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 NANO(1)                         April 2017                          NANO(1)
                                version 2.8.1

      nano - Nano's ANOther editor, an enhanced free Pico clone

      nano [options] [[+line[,column

      nano is a small, free and friendly editor which aims to replace Pico,
      the default editor included in the non-free Pine package.  On top of
      copying Pico's look and feel, nano also implements some missing (or
      disabled by default) features in Pico, such as "search and replace"
      and "go to line and column number".

      When opening a file, the cursor can be put on a specific line by
      adding the line number with a plus sign (+) before the filename, and
      even in a specific column by adding it with a comma.

      If the first file specified is a dash (-), nano will read data from
      standard input.

      Entering text and moving around in a file is straightforward: typing
      the letters and using the normal cursor movement keys.  Commands are
      entered by using the Control (^) and the Alt or Meta (M-) keys.
      Typing ^K deletes the current line and puts it in the cutbuffer.
      Consecutive ^Ks will put all deleted lines together in the cutbuffer.
      Any cursor movement or executing any other command will cause the next
      ^K to overwrite the cutbuffer.  A ^U will paste the current contents
      of the cutbuffer at the current cursor position.

      When a more precise piece of text needs to be cut or copied, one can
      mark its start with ^6, move the cursor to its end (the marked text
      will be highlighted), and then use ^K to cut it, or M-6 to copy it to
      the cutbuffer.  One can also save the marked text to a file with ^O,
      or spell check it with ^T.

      Since nano-2.7.0, text can also be selected by holding Shift and
      moving the cursor with the arrow keys.  Holding down the Alt key too
      will increase the stride.

      The two lines at the bottom of the screen show the most important
      commands; the built-in help (^G) lists all the available ones.  The
      default key bindings can be changed via the .nanorc file -- see


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                                version 2.8.1

      -A, --smarthome
           Make the Home key smarter.  When Home is pressed anywhere but at
           the very beginning of non-whitespace characters on a line, the
           cursor will jump to that beginning (either forwards or
           backwards).  If the cursor is already at that position, it will
           jump to the true beginning of the line.

      -B, --backup
           When saving a file, back up the previous version of it, using the
           current filename suffixed with a tilde (~).

      -C directory, --backupdir=directory
           Make and keep not just one backup file, but make and keep a
           uniquely numbered one every time a file is saved -- when backups
           are enabled.  The uniquely numbered files are stored in the
           specified directory.

      -D, --boldtext
           Use bold text instead of reverse video text.

      -E, --tabstospaces
           Convert typed tabs to spaces.

      -F, --multibuffer
           Enable multiple file buffers (if support for them has been
           compiled in).

      -G, --locking
           Enable vim-style file locking when editing files.

      -H, --historylog
           Log search and replace strings to ~/.nano/search_history, so they
           can be retrieved in later sessions.

      -I, --ignorercfiles
           Don't look at the system's nanorc nor at ~/.nanorc.

      -K, --rebindkeypad
           Interpret the numeric keypad keys so that they all work properly.
           You should only need to use this option if they don't, as mouse
           support won't work properly with this option enabled.

      -L, --nonewlines
           Don't add newlines to the ends of files.

      -N, --noconvert
           Disable automatic conversion of files from DOS/Mac format.

      -O, --morespace
           Use the blank line below the titlebar as extra editing space.

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                                version 2.8.1

      -P, --positionlog
           For the 200 most recent files, log the last position of the
           cursor, and place it at that position again upon reopening such a
           file.  (The old form of this option, --poslog, is deprecated.)

      -Q characters,
           Set the quoting string for justifying.  The default is
           "^([ \t]*[#:>\|}])+" if extended regular expression support is
           available, or "> " otherwise.  Note that \t stands for a Tab.

      -R, --restricted
           Restricted mode: don't read or write to any file not specified on
           the command line; don't read any nanorc files nor history files;
           don't allow suspending nor spell checking; don't allow a file to
           be appended to, prepended to, or saved under a different name if
           it already has one; and don't use backup files.  This restricted
           mode is also accessible by invoking nano with any name beginning
           with 'r' (e.g. "rnano").

      -S, --smooth
           Enable smooth scrolling.  Text will scroll line-by-line, instead
           of the usual chunk-by-chunk behavior.

      -T number, --tabsize=number
           Set the size (width) of a tab to number columns.  The value of
           number must be greater than 0.  The default value is 8.

      -U, --quickblank
           Do quick statusbar blanking.  Statusbar messages will disappear
           after 1 keystroke instead of 25.  Note that -c overrides this.

      -V, --version
           Show the current version number and exit.

      -W, --wordbounds
           Detect word boundaries differently by treating punctuation
           characters as part of a word.

      -X characters,
           Specify which other characters (besides the normal alphanumeric
           ones) should be considered as part of a word.  This overrides
           option -W (--wordbounds).

      -Y name, --syntax=name
           Specify the name of the syntax highlighting to use from among the
           ones defined in the nanorc files.

