Description GNU ed is a line-oriented text editor. It is used to create, display, modify and otherwise manipulate text files, both interactively and via shell scripts. A restricted version of ed, red, can only edit files in the current directory and cannot execute shell commands. Ed is the 'standard' text editor in the sense that it is the original editor for Unix, and thus widely available. For most purposes, however, it is superseded by full-screen editors such as GNU Emacs or GNU Moe. Extensions to and deviations from the POSIX standard are described below. See the file INSTALL for compilation and installation instructions. Try 'ed --help' for usage instructions. Report bugs to email@example.com Ed home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/ed/ed.html For a description of the ed algorithm, see Brian W. Kernighan and P. J. Plauger's book "Software Tools in Pascal", Addison-Wesley, 1981. GNU ed(1) is not strictly POSIX compliant, as described in the POSIX 1003.1-2004 document. The following is a summary of omissions and extensions to, and deviations from, the POSIX standard. OMISSIONS --------- * Locale(3) is not supported. EXTENSIONS ---------- * Though GNU ed is not a stream editor, it can be used to edit binary files. To assist in binary editing, when a file containing at least one ASCII NUL character is written, a newline is not appended if it did not already contain one upon reading. If the last line has been modified, reading an empty file, for example /dev/null, prior to writing prevents appending a newline to a binary file. For example, to create a file with GNU ed containing a single NUL character: $ ed file a ^@ . r /dev/null wq Similarly, to remove a newline from the end of binary 'file': $ ed file r /dev/null wq * BSD commands have been implemented wherever they do not conflict with the POSIX standard. The BSD-ism's included are: * 's' (i.e., s[1-9rgp]*) to repeat a previous substitution, * 'W' for appending text to an existing file, * 'wq' for exiting after a write, and * 'z' for scrolling through the buffer. * The POSIX interactive global commands 'G' and 'V' are extended to support multiple commands, including 'a', 'i' and 'c'. The command format is the same as for the global commands 'g' and 'v', i.e., one command per line with each line, except for the last, ending in a backslash (\). * The file commands 'E', 'e', 'r', 'W' and 'w' process a <file> argument for backslash escapes; i.e., any character preceded by a backslash is interpreted literally. If the first character of a <file> argument is a bang (!), then the rest of the line is interpreted as a shell command, and no escape processing is performed by GNU ed. * For SunOS ed(1) compatibility, GNU ed runs in restricted mode if invoked as red. This limits editing of files in the local directory only and prohibits shell commands. DEVIATIONS ---------- * To support the BSD 's' command (see EXTENSIONS above), substitution patterns cannot be delimited by the digits '1' to '9' or by the characters 'r', 'g' and 'p'. In contrast, POSIX specifies that any character except space and newline can be used as a delimiter. * Since the behavior of 'u' (undo) within a 'g' (global) command list is not specified by POSIX, GNU ed follows the behavior of the SunOS ed: undo forces a global command list to be executed only once, rather than for each line matching a global pattern. In addtion, each instance of 'u' within a global command undoes all previous commands (including undo's) in the command list. This seems the best way, since the alternatives are either too complicated to implement or too confusing to use. * The 'm' (move) command within a 'g' command list also follows the SunOS ed implementation: any lines moved are removed from the global command's 'active' list. * For backwards compatibility, errors in piped scripts do not force ed to exit. POSIX only specifies ed's response for input via regular files (including here documents) or tty's. TESTSUITE --------- The files in the 'testsuite' directory with extensions '.ed', '.r', and '.err' are used for testing ed. To run the tests, configure the package and type 'make check' from the build directory. The tests do not exhaustively verify POSIX compliance nor do they verify correct 8-bit or long line support. The test file extensions have the following meanings: .ed Ed script - a list of ed commands. .r Result - the expected output after processing data via an ed script. .err Error - invalid ed commands that should generate an error. The output of the .ed scripts is written to files with .o extension and compared with their corresponding .r result files. The .err scripts should exit with non-zero status without altering the contents of the buffer. If any test fails, the error messages look like: *** The script u.ed exited abnormally *** or: *** Output u.o of script u.ed is incorrect *** Copyright (C) 1993, 1994 Andrew Moore Copyright (C) 2006-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz. This file is free documentation: you have unlimited permission to copy, distribute, and modify it. The file Makefile.in is a data file used by configure to produce the Makefile. It has the same copyright owner and permissions that configure itself.