a strlen
      /usr/src/lib/libc/string/strlen.c

 FILES
      'GTAGS'
           Tag file for definitions.

      'GRTAGS'
           Tag file for references.

      'GPATH'
           Tag file for source files.

      'GTAGSROOT'
           If environment variable GTAGSROOT is not set and file 'GTAGSROOT'
           exists in the same directory as 'GTAGS' then global sets
           GTAGSROOT to the contents of the file.

      'gtags.conf', '$HOME/.globalrc'
           Configuration data for GNU GLOBAL.  See gtags.conf(5).

 ENVIRONMENT
      The following environment variables affect the execution of global:

      GREP_COLOR
           The color to use for --color; GREP_COLORS has precedence.





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 GLOBAL(1)                       GNU Project                       GLOBAL(1)
                                  May 2015



      GREP_COLORS
           The color (mt or ms) to use for --color; see grep(1).

      GTAGSBLANKENCODE
           If this variable is set, the --encode-path=" <TAB>" option is
           specified.

      GTAGSCACHE
           The size of the B-tree cache. The default is 50000000 (bytes).

      GTAGSCONF
           Configuration file.

      GTAGSDBPATH
           The directory in which the tag files exist.  This value is
           ignored when GTAGSROOT is not defined.  Use of this variable is
           not recommended.

      GTAGSFORCECPP
           If this variable is set, each file whose suffix is '.h' is
           treated as a C++ source file.

      GTAGSLABEL
           Configuration label. The default is default.

      GTAGSLIBPATH
           If this variable is set, it is used as the path to search for
           library functions. If the given symbol is not found in the
           project, global also searches in these paths.  Since only 'GTAGS'
           is targeted in the retrieval, this variable is ignored when -r or
           -s is specified.

      GTAGSLOGGING
           If this variable is set, '$GTAGSLOGGING' is used as the path name
           of a log file. There is no default value.

      GTAGSROOT
           The root directory of the project.  Usually, it is recognized by
           existence of 'GTAGS'.  Use of this variable is not recommended.

      GTAGSTHROUGH
           If this variable is set, the -T option is specified.

      GTAGSOBJDIR, MAKEOBJDIR
           If eigher of the two variable is set, it is used as the name of
           BSD-style objdir.  The former is given priority. The default is
           'obj'.

      GTAGSOBJDIRPREFIX, MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX
           If eigher of the two variable is set, it is used as the prefix of
           BSD-style objdir.  The former is given priority. The default is



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 GLOBAL(1)                       GNU Project                       GLOBAL(1)
                                  May 2015



           '/usr/obj'.

 CONFIGURATION
      The following configuration variables affect the execution of global:

      icase_path (boolean)
           Ignore case distinctions in pattern.

 DIAGNOSTICS
      Global exits with a non-0 value if an error occurred, 0 otherwise.

 SEE ALSO
      gtags(1), htags(1), less(1), gtags.conf(5).

      GNU GLOBAL source code tag system
      (http://www.gnu.org/software/global/).

 AUTHOR
      Shigio YAMAGUCHI, Hideki IWAMOTO and others.

 HISTORY
      The global command appeared in FreeBSD 2.2.2.
































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