      -c, --constantshow
           Constantly show the cursor position.  Note that this overrides

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 NANO(1)                         April 2017                          NANO(1)
                                version 2.8.1

      -d, --rebinddelete
           Interpret the Delete key differently so that both Backspace and
           Delete work properly.  You should only need to use this option if
           Backspace acts like Delete on your system.

      -g, --showcursor
           Make the cursor visible in the file browser, putting it on the
           highlighted item.  Useful for braille users.

      -h, --help
           Show a summary of the available command-line options and exit.

      -i, --autoindent
           Indent new lines to the previous line's indentation.  Useful when
           editing source code.

      -k, --cut
           Make the 'Cut Text' command (normally ^K) cut from the current
           cursor position to the end of the line, instead of cutting the
           entire line.

      -l, --linenumbers
           Display line numbers to the left of the text area.

      -m, --mouse
           Enable mouse support, if available for your system.  When
           enabled, mouse clicks can be used to place the cursor, set the
           mark (with a double click), and execute shortcuts.  The mouse
           will work in the X Window System, and on the console when gpm is
           running.  Text can still be selected through dragging by holding
           down the Shift key.

      -n, --noread
           Treat any name given on the command line as a new file.  This
           allows nano to write to named pipes: it will start with a blank
           buffer, and will write to the pipe when the user saves the
           "file".  This way nano can be used as an editor in combination
           with for instance gpg without having to write sensitive data to
           disk first.

      -o directory, --operatingdir=directory
           Set the operating directory.  This makes nano set up something
           similar to a chroot.

      -p, --preserve
           Preserve the XON and XOFF sequences (^Q and ^S) so they will be
           caught by the terminal.

      -q, --quiet
           Do not report errors in the nanorc files nor ask them to be
           acknowledged by pressing Enter at startup.

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 NANO(1)                         April 2017                          NANO(1)
                                version 2.8.1

      -r number, --fill=number
           Hard-wrap lines at column number.  If this value is 0 or less,
           wrapping will occur at the width of the screen less number
           columns, allowing the wrap point to vary along with the width of
           the screen if the screen is resized.  The default value is -8.
           This option conflicts with -w -- the last one given takes effect.

      -s program, --speller=program
           Use this alternative spell checker command.

      -t, --tempfile
           Save a changed buffer without prompting (when exiting with ^X).

      -u, --unix
           Save a file by default in Unix format.  This overrides nano's
           default behavior of saving a file in the format that it had.
           (This option has no effect when you also use --noconvert.)

      -v, --view
           Just view the file and disallow editing: read-only mode.

      -w, --nowrap
           Disable the hard-wrapping of long lines.  This option conflicts
           with -r -- the last one given takes effect.

      -x, --nohelp
           Don't show the two help lines at the bottom of the screen.

      -z, --suspend
           Enable the suspend ability.

      -$, --softwrap
           Enable 'soft wrapping'.  This will make nano attempt to display
           the entire contents of any line, even if it is longer than the
           screen width, by continuing it over multiple screen lines.  Since
           '$' normally refers to a variable in the Unix shell, you should
           specify this option last when using other options (e.g. 'nano
           -wS$') or pass it separately (e.g. 'nano -wS -$').

      -a, -b, -e,
           Ignored, for compatibility with Pico.

      Several of the above options can be switched on and off also while
      nano is running.  For example, M-L toggles the hard-wrapping of long
      lines, M-$ toggles soft-wrapping, M-# toggles line numbers, M-M
      toggles the mouse, M-I auto-indentation, and M-X the help lines.  See
      at the end of the ^G help text for a complete list.

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 NANO(1)                         April 2017                          NANO(1)
                                version 2.8.1

      nano will read initialization files in the following order: the
      system's nanorc (if it exists), and then the user's ~/.nanorc (if it
      exists).  Please see nanorc(5) for more information on the possible
      contents of those files.

      If no alternative spell checker command is specified on the command
      line nor in one of the nanorc files, nano will check the SPELL
      environment variable for one.

      In some cases nano will try to dump the buffer into an emergency file.
      This will happen mainly if nano receives a SIGHUP or SIGTERM or runs
      out of memory.  It will write the buffer into a file named
      if the buffer didn't have a name already, or will add a ".save" suffix
      to the current filename.  If an emergency file with that name already
      exists in the current directory, it will add ".save" plus a number
      (e.g. ".save.1") to the current filename in order to make it unique.
      In multibuffer mode, nano will write all the open buffers to their
      respective emergency files.

      Justifications (^J) and reindentations (M-{ and M-}) are not yet
      covered by the general undo system.  So after a justification that is
      not immediately undone, or after any reindentation, earlier edits
      cannot be undone any more.  The workaround is, of course, to exit
      without saving.

      Please report any other bugs that you encounter via:



      /usr/share/doc/nano/ (or equivalent on your system)

      Chris Allegretta and others (see the files AUTHORS and THANKS for
      details).  This manual page was originally written by Jordi Mallach
      for the Debian system (but may be used by others).

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